The Hanriot HD.24 was a two-seat colonial police biplane aircraft built by Hanriot in the early 1920s. Data from General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 9.6 m Wingspan: 13.13 m Height: 3.5 m Wing area: 46 m2 Empty weight: 1,570 kg Gross weight: 2,820 kg Powerplant: 1 × Lorraine 12Da V-12 water-cooled piston engine, 280 kW Performance Maximum speed: 188 km/h Range: 600 km Service ceiling: 6,000 m
The Lewis gun is a First World War–era light machine gun of US design, perfected and mass-produced in the United Kingdom, used by troops of the British Empire during the war. It had a distinctive barrel cooling top-mounted pan magazine; the Lewis served to the end of the Korean War. It was widely used as an aircraft machine gun always with the cooling shroud removed, during both World Wars. "The Lewis Gun is the most recognized classic light machine gun in the world." The Lewis gun was invented by U. S. Army colonel Isaac Newton Lewis in 1911, based on initial work by Samuel Maclean. Despite its origins, the Lewis gun was not adopted by the U. S. military, most because of political differences between Lewis and General William Crozier, the chief of the Ordnance Department. Lewis became frustrated with trying to persuade the U. S. Army to adopt his design, "slapped by rejections from ignorant hacks", in his words, retired from the army, he left the United States in 1913 and went to Belgium, where he established the Armes Automatique Lewis company in Liège to facilitate commercial production of the gun.
Lewis had been working with British arms manufacturer the Birmingham Small Arms Company Limited in an effort to overcome some of the production difficulties of the weapon. The Belgians bought a small number of Lewises in 1913, using the.303 British round and, in 1914, BSA purchased a licence to manufacture the Lewis machine gun in England, which resulted in Lewis receiving significant royalty payments and becoming wealthy. Lewis and his factory moved to England before 1914, away from possible seizure in the event of a German invasion; the onset of the First World War increased demand for the Lewis gun, BSA began production. The design was approved for service on 15 October 1915 under the designation "Gun, Lewis.303-cal." No Lewis guns were produced in Belgium during the war. The Lewis was produced by BSA and Savage Arms during the war, although the two versions were similar, enough differences existed to stop them being interchangeable, although this was rectified by the time of the Second World War.
The major difference between the two designs was that the BSA weapons were chambered for.303 British ammunition, but the Savage guns were chambered for.30-06 cartridges, which necessitated some difference in the magazine, feed mechanism, barrel and gas operation system. Savage did make Lewis guns in.303 British calibre, though. The Model 1916 and Model 1917 were exported to Canada and the United Kingdom, a few were supplied to the US military the Navy; the Savage Model 1917 was produced in.30-06 calibre. A number of these guns were supplied to the UK under lend-lease during the Second World War; the Lewis gun was gas operated. A portion of the expanding propellant gas was tapped off from the barrel, driving a piston to the rear against a spring; the piston was fitted with a vertical post at its rear which rode in a helical cam track in the bolt, rotating it at the end of its travel nearest the breech. This allowed the three locking lugs at the rear of the bolt to engage in recesses in the gun's body to lock it into place.
The post carried a fixed firing pin, which protruded through an aperture in the front of the bolt, firing the next round at the foremost part of the piston's travel. The gun's aluminium barrel-shroud caused the muzzle blast to draw air over the barrel and cool it, due to the muzzle-to-breech, radially finned aluminium heat sink within the shroud's barrel, protruding behind the shroud's aft end, running lengthwise in contact with the gun barrel from the "bottleneck" near the shroud's muzzle end and protruding externally behind the shroud's rear end; some discussion occurred over whether the shroud was necessary—in the Second World War, many old aircraft guns that did not have the tubing were issued to antiaircraft units of the British Home Guard and to British airfields, others were used on vehicle mounts in the Western Desert. Only the Royal Navy retained the tube/heatsink cooling system on their deck-mounted AA-configuration Lewis guns; the Lewis gun used a pan magazine holding 97 rounds.
