The Hanriot HD.14 was a military trainer aircraft produced in large numbers in France during the 1920s. It was a two-bay biplane with unstaggered wings of equal span; the pilot and instructor sat in tandem, open cockpits, the fuselage was braced to the lower wing with short struts. The main units of the fixed tailskid undercarriage were divided, each unit carrying two wheels, early production examples had anti-noseover skids projecting forwards as well. In 1922, production shifted to a much improved version, known as the HD.14ter or HD.14/23. This featured a smaller wing area, revised tail fin and cabane struts, fuselage cross-section; the landing gear track was narrowed in order to facilitate the aircraft's loading onto the standard army trailer of the day. Prolific, it was licence-produced by Mitsubishi in Japan, where another 145 were built, by the CWL and Samolot in Poland, where 125 and 120 were built. HD.14 - Original production version. Known as the HD.14 EP2. HD.14ter - Improved version of 1922.
Known as the HD.14/23. HD.14S - Air ambulance version HD.141 - Remanufactured ex-Army HD.14s for French aeroclub use H.410 - A 1928 development with Lorraine 5-cyl radial and revised undercarriage. H.411 - development of the HD.410 LH.412 - development of the HD.410 H.28 - Polish designation of license-produced modified HD.14/23 Ki 1 - Japanese Army designation of the Hanriot HD.14 BelgiumBelgian Air Force FranceAéronautique Militaire JapanImperial Japanese Army Air Force EstoniaEstonian Air Force PolandPolish Air Force Soviet UnionSoviet Air Force BulgariaBulgarian Air Force Mexico Spain General characteristics Crew: Two and instructor Length: 7.26 m Wingspan: 10.87 m Height: 3.00 m Wing area: 34.5 m2 Gross weight: 810 kg Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhône 9, 60 kW Performance Maximum speed: 110 km/h Range: 180 km Service ceiling: 4,000 m Armament Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft Taylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. P. 470. World Aircraft Information Files.
London: Bright Star Publishing. Pp. File 896 Sheet 11. Morgała, Andrzej. Samoloty wojskowe w Polsce 1924-1939. Warsaw: Bellona. ISBN 83-11-09319-9
A floatplane is a type of seaplane, with one or more slender pontoons mounted under the fuselage to provide buoyancy. By contrast, a flying boat uses its fuselage for buoyancy. Either type of seaplane may have landing gear suitable for land, making the vehicle an amphibious aircraft. British usage is to call "floatplanes" "seaplanes" rather than use the term "seaplane" to refer to both floatplanes and flying boats. Since World War II and the advent of helicopters, advanced aircraft carriers and land-based aircraft, military seaplanes have stopped being used. This, coupled with the increased availability of civilian airstrips, have reduced the number of flying boats being built. However, numerous modern civilian aircraft have floatplane variants, most of these are offered as third-party modifications under a supplemental type certificate, although there are several aircraft manufacturers that build floatplanes from scratch; these floatplanes have found their niche as one type of bush plane, for light duty transportation to lakes and other remote areas, as well as to small/hilly islands without proper airstrips.
They may operate on a charter basis, provide scheduled service, or be operated by residents of the area for private, personal use. Float planes have been derived from land-based aircraft, with fixed floats mounted under the fuselage instead of retractable undercarriage. Float planes offer several advantages since the fuselage is not in contact with water, which simplifies production by not having to incorporate the compromises necessary for water tightness, general impact strength and the hydroplaning characteristics needed for the aircraft to leave the water. Attaching floats to a landplane allows for much larger production volumes to pay for the development and production of the small number of aircraft operated from the water. Additionally, on all but the largest seaplanes, floatplane wings offer more clearance over obstacles, such as docks, reducing the difficulty in loading while on the water. A typical single engine flying boat is unable to bring the hull alongside a dock for loading while most floatplanes are able to do so.
