A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from. It is a term used in a variety of contexts, including semantics, design and software programming. A prototype is used to evaluate a new design to enhance precision by system analysts and users. Prototyping serves to provide specifications for a real, working system rather than a theoretical one. In some design workflow models, creating a prototype is the step between the formalization and the evaluation of an idea; the word prototype derives from the Greek πρωτότυπον prototypon, "primitive form", neutral of πρωτότυπος prototypos, "original, primitive", from πρῶτος protos, "first" and τύπος typos, "impression". Prototypes explore different aspects of an intended design: A Proof-of-Principle Prototype serves to verify some key functional aspects of the intended design, but does not have all the functionality of the final product. A Working Prototype represents all or nearly all of the functionality of the final product.
A Visual Prototype represents the size and appearance, but not the functionality, of the intended design. A Form Study Prototype is a preliminary type of visual prototype in which the geometric features of a design are emphasized, with less concern for color, texture, or other aspects of the final appearance. A User Experience Prototype represents enough of the appearance and function of the product that it can be used for user research. A Functional Prototype captures both function and appearance of the intended design, though it may be created with different techniques and different scale from final design. A Paper Prototype is a printed or hand-drawn representation of the user interface of a software product; such prototypes are used for early testing of a software design, can be part of a software walkthrough to confirm design decisions before more costly levels of design effort are expended. In general, the creation of prototypes will differ from creation of the final product in some fundamental ways: Material: The materials that will be used in a final product may be expensive or difficult to fabricate, so prototypes may be made from different materials than the final product.
In some cases, the final production materials may still be undergoing development themselves and not yet available for use in a prototype. Process: Mass-production processes are unsuitable for making a small number of parts, so prototypes may be made using different fabrication processes than the final product. For example, a final product that will be made by plastic injection molding will require expensive custom tooling, so a prototype for this product may be fabricated by machining or stereolithography instead. Differences in fabrication process may lead to differences in the appearance of the prototype as compared to the final product. Verification: The final product may be subject to a number of quality assurance tests to verify conformance with drawings or specifications; these tests may involve custom inspection fixtures, statistical sampling methods, other techniques appropriate for ongoing production of a large quantity of the final product. Prototypes are made with much closer individual inspection and the assumption that some adjustment or rework will be part of the fabrication process.
Prototypes may be exempted from some requirements that will apply to the final product. Engineers and prototype specialists attempt to minimize the impact of these differences on the intended role for the prototype. For example, if a visual prototype is not able to use the same materials as the final product, they will attempt to substitute materials with properties that simulate the intended final materials. Engineers and prototyping specialists seek to understand the limitations of prototypes to simulate the characteristics of their intended design, it is important to realize that by their definition, prototypes will represent some compromise from the final production design. Due to differences in materials and design fidelity, it is possible that a prototype may fail to perform acceptably whereas the production design may have been sound. A counter-intuitive idea is that prototypes may perform acceptably whereas the production design may be flawed since prototyping materials and processes may outperform their production counterparts.
In general, it can be expected that individual prototype costs will be greater than the final production costs due to inefficiencies in materials and processes. Prototypes are used to revise the design for the purposes of reducing costs through optimization and refinement, it is possible to use prototype testing to reduce the risk that a design may not perform as intended, however prototypes cannot eliminate all risk. There are pragmatic and practical limitations to the ability of a prototype to match the intended final performance of the product and some allowances and engineering judgement are required before moving forward with a production design. Building the full design is expensive and can be time-consuming when repeated several times—building the full design, figuring out what the problems are and how to solve them building another full design; as an alternative, rapid prototyping or rapid application development techniques are used for the initial prototypes, which implement part, but not all, of the complete design.
