The Hanriot HD.14 was a military trainer aircraft produced in large numbers in France during the 1920s. It was a two-bay biplane with unstaggered wings of equal span; the pilot and instructor sat in tandem, open cockpits, the fuselage was braced to the lower wing with short struts. The main units of the fixed tailskid undercarriage were divided, each unit carrying two wheels, early production examples had anti-noseover skids projecting forwards as well. In 1922, production shifted to a much improved version, known as the HD.14ter or HD.14/23. This featured a smaller wing area, revised tail fin and cabane struts, fuselage cross-section; the landing gear track was narrowed in order to facilitate the aircraft's loading onto the standard army trailer of the day. Prolific, it was licence-produced by Mitsubishi in Japan, where another 145 were built, by the CWL and Samolot in Poland, where 125 and 120 were built. HD.14 - Original production version. Known as the HD.14 EP2. HD.14ter - Improved version of 1922.
Known as the HD.14/23. HD.14S - Air ambulance version HD.141 - Remanufactured ex-Army HD.14s for French aeroclub use H.410 - A 1928 development with Lorraine 5-cyl radial and revised undercarriage. H.411 - development of the HD.410 LH.412 - development of the HD.410 H.28 - Polish designation of license-produced modified HD.14/23 Ki 1 - Japanese Army designation of the Hanriot HD.14 BelgiumBelgian Air Force FranceAéronautique Militaire JapanImperial Japanese Army Air Force EstoniaEstonian Air Force PolandPolish Air Force Soviet UnionSoviet Air Force BulgariaBulgarian Air Force Mexico Spain General characteristics Crew: Two and instructor Length: 7.26 m Wingspan: 10.87 m Height: 3.00 m Wing area: 34.5 m2 Gross weight: 810 kg Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhône 9, 60 kW Performance Maximum speed: 110 km/h Range: 180 km Service ceiling: 4,000 m Armament Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft Taylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. P. 470. World Aircraft Information Files.
London: Bright Star Publishing. Pp. File 896 Sheet 11. Morgała, Andrzej. Samoloty wojskowe w Polsce 1924-1939. Warsaw: Bellona. ISBN 83-11-09319-9
The Hanriot H.35 was a 1920s French intermediate training monoplane designed and built by Avions Hanriot. The H.35 was developed from the earlier H.34 basic trainer and was a two-seat strut-braced parasol monoplane. The H.35 was powered by a 180 hp Hispano-Suiza 8Ab piston engine. Twelve aircraft were built for use with the Hanriot flying school and the Societe Francaise d'Aviation at Orly. A 1925 development of the H.35 was the H.36, a twin-float equipped version powered by a 120 hp Salmson 9Ac piston engine. An order for 50 H.36s was placed by Yugoslavia. Data from Illustrated Encyclopedia of AircraftGeneral characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 7.60 m Wingspan: 11.39 m Height: 2.70 m Wing area: 22.00 m2 Empty weight: 680 kg Gross weight: 945 kg Powerplant: 1 × Hispano-Suiza 8Ab water-cooled eight-cylinder Vee piston engine, 134 kW Performance Maximum speed: 185 km/h Range: 320 km Service ceiling: 5000 m Armament
The Hanriot H.25 was a French, single-engined, six passenger airliner built in 1926. Only one was flown; the Hanriot H.25 was a braced, high wing monoplane. It had an all-metal structure, covered everywhere with fabric, its wing was built in three parts, a central section fixed to the upper fuselage longerons and a pair of outer panels which were braced on each side by two sets of parallel paired, interconnected struts which ran from two well-separated positions on the wing spars to meet on the undercarriage structure. The wing was rectangular in plan apart from angled tops and had constant thickness. Narrow-chord ailerons filled well over half the trailing edge, it was powered by eighteen cylinder Salmson 18 Cm. This was one of the last, the most powerful, of Salmson's water-cooled radial engines, with two in-line rows of nine cylinders, it was enclosed in a rounded cowling with caps over the cylinder-heads. Fuel was held in the wing centre-section and two Lamblin radiators were mounted on the undercarriage legs.
