Jutland known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula, is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and part of northern Germany. The names are derived from the Cimbri, respectively; as the rest of Denmark, Jutland's terrain is flat, with a elevated ridge down the central parts and hilly terrains in the east. West Jutland is characterised by open lands, heaths and peat bogs, while East Jutland is more fertile with lakes and lush forests. Southwest Jutland is characterised by the Wadden Sea, a large unique international coastal region stretching through Denmark and the Netherlands. Jutland is a peninsula bounded by the North Sea to the west, the Skagerrak to the north, the Kattegat and Baltic Sea to the east and Germany to the south. Geographically and Jutland comprises the regions of South Jutland, West Jutland, East Jutland and North Jutland. Since the mid-20th century, it has become common to design an area as Central Jutland, but its definition varies a lot.
There are several historical subdivisions and regional names, some of which are still encountered today. They include Nørrejyllland, Sydjylland and others. Politically, Jutland comprises the three contemporary Danish Administrative Regions of North Jutland Region, Central Denmark Region and the Region of Southern Denmark, along with portions of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein; the Danish part of Jutland is divided into three administrative regions: North Jutland Region, Central Denmark Region and Region of Southern Denmark. The northernmost part of Jutland is separated from the mainland by the Limfjord, a narrow stretch of water bisecting the peninsula from coast to coast; the Limfjord was a long brackish water inlet, but a breaching North Sea flood in 1825 created a coast to coast connection. This area is called the North Jutlandic Island, Vendsyssel-Thy or Jutland north of the Limfjord; the islands of Læsø, Anholt and Samsø in Kattegat and Als at the rim of the Baltic Sea are administratively and tied to Jutland, although the latter two are regarded as traditional districts of their own.
Inhabitants of Als, known as Alsinger, would agree to be South Jutlanders, but not Jutlanders. The Danish Wadden Sea Islands and the German North Frisian Islands stretch along the southwest coast of Jutland in the German Bight; the largest cities in the Danish section of Jutland are as follows: Aarhus Aalborg Esbjerg Randers Kolding Horsens Vejle Herning Silkeborg FredericiaAarhus, Billund, Kolding, Vejle and Haderslev, along with a number of smaller towns, make up the suggested East Jutland metropolitan area, more densely populated than the rest of Jutland, although far from forming one consistent city. Administratively, Danish Jutland comprises three of Denmark's five regions, namely Nordjylland and the western half of Southern Denmark, which includes Funen; the five administrative regions came into effect on 1 January 2007, following a structural reform. The southern third of the peninsula is made up of the German Bundesland of Schleswig-Holstein; the German parts are not seen as Jutland proper, but described more abstract as part of the Jutlandic Peninsula, Cimbrian Peninsula or Jutland-Schleswig-Holstein.
Schleswig-Holstein has two historical parts: the former duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, both of which have passed back and forth between Danish and German rulers. The last adjustment of the Danish–German border followed the Schleswig Plebiscites in 1920 and resulted in Denmark regaining Northern Schleswig; the historical southern border of Jutland was the river Eider, which forms the border between the former duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, as well as the border between the Danish and German realms from c. 850 to 1864. Although most of Schleswig-Holstein is geographically part of the peninsula, most German residents there would not identify themselves with Jutland or as Jutlanders, but rather with Schleswig-Holstein; the medieval law Code of Jutland applied to Schleswig until 1900, when it was replaced by the Prussian Civil Code. Some used clauses of the Jutlandic Code still apply north of the Eider; the largest cities in the German part of the Jutland Peninsula are Flensburg. Geologically the Mid Jutland Region and the North Jutland Region as well as the Capital Region of Denmark are located in the north of Denmark, rising because of post-glacial rebound.
Jutland has been one of the three lands of Denmark, the other two being Scania and Zealand. Before that, according to Ptolemy, Jutland or the Cimbric Chersonese was the home of Teutons and Charudes. Many Angles and Jutes migrated from Continental Europe to Great Britain starting in c. 450 AD. The Angles themselves gave their name to the new emerging kingdoms called England. Saxons and Frisii migrated to the region in the early part of the Christian era. To protect themselves from invasion by the Christian Frankish emperors, beginning in the 5th century, the pagan Danes initiated the Danevirke, a defensi
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Ribe is a Danish town in south-west Jutland, with a population of 8,168. It is the seat of the Diocese of Ribe covering southwestern Jutland; until 1 January 2007, Ribe was the seat of both a surrounding municipality, county. It is now part of the enlarged Esbjerg Municipality in the Region of Southern Denmark. Ribe is the oldest extant town in Denmark, established in the early eighth century in the Germanic Iron Age. Established in the first decade of the eighth century and first attested in a document dated 854; the town celebrated its 1300th anniversary in 2010. When Ansgar the Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen, set out on the "Mission to bring Christianity to the North", he made a request in about 860, to King Horik II of Denmark, that the first Scandinavian church be built in Ribe; this was not coincidental, since Ribe at that point was one of the most important trade cities in Scandinavia. However the presence of a bishop, thus a cathedral, in Ribe can only be confirmed from the year 948. Recent archaeological excavations in Ribe have however led to the discovery of between 2,000 and 3,000 Christian graves.
They have been dated to the ninth century indicating that a large Christian community was living peacefully together with the Vikings at the time. Excavations conducted between 2008 and 2012 have revealed more details of the original church built by Ansgar; the town has many well-preserved old buildings, Ribe Cathedral, about 110 houses are under Heritage Protection. Denmark's oldest town hall is found on the town's Von Støckens Plads; the building was erected in 1496, was purchased by the city for use as a town hall in 1709. Early eighth century, founding of Ribe. Ribe flourished during the early medieval period as an important trading centre, or emporium connecting Western Europe and Scandinavia; the Ribe Cathedral started to be built in 1150 under the current bishops reign, built on top of an earlier church, most Ansgar's Church, built in 860. The Treaty of Ribe was proclaimed in 1460. 3 September 1580: a great fire destroys a large part of the town. 11 streets and 213 houses burn down. 11–12 October 1634: a storm tide floods the city with waterlevels rising to 6.1 meters above average.
1 January 2007: the Municipality of Ribe ceased to exist as it merged with the municipalities of Esbjerg and Bramming, now forming a new municipality of Esbjerg. 4 June 2010: residents celebrated the city's 1300th anniversary with a town-wide party There are numerous cultural and environmental features of Ribe. Among the cultural highlights are notable churches and museums; the flora and fauna, while depleted in large part from the man-made development and surrounding agricultural land conversion, retain notable aspects of the natural environment. The Ribe River hosts certain elements of riparian habitat. Certain notable birdlife is found near the town; this bird has declined in population throughout Western Europe due to agricultural land conversion as well as droughts in its wintering range in Africa. The following list some of the specific town features: Churches Ribe Cathedral — The bells of Ribe Cathedral playing the folk song about Queen Dagmar called Dronning Dagmar ligger i Ribe syg. Saint Catharinæ Monastery.
Museums Ribe Viking Museum Ribe Art Museum Ribe Viking Centre Denmark's oldest province museum The Night Watchman in Ribe. Every evening from 1 May until 15 September you may accompany the night watchman in Ribe on his route through the old town, while he is singing to alert citizens about bedtime approaching. Wadden Sea Center Mandø Mill The Mandø House Mandø Island nature reserve, about 30 kilometres southwest Anders Bording poet, noted for his epigrams and epistles Kristen Feilberg a Danish photographer of the peoples and landscapes of Sumatra and Singapore Jacob Riis an American immigrant photographer, wrote How the Other Half Lives, a pioneering work of photojournalism Bodil Hauschildt an early Danish photographer, ran her own studio in Ribe from 1880 J. Bodewalt Lampe American composer, arranger and band leader of ragtime and syncopated dance music Jens Olsen a clockmaker and locksmith, built the clock at Copenhagen City Hall Astrid Noack a Danish sculptor who specialized in the human figure Rued Langgaard a late-Romantic, unrecognised composer, organist at Ribe Cathedral Kjeld Abell a Danish playwright and theatrical designer Annemette Kure Andersen is a Danish symbolist poet and literary editor Jens Rasmussen was a system safety and human factors professor Erik Hansen Professor Emeritus, Architect in Building Preservation and author Vibeke Jensdatter a successful Danish merchant Emil Christian Hansen Mycologist, the father of Modern Brewing: At the Carlsberg Laboratories in Copenhagen, he discovered that yeast was composed of different kinds of fungi and that the yeast culture could be cultivated Hans Tausen protagonist of the Reformation in Denmark, Bishop of Ribe 1542–1562.
Peder Palladius a Danish theologian and bishop Maren Spliid was burned alive at Gallows Hill, victim of the persecution of witches. Hans Ad
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
Edvard Hagerup Grieg was a Norwegian composer and pianist. He is considered one of the leading Romantic era composers, his music is part of the standard classical repertoire worldwide, his use and development of Norwegian folk music in his own compositions brought the music of Norway to international consciousness, as well as helping to develop a national identity, much as Jean Sibelius and Bedřich Smetana did in Finland and Bohemia, respectively. Grieg is the most celebrated person from the city of Bergen, with numerous statues depicting his image, many cultural entities named after him: the city's largest concert building, its most advanced music school and its professional choir; the Edvard Grieg Museum at Grieg's former home, Troldhaugen, is dedicated to his legacy. Edvard Hagerup Grieg was born in Norway, his parents were a merchant and vice-consul in Bergen. The family name spelled Greig, is associated with the Scottish Clann Ghriogair. After the Battle of Culloden in 1746, Grieg's great-grandfather, Alexander Greig, travelled settling in Norway about 1770, establishing business interests in Bergen.