This allows designers and manufacturers to and inexpensively test the parts of the design that are most to have problems, solve those problems, build the full design. This counter-intuitive idea—that the quickest way to build something is, f
The Hanriot HD.32 was a military trainer aircraft built in France in the 1920s. Derived from the HD.14 and sharing the same basic configuration as it, the HD.32 was a revised design, with redesigned tailplane and wings of shorter span. The HD.14's wooden construction was replaced in part with metal structure. The HD.32 was Hanriot's entry in a 1924 Aéronautique Militaire competition to select a new trainer, as the winner, was ordered in quantity as the HD.32 EP.2. The type HD.320 was built in Yugoslavia by Zmaj aircraft in Zemun, using a Salmson 9Ac, Siemens Sh12 or Walter NZ-120, engine. In 1927, the Paraguayan Military Aviation School received three HD.32 that were intensively used as primary trainers. They received the serials E.1, E.2 and E.3. They were replaced by five Consolidated Fleet 2 in 1931 and withdrawn from use in late 1932. FranceFrench Air Force El SalvadorAir Force of El Salvador JapanOne aircraft only. ParaguayParaguayan Air Force - Three aircraft purchased in 1927 for the Military Aviation School.
Kingdom of Yugoslavia12 aircraft H.320 mod. 1926, Product: Aeroplanes Hanriot France 45 aircraft H.320 mod. 1928, Product: Zmaj - Zemun Yugoslavia HD.32 - main production version for Aéronautique Militaire with Le Rhône 9C engine HD.320 - version with Salmson 9Ac engine HD.321 - version with Clerget 9B engine General characteristics Crew: Two and observer Length: 7.11 m Wingspan: 9.20 m Height: 2.95 m Wing area: 29.8 m2 Empty weight: 510 kg Gross weight: 760 kg Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhône 9C, 60 kW Performance Maximum speed: 120 km/h Range: 200 km Service ceiling: 3,850 m Armament Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft Taylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. P. 470. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing. Pp. File 896 Sheet 11. Hagedorn, Dan. Schiffer Publishing Co. Atglen, PA. 1996 Petrovic, Ognjan M.. Military Aeroplanes of Kingdom of Jugoslavia 1918-1930. Beograd: MJVB LET-Flight. Pp. 21–84. Janić, Čedomir. Short History of Aviation in Serbia.
Beograd: Aerokomunikacije. ISBN 978-86-913973-2-6
The Hanriot HD.22 was a racer aircraft built by Hanriot in the early 1920s. The HD.22 was a high-wing monoplane intended for the Coupe Deutsch de la Meurthe. It had an all-metal fuselage. Data from General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 5.93 m Wingspan: 6.38 m Height: 2.20 m Wing area: 7.50 m2 Gross weight: 800 kg Powerplant: 1 × Hispano-Suiza 8Fb V-8 water-cooled piston engine, 220 kW Propellers: 2-bladed fixed-pitch propellerPerformance Maximum speed: 133 km/h at sea level. It is not certain if these performance figures relate to the MS.180 or the MS.181. Cruise speed: 360 km/h
The Ponnier D. III was a French monoplane racing aircraft, designed to compete in the 1913 Gordon Bennett Trophy race, it finished a close second. During 1911 René Hanriot hired Alfred Pagny at Nieuport, as a designer. After Hanriot military prototypes failed to win orders at the Concours Militaire in late 1911 he sold his aircraft interests to another of his designers, Louis Alfred Ponnier. Pagny designed two similar single seat monoplanes for Hanriot and Ponnier, the Hanriot D. I and the Ponnier D. III. III, his designs reflected Nieuport practice with the replacement of Hanriot's graceful boat-like shell fuselages with flat sided, deep chested ones. The Ponnier D. III was a single seat, mid wing monoplane designed to compete in the 1913 Gordon Bennett Trophy race. Pairs of landing wires on each side met over the fuselage at a pyramidal four strut pylon and parallel flying wires went to the lower fuselage. An oil deflecting cowling, open at the bottom, surrounded the powerful double row, fourteen cylinder Gnome Lambda-Lambda rotary engine, which delivered 160 hp to a 2 m diameter propeller.