Pan magazines hold bullet-noses inwards toward the center, in a radial fan. Unlike the more common drum magazines, which hold the rounds parallel to the axis and are fed by spring tension, pan magazines are mechanically indexed; the Lewis magazine was driven by a cam on top of the bolt which operated a pawl mechanism via a lever. An interesting point of the design was that it did not use a traditional helical coiled recoil spring, but used a spiral spring, much like a large clock spring, in a semicircular housing just in front of the trigger; the operating rod had a toothed underside. When the gun fired, the bolt recoiled and the cog was turned, tightening the spring until the resistance of the spring had reached the recoil force of the bolt assembly. At that moment, as the gas pressure in the breech fell, the spring unwound, turning the cog, which, in turn, wound the operating rod forward for the next round; as with a clock sp
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft. Most banks are set at a right angle to each other, some at a narrower angle, with 45°, 60°, 72° most common. In its simplest form, the V8 is two parallel inline-four engines sharing a common crankshaft. However, this simple configuration, with a flat- or single-plane crankshaft, has the same secondary dynamic imbalance problems as two straight-4s, resulting in vibrations in large engine displacements. Since the 1920s, most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations; this results in an engine, smoother than a V6, while being less expensive than a V12. Many racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs. In 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light but quite powerful gasoline injected V8 engine.
He called it the'Antoinette' after the young daughter of his financial backer. From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of early aircraft; the aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte d'Azur and decided to try it on his pusher configuration, canard-design 14-bis aircraft. Its early 24 hp at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg of weight was interesting, but proved to be underpowered. Santos-Dumont ordered a more powerful version from Levavasseur, he changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp with 86 kg of weight, including cooling water. Its power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years. Levavasseur produced its own line of V8 equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII. Hubert Latham piloted the V8 powered Antoinette IV and Antoinette VII in July 1909 on two failed attempts to cross the English Channel. However, in 1910, Latham used the VII with the same engine to become the first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet.
Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines notably the one first flown by Henry Farman in 1908. The V8 engine configuration was used in France by 1904, in race car and aircraft engines introduced by Renault, Buchet among others; some of these engines found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a special car to beat the world speed record, they came up with two racing car engines built on camshaft. The result was an engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in, 200 bhp. Victor Hemery achieved the record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph. This car still exists. Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc V8 car from 1905 to 1906, but only three copies were made and Rolls-Royce reverted to a I6 design. In 1907, the Hewitt Motor Company built a large five-passenger Touring Car, it was equipped with a V8 engine that developed 50/60 horsepower and had a bore of 4 in and a stroke of 4.5 in. The Hewitt was the first American automobile to be equipped with a V8 engine.
De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc automobile V8 in 1910 and displayed it in New York in 1912. It inspired a number of manufacturers to follow suit; the limiting factor in mass production and sales of V8s was the difficulty in starting large engines using a hand crank. Not only does increasing the size of the engine make this harder, the number of pistons is a factor, because with a 4 cylinder engine, a piston comes into compression every half turn of the crank, overcoming this with the crank is not difficult. With eight cylinders, there is only 1/4 of a turn of the crank before another cylinder comes into compression. To overcome this problem, electric starters were developed; the first marque to equip its cars with electric starter motors was Cadillac, in 1912, Cadillac was the first production automobile with V8s, introduced 2 years later. It sold 13,000 of the 5.4 L L-head engines in its first year of production, 1914. Cadillac has been a V8 company since. Oldsmobile, another division of General Motors, introduced its own 4 L V8 engine in 1916.
Chevrolet introduced a 4.7 L V8 engine in 1917 and installed in the Chevrolet Series D. In February 1915, Swiss automotive engineer Marc Birkigt designed the first example of the famous Hispano-Suiza V8 single overhead cam aviation engines, in differing displacements, using dual ignition systems and in power levels from 150 horsepower to around 300 horsepower, in both direct-drive and geared output shaft versions. 50,000 of these engines were built in Spain, the United Kingdom, Italy. Wright Aeronautical built them in the United States during World War I, with the French-produced versions getting almost-exclusive use to power the SPAD S. VII and SPAD S. XIII fighter aircraft. E.5 fighters and Sopwith Dolphin fighters. The H. S. 8-series overhead cam valvetrain V8 aviation engines are said to have powered half of all Allied aircraft of the WW I era. By 1932, Henry Ford introduced one of his last great personal engineering triumphs: his "en block", or one piece, V8 engine, its simple design made possible the greatest production V8 to the masses.