Behind the engine the fuselage was rectangular in section, defined by light-metal, U-section longerons and cross-frames. The open cockpit was with small side-windows for a better view downwards. Behind the cockpit the cabin seated each with their own window. Entry was via a port-side door and there was a disposable emergency ceiling hatch to allow passengers to escape by parachute; the horizontal tail was mounted on top of the fuselage, braced from the lower fuselage longerons on each side with a pair of parallel struts. Its plan was similar to the wing and the elevators were split, with a cut-out for the deep, broad rudder; the tailplane angle of incidence could be trimmed in flight. The low area fin was broad but unusually low; the H.28 had conventional, tailskid landing gear. Its mainwheels, half enclosed by individual semi-circular fairings, were on a single axle and rubber cord shock absorbers enclosed within a streamlined fairing mounted on the lower fuselage longerons by N-form struts and reinforced by the wing bracing struts.
The undercarriage track was 3 m. The date of the H.28's first flight is not known but by mid-May 1926 its development programme was underway at Villacoublay. No more independent reports on the type appear in the French journals and there is no evidence of a second example. Data from Les Ailes, May 1926General characteristics Crew: one Capacity: six passengers Length: 12.50 m Wingspan: 17.0 m Height: 3.80 m Wing area: 51 m2 Empty weight: 1,700 kg Gross weight: 2,600 kg Fuel capacity: Fuel and oil 300 kg Powerplant: 1 × Salmson 18 Cm water-cooled, two row inline radial, 370 kW Propellers: 2-bladedPerformance Maximum speed: 195 km/h at ground level Service ceiling: 4,000 m
The Hanriot HD.32 was a military trainer aircraft built in France in the 1920s. Derived from the HD.14 and sharing the same basic configuration as it, the HD.32 was a revised design, with redesigned tailplane and wings of shorter span. The HD.14's wooden construction was replaced in part with metal structure. The HD.32 was Hanriot's entry in a 1924 Aéronautique Militaire competition to select a new trainer, as the winner, was ordered in quantity as the HD.32 EP.2. The type HD.320 was built in Yugoslavia by Zmaj aircraft in Zemun, using a Salmson 9Ac, Siemens Sh12 or Walter NZ-120, engine. In 1927, the Paraguayan Military Aviation School received three HD.32 that were intensively used as primary trainers. They received the serials E.1, E.2 and E.3. They were replaced by five Consolidated Fleet 2 in 1931 and withdrawn from use in late 1932. FranceFrench Air Force El SalvadorAir Force of El Salvador JapanOne aircraft only. ParaguayParaguayan Air Force - Three aircraft purchased in 1927 for the Military Aviation School.
Kingdom of Yugoslavia12 aircraft H.320 mod. 1926, Product: Aeroplanes Hanriot France 45 aircraft H.320 mod. 1928, Product: Zmaj - Zemun Yugoslavia HD.32 - main production version for Aéronautique Militaire with Le Rhône 9C engine HD.320 - version with Salmson 9Ac engine HD.321 - version with Clerget 9B engine General characteristics Crew: Two and observer Length: 7.11 m Wingspan: 9.20 m Height: 2.95 m Wing area: 29.8 m2 Empty weight: 510 kg Gross weight: 760 kg Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhône 9C, 60 kW Performance Maximum speed: 120 km/h Range: 200 km Service ceiling: 3,850 m Armament Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft Taylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. P. 470. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing. Pp. File 896 Sheet 11. Hagedorn, Dan. Schiffer Publishing Co. Atglen, PA. 1996 Petrovic, Ognjan M.. Military Aeroplanes of Kingdom of Jugoslavia 1918-1930. Beograd: MJVB LET-Flight. Pp. 21–84. Janić, Čedomir. Short History of Aviation in Serbia.