The oval, open cockpit was placed at just aft of the pylon centre. It had a finless rudder at the extreme rear of the fuselage and a straight edged tailplane mounted on the upper fuselage ahead of it; the elevators were interconnected, controlled by central wires. The D. III had a fixed, conventional undercarriage with mainwheels on a single axle mounted to the fuselage by pairs of wire cross-braced V-struts, plus a simple elliptical leaf spring tailskid. Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1913 describes a longer Hanriot D. III with a 100 hp Gnome engine; the D. III participated in the Gordon-Bennett Trophy race piloted by Emile Védrines; the elimination race over 100 km left four aircraft in the final, flown over 200 km on Monday 29 September. After an hour's flight the Ponnier finished second, just 66 seconds behind Maurice Prévost in a Deperdussin Monocoque. Data from Flight 22 November 1913General characteristics Crew: One Length: 5.41 m Wingspan: 7.16 m Wing area: 8.7 m2 Gross weight: 500 kg Powerplant: 1 × Gnome Lambda-Lambda 14-cylinder, two row rotary engine, 120 kW Propellers: 2-bladed, 2.08 m diameterPerformance Maximum speed: 200 km/h
The Hanriot HD.1 was a French World War I single-seat fighter aircraft. Rejected for service with French squadrons in favour of the SPAD S.7. The type was supplied to the Belgian and the Italian air forces, with whom it proved successful. Of a total of about 1,200 examples built, 831 were produced by Italian companies under licence; the Hanriot company produced a series of pioneering monoplanes pre-war but had settled down as a licence manufacturer, notably of Sopwith 1½ strutters, when the HD.1 was produced in 1916. The type was a conventional fighter with the general characteristics of a typical Sopwith aircraft, being but built and combining clean lines with a light wing loading, it used the same "1½" cabane strut arrangement as the Sopwith two-seater. It had a flat lower wing. On the power of its 110 hp Le Rhone rotary engine it was not outstandingly fast but it was manoeuvrable and proved popular with pilots as a safe and pleasant aircraft to fly. To maintain a competitive climbing and altitude performance it was usual practice to restrict armament to one synchronised Vickers gun, although there was provision for a second gun and one was fitted.
In French built aircraft the gun were fitted to the sides of the cockpit, were accessible to the pilot without their butts being directly in front of his face in the event of a crash – an unusual but welcome feature if its origins lay in the form of the cabane struts. Italian-built versions, mounted a single machine gun centrally; the type was produced by the Nieuport-Macchi company of Varese, which built 900 HD.1s between 1917 and 1919. The new type was ordered into production as a possible replacement for the Nieuport 17 but became "superfluous" when it was decided to replace the Nieuport with the SPAD S.7 in the French air service. Some were supplied to the French Navy, a few of which were passed to the U. S. Navy – some naval Hanriots were converted to or built as, floatplanes with enlarged tail surfaces; the bulk of early production was supplied to the Belgians, who notoriously had to make do with aircraft not wanted by their allies. With the Belgian fighter squadrons the HD.1 proved successful and the type remained the standard Belgian fighter for the rest of the war.
Willy Coppens, the top Belgian ace of the war, was the most successful HD.1 pilot. At least one of his machines was experimentally fitted with an 11 mm Vickers machine-gun for use in balloon busting, something at which Coppens excelled. Most of his victories were balloons and many were claimed while flying various HD.1s. These aircraft remained in use until the late 1920s; the type was supplied in small numbers to the Italians who manufactured it in quantity and used it to replace Nieuports and SPADs. The type was considered to be a better all-round fighter than the SPAD S. XIII and it became the standard Italian fighter, equipping 16 of the 18 operational Italian fighter squadrons by November 1918. Surplus Italian-built Hanriots were used by several countries postwar, including the Swiss; the U. S. Naval Aircraft Factory built 10 HD.1s in the immediate postwar years. These were used as trainers, although they were involved in experiments with take-off platforms on warships – they could be fitted with twin guns and at least one machine had a hydrovane and flotation bags of the type developed for the Royal Navy.