Offered as an option to an improved 4-cylinder Mo
The Hanriot HD.32 was a military trainer aircraft built in France in the 1920s. Derived from the HD.14 and sharing the same basic configuration as it, the HD.32 was a revised design, with redesigned tailplane and wings of shorter span. The HD.14's wooden construction was replaced in part with metal structure. The HD.32 was Hanriot's entry in a 1924 Aéronautique Militaire competition to select a new trainer, as the winner, was ordered in quantity as the HD.32 EP.2. The type HD.320 was built in Yugoslavia by Zmaj aircraft in Zemun, using a Salmson 9Ac, Siemens Sh12 or Walter NZ-120, engine. In 1927, the Paraguayan Military Aviation School received three HD.32 that were intensively used as primary trainers. They received the serials E.1, E.2 and E.3. They were replaced by five Consolidated Fleet 2 in 1931 and withdrawn from use in late 1932. FranceFrench Air Force El SalvadorAir Force of El Salvador JapanOne aircraft only. ParaguayParaguayan Air Force - Three aircraft purchased in 1927 for the Military Aviation School.
Kingdom of Yugoslavia12 aircraft H.320 mod. 1926, Product: Aeroplanes Hanriot France 45 aircraft H.320 mod. 1928, Product: Zmaj - Zemun Yugoslavia HD.32 - main production version for Aéronautique Militaire with Le Rhône 9C engine HD.320 - version with Salmson 9Ac engine HD.321 - version with Clerget 9B engine General characteristics Crew: Two and observer Length: 7.11 m Wingspan: 9.20 m Height: 2.95 m Wing area: 29.8 m2 Empty weight: 510 kg Gross weight: 760 kg Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhône 9C, 60 kW Performance Maximum speed: 120 km/h Range: 200 km Service ceiling: 3,850 m Armament Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft Taylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. P. 470. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing. Pp. File 896 Sheet 11. Hagedorn, Dan. Schiffer Publishing Co. Atglen, PA. 1996 Petrovic, Ognjan M.. Military Aeroplanes of Kingdom of Jugoslavia 1918-1930. Beograd: MJVB LET-Flight. Pp. 21–84. Janić, Čedomir. Short History of Aviation in Serbia.
Beograd: Aerokomunikacije. ISBN 978-86-913973-2-6
Elevators are flight control surfaces at the rear of an aircraft, which control the aircraft's pitch, therefore the angle of attack and the lift of the wing. The elevators are hinged to the tailplane or horizontal stabilizer, they may be the only pitch control surface present, sometimes located at the front of the aircraft or integrated into a rear "all-moving tailplane" called a slab elevator or stabilator. The horizontal stabilizer creates a downward force which balances the nose down moment created by the wing lift force, which applies at a point situated aft of the airplane's center of gravity; the effects of drag and changing the engine thrust may result in pitch moments that need to be compensated with the horizontal stabilizer. Both the horizontal stabilizer and the elevator contribute to pitch stability, but only the elevators provide pitch control, they do so by decreasing or increasing the downward force created by the stabilizer: an increased downward force, produced by up elevator, forces the tail down and the nose up.
At constant speed, the wing's increased angle of attack causes a greater lift to be produced by the wing, accelerating the aircraft upwards. The drag and power demand increase. At constant speed, the decrease in angle of attack reduces the lift, accelerating the aircraft downwards. On many low-speed aircraft, a trim tab is present at the rear of the elevator, which the pilot can adjust to eliminate forces on the control column at the desired attitude and airspeed. Supersonic aircraft have all-moving tailplanes, because shock waves generated on the horizontal stabilizer reduce the effectiveness of hinged elevators during supersonic flight. Delta winged aircraft combine ailerons and elevators –and their respective control inputs– into one control surface called an elevon. Elevators are part of the tail, at the rear of an aircraft. In some aircraft, pitch-control surfaces are in the front, ahead of the wing. In a two-surface aircraft this type of configuration is called a tandem wing; the Wright Brothers' early aircraft were of the canard type.
Some early three surface aircraft had front elevators. Several technology research and development efforts exist to integrate the functions of aircraft flight control systems such as ailerons, elevons and flaperons into wings to perform the aerodynamic purpose with the advantages of less: mass, drag, inertia and radar cross section for stealth; these may be used in 6th generation fighter aircraft. Two promising approaches are flexible wings, fluidics. In flexible wings, much or all of a wing surface can change shape in flight to deflect air flow; the X-53 Active Aeroelastic Wing is a NASA effort. The Adaptive Compliant Wing is a commercial effort. In fluidics, forces in vehicles occur via circulation control, in which larger more complex mechanical parts are replaced by smaller simpler fluidic systems where larger forces in fluids are diverted by smaller jets or flows of fluid intermittently, to change the direction of vehicles. In this use, fluidics promises lower mass and low inertia and response times, simplicity.