Edvard Grieg was raised in a musical family. His mother taught him to play at the age of six. Grieg studied including Tanks Upper Secondary School. In the summer of 1858, Grieg met the eminent Norwegian violinist Ole Bull, a family friend. Bull recognized the 15-year-old boy's talent and persuaded his parents to send him to the Leipzig Conservatory, the piano department of, directed by Ignaz Moscheles. Grieg enrolled in the conservatory, concentrating on the piano, enjoyed the many concerts and recitals given in Leipzig, he disliked the discipline of the conservatory course of study. An exception was the organ, mandatory for piano students. In the spring of 1860, he survived two life-threatening lung diseases and tuberculosis. Throughout his life, Grieg's health was impaired by a destroyed left lung and considerable deformity of his thoracic spine, he suffered from numerous respiratory infections, developed combined lung and heart failure. Grieg was admitted many times to spas and sanatoria both in Norway and abroad.
Several of his doctors became his personal friends. In 1861, Grieg made his debut as a concert pianist in Sweden. In 1862, he finished his studies in Leipzig and held his first concert in his home town, where his programme included Beethoven's Pathétique sonata. In 1863, Grieg went to Copenhagen and stayed there for three years, he met Niels Gade. He met his fellow Norwegian composer Rikard Nordraak, who became a good friend and source of inspiration. Nordraak died in 1866, Grieg composed a funeral march in his honor. On 11 June 1867, Grieg married Nina Hagerup, a lyric soprano; the next year, their only child, was born. Alexandra died in 1869 from meningitis. In the summer of 1868, Grieg wrote his Piano Concerto in A minor while on holiday in Denmark. Edmund Neupert gave the concerto its premiere performance on 3 April 1869 in the Casino Theatre in Copenhagen. Grieg himself was unable to be there due to conducting commitments in Christiania. In 1868, Franz Liszt, who had not yet met Grieg, wrote a testimonial for him to the Norwegian Ministry of Education, which led to Grieg's obtaining a travel grant.
The two men met in Rome in 1870. On Grieg's first visit, they went over Grieg's Violin Sonata No. 1, which pleased Liszt greatly. On his second visit in April, Grieg brought with him the manuscript of his Piano Concerto, which Liszt proceeded to sightread. Liszt's rendition impressed his audience, although Grieg pointed out to him that he played the first movement too quickly. Liszt gave Grieg some advice on orchestration. In 1874–76, Grieg composed incidental music for the premiere of Henrik Ibsen's play Peer Gynt, at the request of the author. Grieg had close ties with the Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra, became Music Director of the orchestra from 1880 to 1882. In 1888, Grieg met Tchaikovsky in Leipzig. Grieg was struck by the greatness of Tchaikovsky. Tchaikovsky thought highly of Grieg's music, praising its beauty and warmth. Grieg was awarded two honorary doctorates, first by the University of Cambridge in 1894 and the next from the University of Oxford in 1906; the Norwegian government provided Grieg with a pension.
In the spring of 1903, Grieg made nine 78-rpm gramophone recordings of his piano music in Paris. Grieg made live-recording player piano music rolls for the Hupfeld Phonola piano-player system and Welte-Mignon reproducing system, all of which survive today and can be heard, he worked with the Aeolian Company for its'Autograph Metrostyle' piano roll series wherein he indicated the tempo mapping for many of his pieces. In 1899, Grieg cancelled his concerts in France in protest of the Dreyfus Affair, an anti-semitic scandal, roiling French politics. Regarding this scandal, Grieg had written that he hoped that the French might, "Soon return to the spirit of 1789, when the French republic
Thomas Hansen Kingo was a Danish bishop and hymn-writer born at Slangerup, near Copenhagen. His work marked the high point of Danish baroque poetry, he belonged to a rather poor family of Scottish origin and was educated a clergyman. In his youth, Kingo wrote a series of poems picturing humorous scenes in village life and a pastoral love poem, Chrysillis, he studied theology at the University of Copenhagen, graduating in 1654, for some time acted as private tutor. In 1661 he was appointed vicar to the pastor at Kirke Helsinge, in 1668 he was ordained a minister at his native town, where his poetic activity began. At first he essayed patriotic poems, but devoted himself entirely to writing hymns, in 1674 the first part of his Aandelige Siunge-Koor appeared; this work consists of a collection of beautiful hymns several of which are still popular in the Danish Church. In 1677 Kingo was appointed bishop of Funen. Charged by the government with the compilation of a new hymn-book, he edited what became known as Kingo's hymnal, which contains eighty-five of his own compositions, and, still used in various parts of Denmark and Norway.
Some parts of the Danish rural population were sticking to his hymns during the pietist and rationalist period contributing to their survival. The same goes for the Faroe Islands, where his hymns have been in widespread use through most of the 20th century sung to quite complicated folk melodies, which may, however be traced back to Kingo’s melody collection, or Gradual, from 1699, as described by Marianne Clausen in her magnum opus about Faroese folk singing. Though not the first Danish hymn writer Kingo must be considered the first real important one and among the Danish poets of the 17th century he is a leading figure, his hymns are born by a forceful and Old Testamental wrath and renunciation of the world switching with Christian mildness and confidence. Both elements are thrown in relief by his private fighting nature, his worldly poems and patriotic songs are long-winded and marked by outer effects but in short version he is unequalled, as in his both plain and worthy commemorative poem of the naval hero Niels Juel.
Kingo's Passion Hymns