Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology. In the past the term "insect" was more vague, the definition of entomology included the study of terrestrial animals in other arthropod groups or other phyla, such as arachnids, earthworms, land snails, slugs; this wider meaning may still be encountered in informal use. Like several of the other fields that are categorized within zoology, entomology is a taxon-based category. Entomology therefore overlaps with a cross-section of topics as diverse as molecular genetics, biomechanics, systematics, developmental biology, ecology and paleontology. At some 1.3 million described species, insects account for more than two-thirds of all known organisms, date back some 400 million years, have many kinds of interactions with humans and other forms of life on earth. Entomology is rooted in nearly all human cultures from prehistoric times in the context of agriculture, but scientific study began only as as the 16th century. William Kirby is considered as the father of Entomology.
In collaboration with William Spence, he published a definitive entomological encyclopedia, Introduction to Entomology, regarded as the subject's foundational text. He helped to found the Royal Entomological Society in London in 1833, one of the earliest such societies in the world. Entomology developed in the 19th and 20th centuries, was studied by large numbers of people, including such notable figures as Charles Darwin, Jean-Henri Fabre, Vladimir Nabokov, Karl von Frisch, two-time Pulitzer Prize winner E. O. Wilson. There has been a history of people becoming entomologists through museum curation and research assistance, such as Sophie Lutterlough at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Insect identification is an common hobby, with butterflies and dragonflies being the most popular. Most insects can be recognized to order such as Hymenoptera or Coleoptera. However, insects other than Lepidoptera are identifiable to genus or species only through the use of Identification keys and Monographs.
Because the class Insecta contains a large number of species and the characteristics separating them are unfamiliar, subtle, this is very difficult for a specialist. This has led to the development of automated species identification systems targeted on insects, for example, Daisy, ABIS, SPIDA and Draw-wing. In 1994, the Entomological Society of America launched a new professional certification program for the pest control industry called the Associate Certified Entomologist. To qualify as a "true entomologist" an individual would require an advanced degree, with most entomologists pursuing a PhD. While not true entomologists in the traditional sense, individuals who attain the ACE certification may be referred to as ACEs or Associate Certified Entomologists. Many entomologists specialize in a single order or a family of insects, a number of these subspecialties are given their own informal names derived from the scientific name of the group: Coleopterology – beetles Dipterology – flies Odonatology – dragonflies and damselflies Hemipterology – true bugs Isopterology – termites Lepidopterology – moths and butterflies Melittology – bees Myrmecology – ants Orthopterology – grasshoppers, etc.
Trichopterology – caddis flies Vespology – Social wasps Like other scientific specialties, entomologists have a number of local and international organizations. There are many organizations specializing in specific subareas. Amateur Entomologists' Society Deutsches Entomologisches Institut Entomological Society of America Entomological Society of Canada Entomological Society of Japan Entomologischer Verein Krefeld Entomological Society of India International Union for the Study of Social Insects Netherlands Entomological Society Royal Belgian Entomological Society Royal Entomological Society of London Société entomologique de France Here is a list of selected museums which contain large insect collections. Zoological survey of India National Pusa Collection, Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India Pakistan Museum of Natural History Garden Avenue, Islamabad, Pakistan Natal Museum, South Africa Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, France Museum für Naturkunde, Germany Kelvingrove Art Gallery, Scotland Natural History Museum, Budapest Hungarian Natural History Museum Natural History Museum, Geneva Natural History Museum, the Netherlands Natural History Museum, United Kingdom Natural History Museum, Oslo Norway Natural History Museum, St. Petersburg Zoological Collection of the Russian Academy of Science Naturhistorisches Museum, Austria Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden The Bavarian State Collection of Zoology Zoologische Staatssammlung München World Museum Liverpool, the Bug House Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia American Museum of Natural History, New York City Auburn University Museum of Natural History, Ala
British Kaffraria was a British colony/subordinate administrative entity in present-day South Africa, consisting of the districts now known as King Williams Town and East London. The British Kaffraria was established in 1847 when the British colonisers occupying South Africa invaded the Transkei region between the Keiskamma and Great Kei rivers and declared it a Crown Colony. Just 17 years it was incorporate into the Cape Colony after the Xhosa people suffered from a great famine following the Xhosa cattle-killing movement of 1856-7 and required relief from the colonisers’ government; the term Kaffraria stems from the now offensive word "Kaffir", used as a term for the Black African inhabitants of southern Africa. The word is derived from the Arabic kafir, translated into English as "disbeliever" or "non-believer", i.e. a non-Muslim or "one without religion". The word was applied to non Muslims in general, therefore to non-Muslim black peoples encountered along the Swahili coast by Arab traders.