Rudder Aileron Aircraft Pitch Motion
A tailplane known as a horizontal stabiliser, is a small lifting surface located on the tail behind the main lifting surfaces of a fixed-wing aircraft as well as other non-fixed-wing aircraft such as helicopters and gyroplanes. Not all fixed-wing aircraft have tailplanes. Canards and flying wing aircraft have no separate tailplane, while in V-tail aircraft the vertical stabilizer and the tail-plane and elevator are combined to form two diagonal surfaces in a V layout; the function of the tailplane is to provide control. In particular, the tailplane helps adjust for changes in position of the center of pressure or center of gravity caused by changes in speed and attitude, fuel consumption, or dropping cargo or payload; the tailplane comprises the tail-mounted fixed horizontal movable elevator. Besides its planform, it is characterised by: Number of tailplanes - from 0 to 3 Location of tailplane - mounted high, mid or low on the fuselage, fin or tail booms. Fixed movable elevator surfaces, or a single combined stabilator or flying tail.
Some locations have been given special names: Cruciform: mid-mounted on the fin T-tail: high-mounted on the fin A wing with a conventional aerofoil profile makes a negative contribution to longitudinal stability. This means that any disturbance which raises the nose produces a nose-up pitching moment which tends to raise the nose further. With the same disturbance, the presence of a tailplane produces a restoring nose-down pitching moment, which may counteract the natural instability of the wing and make the aircraft longitudinally stable; the longitudinal stability of an aircraft may change when it is flown "hands-off". In addition to giving a restoring force a tailplane gives damping; this is caused by the relative wind seen by the tail as the aircraft rotates around the center of gravity. For example, when the aircraft is oscillating, but is momentarily aligned with the overall vehicle's motion, the tailplane still sees a relative wind, opposing the oscillation. Depending on the aircraft design and flight regime, its tailplane may create positive lift or negative lift.
It is sometimes assumed that on a stable aircraft this will always be a net down force, but this is untrue. On some pioneer designs, such as the Bleriot XI, the center of gravity was between the neutral point and the tailplane, which provided positive lift; however this arrangement can be unstable and these designs had severe handling issues. The requirements for stability were not understood until shortly before World War I - the era within which the British Bristol Scout light biplane was designed for civilian use, with an airfoiled lifting tail throughout its production run into the early World War I years and British military service from 1914-1916 — when it was realised that moving the center of gravity further forwards allowed the use of a non-lifting tailplane in which the lift is nominally neither positive nor negative but zero, which leads to more stable behaviour. Examples of aircraft from World War I and onwards into the interwar years that had positive lift tailplanes include, the Sopwith Camel, Charles Lindbergh's Spirit of St. Louis, the Gee Bee Model R Racer - all aircraft with a reputation for being difficult to fly, the easier-to-fly Fleet Finch two-seat Canadian trainer biplane, itself possessing a flat-bottom airfoiled tailplane unit not unlike the earlier Bristol Scout.
But with care a lifting tailplane can be made stable. An example is provided by the Bachem Ba 349 Natter VTOL rocket-powered interceptor, which had a lifting tail and was both stable and controllable in flight. In many modern conventional aircraft, the center of gravity is placed ahead of the neutral point; the wing lift exerts a pitch-down moment around the centre of gravity, which must be balanced by a pitch-up moment from the tailplane. A disadvantage is. Using a computer to control the elevator allows aerodynamically unstable aircraft to be flown in the same manner. Aircraft such as the F-16 are flown with artificial stability; the advantage of this is a significant reduction in drag caused by the tailplane, improved maneuverability. At transonic speeds, an aircraft can experience a shift rearwards in the center of pressure due to the buildup and movement of shockwaves; this causes. Significant trim force may be needed to maintain equilibrium, this is most provided using the whole tailplane in the form of an all-flying tailplane or stabilator.
A tailplane has some means allowing the pilot to control the amount of lift produced by the tailplane. This in turn causes a nose-up or nose-down pitching moment on the aircraft, used to control the aircraft in pitch. Elevator A conventional tailplane has a hinged aft surface called an elevator, Stabilator or all-moving tail In transonic flight shock waves generated by the front of the tailplane render any elevator unusable. An all-moving tail was developed by the British for the Miles M.52, but first saw actual transonic flight on the Bell X-1. This saved the program from a time-consuming rebuild of the aircraft. Transonic and supersonic aircraft now have all-moving tailplanes to counterac