Floats impose extra drag and weight, rendering floatplanes slower and less manoeuvrable during flight, with a slower rate of climb, relative to aircraft equipped with wheeled landing gear. Air races devoted to floatplanes attracted a lot of attention during the 1920s and 1930s, most notably in the form of the Schneider Trophy, not least because water takeoffs permitted longer takeoff runs which allowed greater optimization for high speed compared to contemporary airfields. There are two basic configurations for the floats on floatplanes: "single float" designs, in which a single large float is mounted directly underneath the fuselage, with smaller stabilizing floats underneath the wingtips, on planes like the Nakajima A6M2-N and; some early twin float designs had additional wingtip stabilizing floats. The main advantage of the single float design is its capability for landings in rough water: a long central float is directly attached to the fuselage, this being the strongest part of the aircraft structure, while the smaller floats under the outer wings provide the aircraft with lateral stability.
By comparison, dual floats restrict handling to waves as little as one foot in height. However, twin float designs facilitate mooring and boarding, – in the case of torpedo bombers – leave the belly free to carry a torpedo. Amphibious aircraft List of seaplanes and amphibious aircraft RAPT system "Why Seaplanes Fly With Bullet Speed", December 1931, Popular Science excellent article on the different design features of the floats on floatplanes "Will a Lake Be Your Postwar Landing Field?" Popular Science, February 1945, pp. 134–135
French Naval Aviation
French Naval Aviation is the naval air arm of the French Navy. The long-form official designation is Force maritime de l'aéronautique navale. Born as a fusion of carrier squadrons and the naval patrol air force, the Aéronavale was created in 1912; the force is under the command of a flag officer named Admiral of Naval Aviation with his headquarters at Toulon naval base. It has a strength of around 6,800 civilian personnel, it operates from four airbases in Metropolitan France and several detachments in foreign countries or French overseas territories. Carrier-borne pilots of the French navy do their initial training at Salon-de-Provence Air Base after which they undergo their carrier qualification with the US Navy. After the end of the war, the Aeronavale only had Supermarine Seafire Mk. III and Douglas SBD Dauntless dive-bombers; the flight personnel of the French Navy falls into three categories: fighter aviation, fixed-wing aviation and helicopter aviation. Operationally the French Naval Aviation has four components: Embarqued Air Group of the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle: Rafale M, E-2 Hawkeye Naval Patrol and Maritime Surveillance Aviation: Atlantique 2, Falcon 50, Falcon 200 Shipborne and Shore-based Helicopters: Dauphin, Lynx, Alouette III, Caïman Marine Support Aviation: Falcon 10, EMB-121 Xingu, SR20, Cap-10, Dauphin, EC120 Colibri Operational squadrons are known as Flottilles and consist of 12 aircraft: 1F to 10F are carrier based anti-submarine squadrons 11F to 20F are fighter and attack squadrons 21F to 30F are maritime patrol squadrons 31F to 39F are helicopter squadronsShore-based training and transport squadrons are known as Escadrilles de Servitude: 1S to 19S are communications squadrons 20S to 29S are helicopters squadrons 50S to 59S are training squadrons Amiot AAC.1 Avro Anson Avro Lancaster Mk.
VII Beechcraft SNB-5/JRB-4 Blanchard Brd.1 HB3 Blériot-SPAD S.42 Bloch MB.151 C1 Borel-Odier T BO-2 Breguet BRE.14B2/A2 Breguet BRE.19 B2 Bréguet 521 Bizerte Bréguet 1050 Alizé Bréguet 1150 Atlantic CAMS 30E CAMS.37A/37²/37.11/Lia CAMS 46 Et2 CAMS 55.1/55.2/55.6/55.10 Caudron Cau 59 ET2 Caudron C635 Simoun Caudron C.445 Goéland Canadian Car & Foundry Harvard II Chance Vought F4U-7/AU-1 Corsair Consolidated PBY-5 Catalina Consolidated PB4Y-2 Privateer Coutant RMC Type 17 Curtiss SBC4/SB2C5 Helldiver Dassault MD 312 Flamant De Havilland 100 Vampire Mk. V Dewoitine 7 C1 Dewoitine D.373/D.376 Dewoitine D.510 Dewoitine D.520 Donnet-Denhaut 140/150 hp Donnet-Denhaut 160 hp Donnet-Denhaut 200 HP HS Triplace/RR/BB Donnet-Denhaut 275hp Donnet-Denhaut bimoteur Dornier Do 24T Douglas SBD-5 Dauntless Douglas C-47D Dakota Farman Lévy HB2 450 hp Farman F60 Torp Goliath/F65 Farman F.165/F.166/F.168 Torp Farman F.223.4 FBA Type C FBA Type H FBA Type S FBA type 14 HE2 FBA.17HL1/HL2/HMT2/HE2 FBA.19HMB2 Fouga CM.175 Zéphyr Dassault Étendard IVM/P Georges Lévy 280 HB.2 Gourdou Leseurre ET1 Type 22 Gourdou Leseurre LGL.32 Gourdou Leseurre GL.810/811/812/813 HY Gourdou Leseurre GL.832 HY Grumman F6F-5 Hellcat Grumman TBM-3S/E/W/UT Avenger Grumman JRF-5 Goose Hanriot HD.2 C.1 Hanriot HD.3 C.2 Hanriot HD.14 E.2 Hanriot HD.17 E.2 Hanriot H.41 Junkers Ju 188 Latécoère 290 Latécoère 298 Latham 43 HB.3 Levasseur PL.4 R3b Levasseur PL.5 C2b Levasseur PL.7 T2B2b Levasseur PL.10 R3b/PL.101 R3b Levasseur PL.14 Tb2B2 Levasseur PL.15 T2B2 Lévy Besson 200 hp Lioré et Olivier LeO.7.3 Lioré et Olivier LeO.20 Bn3 Lioré et Olivier H.13/H.136 Lioré et Olivier H.43 Lioré et Olivier H.193 Lioré et Olivier H.257 Bis/H258 Lockheed P2V-1 Ventura Lockheed P2V-6/7 Neptune Loire 130 C.l Loire 210 LTV/Vought F-8E Crusader Martin 167-A3 Martin P5M-2 Marlin Maurice Farman Type 1910 Morane Saulnier MoS.130 Et2 Morane Saulnier MoS.149 Ep2 Morane Saulnier MS.225 C1 Morane Saulnier MS.230 Et2 Morane Saulnier MS.406 C1 Morane Saulnier MS.500/MS.502 Criquet Morane Saulnier MS.733 Alcyon Morane Saulnier MS760 Paris Nieuport IV.
H Nieuport VI. H Nieuport 12 Nieuport N.21/N.23 Nieuport NiD.62 C1/NiD.622 C1 Nord 262 Frégate North American NAA.57 P2 North American SNJ-3/4/5 Piper PA-31 Navajo Potez 25 A2/TOE Potez 452 Potez 567 Potez 631 C3 Salmson Sal.2 A2 SCAN 20 Short Sunderland Mk. III/V SNCAC/Farman NC.470 SNCAC NC.701/NC.702 Martinet SNCAN N.1001/N.1002 Pingouin SNCAN N.1101 Noralpha SNCAN N.1402 Noroit SNCAN SV.4C Stampe SNCAO/Loire-Nieuport LN.401/LN.411 SNCASE R.82 Romano SNCASE Leo.451 SNCASE SE.161 Languedoc/Bloch MB.160 SNCASE Aquilon SNCASO/Bloch MB.175 SNCASO SO.94/95 Corse SNCASO SO.30P Bretagne SOCATA MS.880 Rallye Sopwith Sop.1 A2 Sopwith Baby/130hp Clerget Sopwith Triplan C.1 SPAD S. VII C.1 SPAD S. XIII C.1 SPAD XIV Canon Stinson 105 Supermarine Seafire Mk. III/IX/XV Supermarine Sea Otter Supermarine Walrus Tampier T.4 Taylorcraft L-2 Tellier Canon 200 hp Tellier 200 hp Tellier 350Hp Tellier BM 400 hp Villiers Vil.2AM C.2 Vickers Wellington Voisin 13,5m Voisin Canard Voisin III Voisin VIII Vought V.156-F Wibault Wib.74 C.1 Aérospatiale Alouette II Aérospatiale Super Frelon Bell 47 LeO C-30 Piasecki H-21C Piasecki HUP-2 Sikorsky H-51 Sikorsky S-55 Sikorsky S-58 Sud-Aviation HSS-1 Edouard Guillaud French Fleet Air Arm, about French naval aviation
The Hanriot H.31 was a single engine, single seat French biplane fighter aircraft built in 1925 to compete in a government programme. It was not successful and only one prototype was completed; the Hanrot H.31 was designed to participate in the 1923 competitive C1 programme, which specified engines in the power range 300-370 kW. Hanriot selected; this 1923 call attracted an unusually large number of competing designs. The H.31 was a single bay biplane with straight edged, parallel chord wings with slight sweep and no stagger. It had a smaller span. A single, wide chord, airfoil section interplane strut on each side, with widened roots to lower interference drag, separated the bays; the wings were built with metal and wood ribs. There were ailerons on the upper planes. Neither wing was directly fuselage mounted but instead held off by pairs of N-form struts on each side; those joining the lower wing to the low-mid fuselage were longer than those of the cabane and the lower forward component was itself a close pair.