The word "Kaffraria" came to refer to the Xhosa lands in what is now the Eastern Cape. The western Xhosa lands which fell under British rule came to be known as "British Kaffraria", while the independent Xhosa territory to the east was known as "Kaffraria", it was inhabited by the Ngqika people, the major branch of the Rharhabe Xhosa. A subsection of British Kaffraria was reconstituted by the Apartheid regime as the semi-independent homeland of Ciskei. Similar to elsewhere in southern Africa, the aboriginal inhabitants of the area were the Khoisan hunter gatherers and herders. Early on, these peoples were displaced by the Bantu expansion, when it crossed the Kei river from the north; the area was consolidated under the rule of a branch of the Xhosa people. The native Xhosa were ruled by the Ngqika Chiefs: Ngqika ka Rarabe, 1797 – 13 November 1829 Mgolombane Sandile, 13 November 1829 – 1 June 1878 The territory came under British rule in the 19th century. However, there was great disagreement on how it should be governed, with the Cape Colony being reluctant to take responsibility for its administration.
Its status therefore changed several times before it became part of the Cape Colony. The territory’s administration was handled by a British military officer, appointed as the chief commissioner; each administrative chief was assisted by assistant commissioners who acted as magistrates and arbitrators among the several Xhosa tribes. The authority of the Xhosa chiefs was recognised to a limited degree since their decisions were subject to review by the colonial administration. Any decisions made by the Xhosa chiefs could be reversed if they were contrary to the British colonisers’ agenda; the Xhosa Chiefs had to acknowledge the Queen of England and recognise their own subordination to the appointed British military commander. British commander Harry Smith arrived in the Cape Of Good Hope in 1828 to lead the British army, he led a British force in the Sixth Xhosa War of 1834-36. He returned from India in 1847 to become the governor of the Cape Colony, he attempted to unseat Chief Sandile of the Ngqika people in British Kaffraria when the Mlanjeni War erupted in 1850.
The war lasted until 1853 after Smith was recalled. After the 6th Frontier War, on 10 May 1835, the area was seized by the British Governor Sir Benjamin d'Urban, annexed to the Cape Colony as Queen Adelaide Province, it was established when the Xhosa people were driven across the Kei River and a new buffer zone was established with white settlers maintaining the new order. The province was divided into small chiefdoms that were controlled by magistrates who lived in the various chiefs’ Great Places. A location for the new province's government was selected, named King William's Town; the province was declared to be for the settlement of loyal African tribes, those rebel tribes who agreed to replace their leadership, the Fengu, who had arrived fleeing from the Zulu armies and had been living under Xhosa subjection. Magistrates were appointed to administer the territory in the hope that they would with the help of missionaries, undermine tribal authority; the area was named after Queen Adelaide, the wife of King William IV.
When the brutality of the annexation was reported to the colonial office in England, authorities were expressed their disapproval of D’Urban’s processes. The British government, along with the rest of Europe, was in the wake of the Romantic Age in 1835 and prescribed to a philanthropic approach. Lord Glenelg, the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, stressed that the horrors of the war created by the British invaders in South Africa brought dishonour to the British name and "Queen Adelaide Province” would no longer be the name of the territory. Only a few months after its forcible joining to the Cape Colony, on 5 December 1835, the Cape Colony disallowed the annexation; the province's creation was condemned by London, as being uneconomical and unjust. Queen Adelaide was formally disannexed in December 1836, the Cape's border was re-established back at the Keiskamma river, new treaties were made with the chiefs responsible for order beyond the Fish River; the area was now renamed Queen Adelaide Land district, with Grahamstown as its capital.