Five examples of the HD.1 are preserved in museums in Europe and the USA: BelgiumCN 78 Musee Royale de L'Armee, Brussels ItalyCN 515 Museo Storico Dell'Aeronautica Miltare Italiana, Vigna di Valle, near Rome SwitzerlandFlieger-Flab-Museum, Dubendorf near Zurich New ZealandCN 75, The Vintage Aviator Limited. Masterton, New Zealand, a former Belgian aircraft, saved by Richard Shuttleworth before World War II, held by the Royal Air Force Museum. United StatesCN 5934 Planes of Fame Air Museum in Chino, California; this airplane was flown by famed World War I French Ace Charles Nungesser in the 1930 movie The Dawn Patrol. BelgiumAviation Militaire Belge 1ère Escadrille de Chasse Groupe de Chasse 9ème Escadrille de Chasse 10ème Escadrille de Chasse 11ème Escadrille de Chasse FranceFrench Navy Ecuador Ecuadorian Air Force - One aircraft only. Kingdom of Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare - Standard Italian fighter at the end of World War I Paraguay Paraguayan Air Force - Three aircraft only. Switzerland Swiss Air Force - Postwar United States United States Navy Data from Holmes, 2005.
P 31. General characteristics Crew: one, pilot Length: 5.85 m Wingspan: 8.70 m Height: 2.94 m Wing area: 18 m² Empty weight: 407 kg Loaded weight: 605 kg Max. Takeoff weight: 652 kg Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhône 9J rotary engine, 81 kW Performance Maximum speed: 184 km/h Range: 550 km Service ceiling: 6,400 m Rate of climb: 5.1 mins to 2,000 m. An 11 mm Vickers gun on one or two Belgian machines. Related lists List of military aircraft of France List of fighter aircraft List of non-carrier aircraft flown from aircraft carriers
The Hanriot HD.14 was a military trainer aircraft produced in large numbers in France during the 1920s. It was a two-bay biplane with unstaggered wings of equal span; the pilot and instructor sat in tandem, open cockpits, the fuselage was braced to the lower wing with short struts. The main units of the fixed tailskid undercarriage were divided, each unit carrying two wheels, early production examples had anti-noseover skids projecting forwards as well. In 1922, production shifted to a much improved version, known as the HD.14ter or HD.14/23. This featured a smaller wing area, revised tail fin and cabane struts, fuselage cross-section; the landing gear track was narrowed in order to facilitate the aircraft's loading onto the standard army trailer of the day. Prolific, it was licence-produced by Mitsubishi in Japan, where another 145 were built, by the CWL and Samolot in Poland, where 125 and 120 were built. HD.14 - Original production version. Known as the HD.14 EP2. HD.14ter - Improved version of 1922.
Known as the HD.14/23. HD.14S - Air ambulance version HD.141 - Remanufactured ex-Army HD.14s for French aeroclub use H.410 - A 1928 development with Lorraine 5-cyl radial and revised undercarriage. H.411 - development of the HD.410 LH.412 - development of the HD.410 H.28 - Polish designation of license-produced modified HD.14/23 Ki 1 - Japanese Army designation of the Hanriot HD.14 BelgiumBelgian Air Force FranceAéronautique Militaire JapanImperial Japanese Army Air Force EstoniaEstonian Air Force PolandPolish Air Force Soviet UnionSoviet Air Force BulgariaBulgarian Air Force Mexico Spain General characteristics Crew: Two and instructor Length: 7.26 m Wingspan: 10.87 m Height: 3.00 m Wing area: 34.5 m2 Gross weight: 810 kg Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhône 9, 60 kW Performance Maximum speed: 110 km/h Range: 180 km Service ceiling: 4,000 m Armament Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft Taylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. P. 470. World Aircraft Information Files.
London: Bright Star Publishing. Pp. File 896 Sheet 11. Morgała, Andrzej. Samoloty wojskowe w Polsce 1924-1939. Warsaw: Bellona. ISBN 83-11-09319-9
The SPAD S. XIII was a French biplane fighter aircraft of the First World War, developed by Société Pour L'Aviation et ses Dérivés from the earlier and successful SPAD S. VII. During early 1917, the French designer Louis Béchereau, spurred by the approaching obsolescence of the S. VII, decided to develop two new fighter aircraft, the S. XII and the S. XIII, both utilizing a powerful new geared version of the successful Hispano-Suiza 8A engine; the cannon armament of the S. XII was unpopular with most pilots, but the S. XIII proved to be one of the most capable fighters of the war, as well as one of the most-produced, with 8,472 built and orders for around 10,000 more cancelled at the Armistice. By the end of the First World War, the S. XIII had equipped every fighter squadron of the Aéronautique Militaire. In addition, the United States Army Air Service procured the type in bulk during the conflict, some replaced or supplemented S. VIIs in the Royal Flying Corps, pending the arrival of Sopwith Dolphins.