Both upper and lower wings had the common cut-outs to improve the pilot's vision but the H.31 had a forward, full chord slot between the upper wings as well. The Salmson engine was close cowled with fairings over each cylinder and drove a two blade propeller, it was cooled with an Andre radiator mounted ventrally in the space between the fuselage and the lower wing. The H.31's fuselage was built around four Duralumin tube longerons with triangular cross bracing. Its external oval cross section was produced by longitudinal stringers over formers; the pilot's open cockpit, provided with a small, faired headrest was under the trailing edge of the upper wing. The fuselage tapered only to the rear, where a elliptical cantilever tailplane carrying split elevators was mounted on top; the vertical tail was rounded and low, with a rudder that extended down to the keel. The fighter had a fixed conventional undercarriage with mainwheels on a fixed axle, supported by a pair of V-struts attached to the bottom of the lower wing to fuselage struts, given lateral strength by cross-wire bracing.
There was a tailskid. The H. 31 first appeared before its first flight, at the December 1924 Paris Aero Show. It first flew in 1925; when the twelve competing designs were evaluated by the Section Technique de l'Aéronautique, the H.31 did not fare well. It was one of the heaviest, the slowest of all both in level flight and in the climb; the Nieuport-Delage NiD 42 was the competition winner and the H.31 was abandoned. Data from Green & Swanborough p.279General characteristics Crew: One Length: 7.58 m Wingspan: 12.00 m Height: 3.62 m Wing area: 34.00 m2 Empty weight: 1,287 kg Gross weight: 1,789 kg Powerplant: 1 × Salmson 18Cm 18-cylinder 2-row water-cooled in-line radial engine, 370 kW Propellers: 2-bladedPerformance Maximum speed: 260 km/h at sea level, 207 km/h at 5,000 m Service ceiling: 8,000 m Time to altitude: 16.7 min to 5,000 m Armament Guns: 4×7.7 mm synchronised machine guns
The Hanriot H.43 was a military utility aircraft produced in France in the late 1920s and early 1930s, used by the Aéronautique Militaire as a trainer. While Hanriot had spent most of the 1920s manufacturing further and further developments of the HD.14 that had flown in 1920, the H.43 was an new design. It was a conventional single-bay biplane with staggered wings of unequal span and a fuselage of fabric-covered metal tube. Accommodation for the pilot and passenger was in tandem, open cockpits and the main units of the fixed, tailskid undercarriage were linked by a cross-axle. Two prototypes in 1927 were followed by the LH.431 in 1928, a much-modified version that dispensed with the sweepback used on both the upper and lower wings of the H.43, had a new tail fin and added metal covering to the sides of the fuselage. This was ordered into production by the Aéronautique Militaire; these were different again from the LH.431 prototype, having divided main undercarriage units, wings of greater area, redesigned interplane struts.
From 1927 to 1933, the Army would purchase nearly 150 examples for a variety of support roles including training, observation, as an air ambulance. At the Fall of France in 1940, 75 of these aircraft remained in service. H.43 variants were operated by civil flying schools in France, as well as 12 examples purchased for the military of Peru H.43 - prototype with Salmson CM.9 engine H.430 - version with Salmson 9Ab engine H.431.01 - development of H.430 with revised wings and fuselage and Lorraine 7Ma engine LH.431 - production version with divided main undercarriage units and Lorraine 7Mc engine LH.432 - gunnery training version with machine gun on ring mount in rear cockpit LH.433 - revised LH.431 with modified landing gear and tail fin, Lorraine 7Me engine LH.434 - H.436 - dedicated trainer version based on LH.433 with Salmson 9Ab engine LH.437 - air ambulance version based on LH.433 LH.437ter - air ambulance version with Salmson engine. H.438 - export version of LH.433 for Peru H.439 - civil trainer version, some with tailwheel in place of tailskid.
