Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
Opernwelt is a monthly German magazine for opera and ballet. The magazine covers news about current performances, it reviews recordings and books and publishes monthly schedules of German and international opera houses. The magazine's website offers full text search for past issues. A year book is published every October; each year since 1994, at the end of the season, the magazine sponsors a jury of 50 critics to select the best in several categories: opera house of the year staging of the year stage director of the year singer of the year stage- and costume designer of the year orchestra of the year premiere of the year They are selected from German-speaking countries, Austria and German-speaking Switzerland. In 2011, La Monnaie received the accolade, the first time it has been given to a non-German speaking house. Opernwelt
Oxy-fuel welding and cutting
Oxy-fuel welding and oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld or cut metals. French engineers Edmond Fouché and Charles Picard became the first to develop oxygen-acetylene welding in 1903. Pure oxygen, instead of air, is used to increase the flame temperature to allow localized melting of the workpiece material in a room environment. A common propane/air flame burns at about 2,250 K, a propane/oxygen flame burns at about 2,526 K, an oxyhydrogen flame burns at 3,073 K and an acetylene/oxygen flame burns at about 3,773 K. During the early 20th century, before the development and availability of coated arc welding electrodes in the late 1920s that were capable of making sound welds in steel, oxy-acetylene welding was the only process capable of making welds of exceptionally high quality in all metals in commercial use at the time; these included not only carbon steel but alloy steels, cast iron and magnesium. In recent decades it has been superseded in all industrial uses by various arc welding methods offering greater speed and, in the case of gas tungsten arc welding, the capability of welding reactive metals such as titanium.
Oxy-acetylene welding is still used for metal-based artwork and in smaller home-based shops, as well as situations where accessing electricity would present difficulties. The oxy-acetylene welding torch remains a mainstay heat source for manual brazing and braze welding, as well as metal forming and localized heat treating. In addition, oxy-fuel cutting is still used, both in heavy industry and light industrial and repair operations. In oxy-fuel welding, a welding torch is used to weld metals. Welding metal results when two pieces are heated to a temperature that produces a shared pool of molten metal; the molten pool is supplied with additional metal called filler. Filler material depends upon the metals to be welded. In oxy-fuel cutting, a torch is used to heat metal to its kindling temperature. A stream of oxygen is trained on the metal, burning it into a metal oxide that flows out of the kerf as slag. Torches that do not mix fuel with oxygen are not considered oxy-fuel torches and can be identified by a single tank.
Most metals cannot be melted with a single-tank torch. Single-tank torches are suitable for soldering and brazing but not for welding. Oxy-fuel torches are or have been used for: Welding metal: see below Cutting metal: see below. Heating metal: in automotive and other industries for the purposes of loosening seized fasteners. Depositing metal to build up a surface, as in hardfacing. Oxy-hydrogen flames are used: in stone working for "flaming" where the stone is heated and a top layer crackles and breaks. A steel circular brush is attached to an angle grinder and used to remove the first layer leaving behind a bumpy surface similar to hammered bronze. In the glass industry for "fire polishing". in jewelry production for "water welding" using a water torch. in automotive repair, removing a seized bolt. Formerly, to heat lumps of quicklime to obtain a bright white light called limelight, in theatres or optical lanterns. Formerly, in platinum works, as platinum is fusible only in the oxyhydrogen flame and in an electric furnace.
In short, oxy-fuel equipment is quite versatile, not only because it is preferred for some sorts of iron or steel welding but because it lends itself to brazing, braze-welding, metal heating, rust or scale removal, the loosening of corroded nuts and bolts, is a ubiquitous means of cutting ferrous metals. The apparatus used in gas welding consists of an oxygen source and a fuel gas source, two pressure regulators and two flexible hoses, a torch; this sort of torch can be used for soldering and brazing. The cylinders are carried in a special wheeled trolley. There have been examples of oxyhydrogen cutting sets with small gas cylinders worn on the user's back in a backpack harness, for rescue work and similar. There are examples of pressurized liquid fuel cutting torches using gasoline; these are used for their increased portability. The regulator ensures that pressure of the gas from the tanks matches the required pressure in the hose; the flow rate is adjusted by the operator using needle valves on the torch.
Accurate flow control with a needle valve relies on a constant inlet pressure. Most regulators have two stages; the first stage is a fixed-pressure regulator, which releases gas from the cylinder at a constant intermediate pressure, despite the pressure in the cylinder falling as the gas in it is consumed. This is similar to the first stage of a scuba-diving regulator; the adjustable second stage of the regulator controls the pressure reduction from the intermediate pressure to the low outlet pressure. The regulator has two pressure gauges, one indicating cylinder pressure, the other indicating hose pressure; the adjustment knob of the regulator is sometimes calibrated for pressure, but an accurate setting requires observation of the gauge. Some simpler or cheaper oxygen-fuel regulators have only a single-stage regulator, or only a single gauge. A single-stage regulator will tend to allow a reduction in outlet pressure as the cylinder is emptied
Peter Ane Schat was a Dutch composer. Schat studied composition with Kees van Baaren at the Utrecht Conservatoire and the Royal Conservatory of The Hague from 1952 until 1958, went on to study in London with Mátyás Seiber in 1959 and with Pierre Boulez in Basle in 1960–61, his early training with van Baaren and Seiber disposed him toward twelve-tone technique, his earliest compositions, such as the Introductie en adagio in oude stijl and the Septet, combine traditional forms with dodecaphony. Boulez, led him to a more radical, strict form of serialism, he was regarded in the Netherlands as one of the outstanding representatives of the avant garde. While still a student he created his opus 1, Passacaglia and Fugue for organ, Septet. In 1957 he won the Gaudeamus International Composers Award. In the late sixties Schat became associated with the Provo; that same year, Schat contributed, together with the composers Reinbert de Leeuw, Louis Andriessen, Jan van Vlijmen, Misha Mengelberg, the writers Harry Mulisch and Hugo Claus, in Reconstructie, a sort of opera, or "morality" theatre work, about the conflict between American imperialism and liberation.
In February 1969 he co-founded the Studio for Electro-Instrumental Music in Amsterdam. Among his most noted works are Thema and To You. To You was performed at the Holland Festival; the 1970s brought Schat's most distinctive contribution to 20th-century music theory, the "tone clock". It lends its name to a translation of The Tone Clock. Schat died in 2003 from cancer. SymphoniesSymphony No. 1 Symphony No. 2 Symphony No. 3 Chamber musicOctet Improvisations and symphonies Signalement First Essay on Electrocution Hypothema Choir musicThe Fall The Fifth Season Breath An Indian Requiem Opera and music theaterLabyrint Reconstructie Houdini Aap verslaat de knekelgeest Symposion Piano musicVariations Inscriptions Anathema Polonaise OtherPassacaglia and Fugue for organ Clockwise and Anti-Clockwise for 16 wind instruments Thema To you Canto General Kind en Kraai De Hemel Adlington, Robert. 2013. Composing Dissent: Avant-garde Music in 1960s Amsterdam. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-998101-4.
Beer, Roland de. 1994. "Tegen de toplaag, tegen de kunstpausen Het stille, cruciale effect van de Notenkrakeractie". De Volkskrant. Dufallo, Richard. 1989. Trackings: Composers Speak with Richard Dufallo. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505816-X. Groot, Rokus de. 2001. "Schat, Peter". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Leeuw, Ton de. 1960. "New Trends in Modern Dutch Music". Sonorum Speculum, no. 4:131–33. Waa, Frits van der. 2003. "Wereldbestormer". De Volkskrant: 9. Official website http://www.peterschat.nl/composition.html