Beograd: Aerokomunikacije. ISBN 978-86-913973-2-6
Aéroplanes Hanriot et Cie. or simply'Hanriot' was a French aircraft manufacturer with roots going back to the beginning of aviation. Founded by René Hanriot in 1910 as The Monoplans Hanriot Company Ltd. the company survived in different forms until 1916 when it established itself with the Hanriot-Dupont fighters and observation aircraft. The company lasted through several takeovers and structural changes until in 1936 it merged with Farman to become the Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Centre.'Central Air Works' consortium. Hanriot aeroplanes included pre-war monoplanes with boat-like fuselages, the HD.1 and 2 World War I biplane fighters, the HD.14 trainer, the H.220 series of twin-engined heavy fighters that evolved in the SNCAC 600 fighter just before World War II. The company's main bases of operations were Bétheny Boulogne-Billancourt, Carrières-sur-Seine and Bourges. René Hanriot, a builder and racer of motor boats and a race car driver for the Darracq motor company, built his first aircraft in 1907, although it did not fly until late 1909.
It was a monoplane with a wire-braced wooden fuselage resembling the Blériot XI but was immediately superseded by a series of similar monoplanes, which were exhibited at the Brussels Salon d'Automobiles, d'Aeronautique, du Cycles et dus Sports in January 1910. These featured a slender wooden monocoque fuselage and were powered by a 20 hp Darracq and a 40 hp Gyp. and a handful were built. Together with Darracq racing colleague Louis Wagner, Hanriot started a flying school at Bétheny near Reims, where the Hanriot factory was located. Unusually, Hanriot tested new design features using a flying model powered by a 2 kW Duthiel-Chalmers. In 1910 Hanriot and his staff pilots made regular appearances at air shows in England. Hanriot's 15-year-old son Marcel became the youngest holder of a pilot's certificate, joined his father's pilots as a competition flyer. René Hanriot withdrew from competition flying himself and concentrated on constructing aircraft. Hanriot's 1911 military two-seater was passed over at the French military trials, among other reasons because its fuselage was so slender that the crew were unshielded.
It was obsolete and never had a serious chance against contemporary Nieuport, Morane-Saulnier and Deperdussin types. Nieuport's former chief engineer Alfred Pagny designed the 1912 Hanriot, the Nieuport influence was visible, but it failed to gain any orders at the 1912 military trials and attempts to sell them were unsuccessful. Faced with bankruptcy, René Hanriot sold his assets to Louis Alfred Ponnier, who reorganized the company as the Société de Construction de Machines pour la Navigation Aérienne, headed by Pagny. In 1913, Marcel Hanriot, now 18, was called up for military service; the Ponnier factory continued for several years to develop the monoplane racer, one of, placed second in the 1913 Gordon Bennett Trophy competition. Following the outbreak of World War I, Marcel Hanriot, still in military service, flew French air force bombers; the German advance stalled with the CMNA/Ponnier factories in Rheims behind German lines, but René Hanriot founded a new factory, Aéroplanes Hanriot et Cie, in Levallois.
Starting as a subcontractor building airplane components, the company progressed to licence-build aircraft from other manufacturers. In 1915, Marcel Hanriot, after being wounded in a night-flying raid, was released from military service and joined his father's factory. Around the same time, Hanriot hired the young engineer Emile Dupont and in 1916, the Dupont-designed fighter HD.1 was produced. Although being passed over by the French air force in favor of the more powerful SPAD VII design, the HD.1 was ordered by the Belgian and Italian air force. Heavy demand resulted in a new factory being opened in Boulogne-Billancourt. Licences to build the HD.1 were sold to Macchi in Italy. Hanriot employed 2000 workers in his Boulogne-Billancourt factory alone. After the war, Hanriot continued as a manufacturer of fighters and all-purpose aircraft, building on the HD.1 / HD.2 series but bringing out new biplane and monoplane designs. In 1924, having outgrown its Boulogne-Billancourt works, the company moved to Carrières-sur-Seine René Hanriot died on 7 November 1925.