FranceFrench Air Force PeruPeruvian Air Force SpainSpanish Republican Air Force, Hanriot LH.437/239 Data from Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1928General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 7.24 m Wingspan: 10.6 m Height: 4.2 m Wing area: 53.5 m2 Empty weight: 842 kg Gross weight: 1,420 kg Powerplant: 1 × Salmson CM.9 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine, 170 kW Propellers: 2-bladed fixed pitch propellerPerformance Maximum speed: 185 km/h 180 km/h at 2,000 m 173 km/h at 4,000 m 166 km/h at 5,000 m Range: 450 km Endurance: 3 hours Service ceiling: 6,000 m Time to altitude: 2,000 m in 8 minutes 36 seconds4,000 m in 22 minutes 12 seconds 5,000 m in 38 minutesWing loading: 50.3 kg/m2 Power/mass: 0.1236 kW/kg Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft List of aircraft of the Spanish Republican Air Force Taylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. P. 470. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing. Pp. File 896 Sheet 10
The Hanriot H.35 was a 1920s French intermediate training monoplane designed and built by Avions Hanriot. The H.35 was developed from the earlier H.34 basic trainer and was a two-seat strut-braced parasol monoplane. The H.35 was powered by a 180 hp Hispano-Suiza 8Ab piston engine. Twelve aircraft were built for use with the Hanriot flying school and the Societe Francaise d'Aviation at Orly. A 1925 development of the H.35 was the H.36, a twin-float equipped version powered by a 120 hp Salmson 9Ac piston engine. An order for 50 H.36s was placed by Yugoslavia. Data from Illustrated Encyclopedia of AircraftGeneral characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 7.60 m Wingspan: 11.39 m Height: 2.70 m Wing area: 22.00 m2 Empty weight: 680 kg Gross weight: 945 kg Powerplant: 1 × Hispano-Suiza 8Ab water-cooled eight-cylinder Vee piston engine, 134 kW Performance Maximum speed: 185 km/h Range: 320 km Service ceiling: 5000 m Armament
The Hanriot H.41 was a military trainer aircraft produced in France in the 1920s. It was a further development in the family of aircraft that had commenced with the HD.14 in 1920, incorporated a number of design features, developed for other members of that family. Like those other aircraft, however, it was a conventional, two-bay biplane with unstaggered wings of equal span; the H.41 used the modern engine and mixed construction developed for the HD.40 air ambulance and used them in a new design for a military trainer. The design did not prove a success and only eleven were built, with three different engine types. A floatplane variant based on the HD.17 was more successful, with twelve examples exported to Greece and Portugal. H.41 Two-seat training aircraft. H.410 version with Lorraine 5Pa engine H.411 version with Salmson 7Ac engine LH.412 version with Lorraine 5Pb engine HD.41H: - floatplane with Salmson 9Ac engine + GreeceHellenic Air Force Hellenic Navy PortugalPortuguese Navy YugoslaviaYugoslav Royal Navy Data from Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1928General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 7.25 m Wingspan: 10.26 m Height: 3.13 m Wing area: 34.9 m2 Empty weight: 625 kg Gross weight: 900 kg Powerplant: 1 × Lorraine 5P 5-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine, 75 kW Propellers: 2-bladed fixed pitch propellerPerformance Maximum speed: 185 km/h Landing speed: 50 km/h Range: 400 km Service ceiling: 3,500 m Time to altitude: 1,000 m in 13 minutes Wing loading: 25.8 kg/m2 Power/mass: 0.0830 kW/kg Taylor, Michael J. H..
Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. P. 470. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing. Pp. File 896 Sheet 11. Janić, Čedomir. Short History of Aviation in Serbia. Beograd: Aerokomunikacije. ISBN 978-86-913973-2-6