It proved popular with its pilots. XIII during their flying careers. Following the signing of the Armistice of 11 November 1918, which marked the end of the First World War, surplus S. XIIIs were sold in great numbers to both military operators throughout the world; the origins of the SPAD S. XIII lies in its the performance of its predecessor, the SPAD S. VII, a single-seat fighter aircraft powered by a 150-horsepower direct drive Hispano-Suiza 8A water-cooled V-8 engine and armed with a single synchronised Vickers machine gun; the type demonstrated excellent performance for the time, entering operational service with the French Aéronautique Militaire during August 1916. By early 1917, the S. VII had been surpassed by the latest German fighters such as the Albatros D. I; the emergence of capable German fighters, which soon resulted in a shift in aerial supremacy towards the Central Powers, led to calls for superior aircraft to be developed and procured. French flying ace Georges Guynemer lobbied for an improved version of the S.
VII, telling the SPAD designer Louis Béchereau that "The 150 hp SPAD is not a match for the Halberstadt... More speed is needed." An initial and quick solution to the problem was to increase the compression ratio of the Hispano-Suiza engine, which increased its power to 180 hp to provide for improved performance, allowing the SPAD S. VII to remain competitive for the time being. Spanish manufacturer Hispano-Suiza were in the process of developing a more powerful geared version of the 8A engine, this engine was unsurprisingly chosen by Béchereau to power two developed versions of the S. VII; the British S. E.5a and Sopwith Dolphin fighters would be powered by the same engine. The first of Béchereau's designs to fly with the new, gear-reduction HS.8B engine design series was the S. XII in its HS.8BeC version, armed with an unusual 37 mm cannon that fired through the propeller shaft. However, this aircraft only saw limited use, having been followed into production by the more conventionally armed S.
XIII, deemed to be a preferable configuration by several French pilots and officials. Aviation author C. F. Andrews has claimed that a large portion of the credit for the S. XIII lies with Marc Birkigt, the designer of the engine, who had chosen to introduce various innovative features upon it, such as monobloc aluminium cylinders, which were furnished with screwed-in steel liners, which improved its performance. On 4 April 1917, the SPAD S. XIII performed its maiden flight. An early distinguishing feature of the S. XIII - as with the SPAD S. XII - was that its similarly-"geared" HS.8Be V8 engine mandated a "left-hand"-ed propeller rotating in the opposite rotation to the earlier, "direct-drive" HS.8A-powered S. VII. Early on to the British Sopwith Dolphin powered with HS.8B-series geared V8s, problems were encountered with the HS.8B engine's gearing. Efforts to ramp up production of the type commenced immediately after the first flight was conducted. Within months of its first flight, the S. XIII had not only entered service with the Aéronautique Militaire but had proven itself to be a successful fighter.
The SPAD S. XIII was a single-engine biplane fighter aircraft. In terms of its construction, it shared a similar configuration and layout to the earlier S. VII, featuring a wooden structure complete with a fabric covering. Other changes included the tapered chord of its ailerons, the rounded tips of the tailplanes, bulkier cowling accommodating the gear-drive Hispano-Suiza 8B engine choice, enlarged fin and rudder; the S. XIII was armed with a pair of forward-mounted Vickers machine guns with 400 rounds per gun, which took the place of the single gun, used on the earlier aircraft; the S. XIII featured conventional construction, that being a wire-braced biplane with a box-shaped fuselage and a front-mounted engine, except for its interposed wing struts located half-way along the wing span, which gave the fighter the deceptive appearance of being a double-bay aircraft instead of a single bay; this change prevented the landing brace wires from whipping and chafing during flight, was attributed by Andrews as a key factor for the aircraft's high rate of climb.
Otherwise, it had an orthodox structure. The fuselage consisted of four square-section longerons, complete with wooden struts and cross-members while braced with heavy-gauge piano wire.