His heirs and his two brothers-in-law, entrusted daily operations of the factories to Outhenin Chalandre director of a paper mill. In 1930 the Hanriot company became part of the Lorraine-Dietrich company under the name Lorraine-Hanriot; the merger lasted three years, until in 1933 the two companies separated and Marcel Hanriot stepped once again forward to lead his family business. Under his management, the company embarked on an ambitious project to design and build state-of-the-art metal military aircraft like the H.220 heavy fighter. However its main successes would be with the liaison/training monoplane H.180/H.182 and the twin-engined H.232/H.232 trainer In 1936 the company was included in Pierre Cot's nationalisation programme, Merging with Farman to become the Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Centre in 1937. Unlike Maurice Farman, who left the new company in protest, Marcel Hanriot stayed on as one of the directors; the pre-war aircraft designed by René Hanriot went by Roman Numerals, the 1907 monoplane being the'Type I'.
However the planes were known by a description featuring the year of built and some characteristic such as'monoplane', one- or two-seater and horsepower. Thus Hanriot's first airplane was the'1907 monoplane', the type IV was the'1911 military two-seater' and the Hanriot VIII was known as the'Hanriot 100 ch' (100 Hp Hanrio
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The Hanriot H.110 was an unusual pusher configuration, twin boom, single seat fighter aircraft built in France in the early 1930s. It proved to be slower and less manoeuvrable than its contemporaries and failed to reach production as the Hanriot H.115 after receiving a more powerful engine and cannon armament. From 1916 until 1933, the only Hanriot fighter aircraft had been tractor biplanes; the Hanriot H.110, a twin boom pusher cantilever monoplane was therefore a considerable departure from the past. It was designed to compete in the STAé 1930/31 C1 programme; the all-metal H. 110 had an open engine in a short central nacelle. It was powered by a 485 kW Hispano-Suiza 12Xbrs supercharged upright water-cooled V-12 engine behind the pilot, driving a three-blade pusher propeller; the pilot's headrest was smoothly faired into the engine cowling. There was a circular Chausson radiator in the short nose ahead of the open cockpit, with a variable position central cone to control the airflow; the wings were built around two spars.
The central 25% of their span, between the booms, had constant chord. Outboard they had a wider chord and beyond were double straight tapered to rounded tips, they carried full-span, narrow-chord Frise ailerons. Forward, the slim, square section and untapered tail booms blended into the wings at about mid-chord, the aft ends carrying a constant-chord tailplane above them; this had rounded a central elevator with a trim tab. A central, tall, round-tipped, wire-braced vertical tail was mounted on in it; the H.110 had a fixed, conventional undercarriage with each spatted mainwheel on a faired, near vertical shock absorber and a rearward leaning strut together forming a V, laterally braced with an inverted V-strut attached near the under-fuselage centre line. There was a central tailwheel on a long leg under the fin; the H.110 began flight testing in April 1933. Tested against its smaller and lighter competitors, it proved slower and less manoeuvrable and was returned to Hanriot for modification, it flew in April 1934 as the H.115, with its HS 12Xbrs engine uprated to 515 kW, a new four-blade propeller with variable-pitch and a revised nacelle, shortened forward of the cockpit by 360 mm.
A 33 mm APX cannon was now housed in a fairing below the nacelle as an alternative to the earlier pair of Chatellerault 7.5 mm machine guns. With its new engine and propeller the H.115 was quicker than the earlier version, with a top speed of 390 km/h. After more modifications over the winter of 1934-5 it returned to Villacoublay in June 1935 and was flight tested until mid August, but failed to attract a contract. H.110 Original version. H. 115 Uprated shorter nose, four blade propeller and 33 mm cannon. Data from Green & Swanborough p.279-80General characteristics Crew: One Length: 7.96 m Wingspan: 13.50 m Height: 2.70 m Wing area: 24.00 m2 Empty weight: 1,260 kg Gross weight: 1,750 kg Powerplant: 1 × Hispano-Suiza 12Xbrs supercharged upright watercooled V-12 engine, 480 kW at 4,000 m Propellers: 3-bladed pusher configuration Rated power 370 kW Performance Maximum speed: 355 km/h Range: 600 km Time to altitude: 7.78 min to 5,000 m Armament Guns: 2×7.5 mm MAC 1934 machine guns