Indigenous rule by and large re-established itself in much of the territory and the land remained a separate entity until 1847. After the 7th Frontier War, on 17 December 1847, the area was again seized by the new British Governor Ha
Lund is a city in the province of Scania, southern Sweden. The town had 91,086 inhabitants in 2017, out of a municipal total of 121,510 in 2018, it is the seat of Skåne County. Lund is believed to have been founded around 990. From 1103 it was the see of the Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Lund, the towering Lund Cathedral, built circa 1090–1145, still stands at the centre of the town; the city was ceded to Sweden in the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, its status as part of Sweden was formalised in 1720. Lund University, established in 1666, is today one of Scandinavia's oldest and largest institutions for education and research; the university and its buildings dominate much of the centre of the city, have led to Lund becoming a centre for high-tech industry in the south of Sweden. Lund is sometimes mentioned as the oldest town or city in present-day Sweden, although it has only been a formal Swedish city for 300 years of its at least thousand year long history. It's so old that its origins are unclear, but was existing by the end of the Viking Age.
Until the 1980s, the town was thought to have been founded around 1020 by either Sweyn I Forkbeard or his son Canute the Great of Denmark. The area was part of the kingdom of Denmark. But, recent archaeological discoveries suggest that the first settlement dated to circa 990 the relocation of settlers at Uppåkra; the Uppåkra settlement dates back to the first century B. C. and its remains are at the present site of the village of Uppåkra. King Sweyn I Forkbeard moved Lund to a distance of some five kilometres; the new location of Lund, on a hill and across a ford, gave the new site considerable defensive advantages in comparison with Uppåkra, situated on the highest point of a large plain. The city was made a see in 1048 and united with Dalby in 1060, in 1103 became the see of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Lund, whose ecclesiastical province comprised Scandinavia and Garðar on Greenland; the diocese of nearby Dalby was absorbed in 1066. Lund Cathedral was founded in or shortly after 1103. In 1152, the Norwegian archdiocese of Nidaros was founded as a separate province of the church, independent of Lund.
In 1164 Sweden acquired an archbishop of its own, although he was nominally subordinate to the archbishop of Lund. It is still, as the diocese of Lund, a diocese in the Church of Sweden. Lund Cathedral School was founded in 1085 by the Danish king Canute the Saint; this is one of the oldest in Northern Europe. Many prominent people were educated there, among them the actor Max von Sydow and several high-ranking politicians. Lund was ceded to Sweden in 1658 as part of the terms of the Treaty of Roskilde, it was recaptured by Denmark in 1676 during the early phases of the Scanian War. The exceptionally bloody Battle of Lund was fought just north of the city in 1679, ended in a decisive Swedish victory. Sweden's control over Scania, hence Lund, was formalised by treaty in 1720. Scandinavia's first University, the Academy of Lund was founded in 1425, it was suppressed during the Danish Reformation in 1536. The present Lund University was established in 1666. In 1943, during the Second World War, Lund was accidentally bombed by a British aircraft.
No deaths were reported. Over the second half of the 20th century the population of Lund more than doubled, driven in large part by the growth of the university and high-tech industries. For example, Tetra-Pak, the food packaging and processing company, was founded in Lund in 1952. Suburbs were added to the outer edges of the city: Klostergården, Norra fäladen and Linero in the 1960s, Norra Nöbbelöv in the 1970s, Gunnesbo in the 1980s and Värpinge in the 1990s. Lund is located in Sweden's largest agricultural district, in the south-west of Scania, less than ten kilometres from the sandy shore of the Öresund Strait, its location on the south-facing slope of the Romeleåsen horst leads to the city rising from the low-lying Höje River in the south to 86 metres above mean sea level in the north. From the top of the Sankt Hans Hill it is possible to see the capital of Denmark; the nearest large Swedish city, Malmö, is about 15 kilometres to the south-west. Other Swedish cities are more distant: Gothenburg is 250 kilometres away, the capital Stockholm is 600 kilometres distant, Umeå lies 1,200 kilometres to the north.
The central region of Lund retains its medieval street layout. A few buildings from the Middle Ages remain, including Lund Cathedral, Liberiet, St. Peter's Priory, the restaurant Stäket and Krognoshuset. Many of the buildings in the centre today were constructed in the late 1800s, including Katedralskolan, the Grand Hotel and the main building and library of Lund University. Lund city contains a number of squares; the main city square, Stortorget contains numerous shops. Mårtenstorget, located south-east of the main square, hosts a market during the daytime and is otherwise used for parking. In earlier times the square was known as Oxtorget. Alongside the railway and associated station are Bantorget, Knut den Stores Torg and Clementstorg; the latter hosts a small market and is planned to be the central terminus of the tramway under construction. Lund's most central park is Lundagård, together with the adjoining University square forms the centre of the University; the park is dominated by historic buildings including Lu
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC