Maria Stader was a Hungarian-born Swiss lyric soprano, known for her Mozart interpretations. Stader was born in Austria-Hungary, on November 5, 1911, as Maria Molnár. During and after World War I, the price of food in Budapest was so high that it was difficult for her parents to support their five children. Maria and her younger sister, were taken to Switzerland by The Salvation Army to recuperate for three months after being diagnosed with malnutrition. There, Maria's foster parents requested. However, once in Budapest again, Maria fell ill and it was determined she would need her tonsils operated on, her foster parents arranged. Because of difficulties with the immigration office, Maria could not remain in the canton of Zürich, so her foster father found her a place with the Stader family in Romanshorn, where there is the commemorative Maria-Stader path, they adopted her. In 1939, Stader married Hans Erismann, the music director of Weinfelden and the choir director of the Zürich Opera House. Through the husband of her vocal teacher, Mathilde Bärlocher, she met her husband.
Geyer herself was born in Budapest and had moved to Zürich in 1920. Another native of Budapest, Ilona Durigo, became her vocal teacher in 1935 in Zürich and introduced her to Hermann and Lily Reiff; the Reiffs' home was the frequent meeting place of Adolf Busch and his brother Hermann Busch, Thomas Mann and the entire ensemble of the Zürich Opera and Zürich Theater. Fritz Busch arranged for Stader to go to the Schnabel School in Tremezzo, run by the wife of Artur Schnabel, a few years later. From 1938 on, Stader received training from Giannina Arangi-Lombardi in Milan. Stader was a close friend of the Swiss politician Walther Bringolf, as well as of numerous musicians – pianist Clara Haskil and the Hungarian conductor Ferenc Fricsay, she was a friend of the French film director, Emil-Edwin Reinert and she corresponded with Albert Schweitzer. Stader first achieved fame for her interpretations of Mozart and her collaborations with conductor Ferenc Fricsay on works such as Don Giovanni, Le nozze di Figaro, The Abduction from the Seraglio, two versions of'Exsultate, jubilate' and the Great Mass, as well as Verdi's Messa da Requiem.
She won, the Geneva International Music Competition in 1939, but although she "seemed poised for major stardom... her career was delayed by the outbreak of World War II," according to Opera News. In her career, Stader acquired a reputation as an outstanding Bach interpreter with Karl Richter and Ferenc Fricsay, she recorded the Requiem by Antonín Dvořák with Karel Ančerl, Beethoven's opera Fidelio with Hans Knappertsbusch. Stader was praised for her fine, if not powerful, voice, she nearly always performed operatic roles in the recording studio and if on stage because of her small stature – she was about 1.44 metres tall. She preferred the concert repertory, but, "even in concert, she had to stand on a platform or box in order to be seen properly by the audience," according to Opera News; this enabled Stader to avoid the strain experienced by many operatic singers, preserve her fresh and delicate-sounding voice until well into the 1960s. She stood on the concert podium for the last time in Philharmonic Hall in New York in Mozart's Requiem on December 7, 1969, "still in solid vocal condition."
Her concert tours had taken her around the world. Besides Europe and America, she sang in Japan, South Africa, South America. Stader sang in various festivals, including the Salzburg Festival, the Lucerne Festival, at the Prades Festival and at the Aspen Music Festival, she sang under the leadership of many well-known conductors including Eugen Jochum, Josef Krips, Eugene Ormandy, George Szell, Carl Schuricht, Rafael Kubelík, Bruno Walter, Hermann Scherchen, Otto Klemperer, Ernest Ansermet and Dean Dixon. Until 1951, she taught at the Zürich Conservatory and held master classes there, she died in Zürich on April 27, 1999. 1939 – First place, Geneva International Music Competition 1950 – Lilli Lehmann Medal, International Mozarteum Foundation 1956 – Silver Mozart Medal of the International Mozarteum Foundation 1964 – Hans Georg Nägeli Medal by the Zürich City Council "Ferenc Fricsay", in: Diener der Musik. Unvergessene Solisten und Dirigenten unserer Zeit im Spiegel der Freunde. Published by Martin Müller and Wolfgang Mertz.
Tübingen, Rainer Wunderlich, 1965. "Zusammenarbeit mit Fricsay", in: Friedrich Herzfeld: Ferenc Fricsay. Ein Gedenkbuch. Berlin, Rembrand, 1964. Über Wilhelm Furtwängler, in: Furtwängler Recalled. Zürich, Atlantis, 1965. Biography with photographs Literature by and about Maria Stader in the German National Library catalogue Video interview with August Everding on YouTube Mozart Coronation Mass "Agnus Dei" Der Hirt auf dem Felsen
Elisabeth Sara “Elly” Ameling is a Dutch soprano, known internationally for lieder recitals and for singing works by Johann Sebastian Bach. Performing with notable pianists and ensembles around the globe, she was awarded honours and recording prizes. Ameling was born in Rotterdam, she sang with Pierre Bernac. She won the first prize during the Vocal Concours in's-Hertogenbosch in the Netherlands and the Concours International de Musique in Geneva. After her professional début as a concert singer in Rotterdam in 1953, she performed for more than forty years in every major cultural centre in the world, she appeared with most of the leading international orchestras and conductors, including Seiji Ozawa, André Previn, Wolfgang Sawallisch, Neville Marriner, Karl Münchinger and Edo de Waart. She made her career as a concert and lieder singer with some excursions into opera, became world-renowned for her recitals of French and German songs and for her superlative interpretive gifts, she has been at home in chamber music, orchestral music and oratorios.
Her operatic roles included Ilia in Mozart's Idomeneo, Fiordiligi in his Così fan tutte in 1958, Jacqueline in Messager's Fortunio in 1959, the Marchesa in Verdi's Un Giorno di Regno in 1974, She made her U. S. recital debut at New York's Lincoln Center in 1968 and her opera debut in 1974 as Ilia in Mozart's Idomeneo in Washington, D. C. In 1974, Ameling performed for the Peabody Mason Concert series in Boston. Contemporary works by her countrymen Bertus van Lier and Robert Heppener, are part of her large repertoire. Ameling has recorded more than 150 albums and has won many recording prizes, including The Edison Award, the Grand Prix du Disque and the Preis der deutschen Schallplattenkritik; when she retired in 1995, she was regarded as one of the most admired and recorded female lieder singers. For her services to music, Ameling has been awarded four honorary degrees and has been knighted, in 1971, by Her Majesty the Queen of The Netherlands to the Order of Orange-Nassau. In 2008, she received the highest civil decoration in the Netherlands, the Order of the Netherlands Lion.
In 2015, she was awarded the Hugo Wolf Medal of the International Hugo Wolf Academy in Stuttgart. Ameling's recordings focus with pianists and orchestras, she recorded two songs from Mahler's Des Knaben Wunderhorn with the English Chamber Orchestra conducted by Benjamin Britten at the 1969 Aldeburgh Festival. In 1970, she recorded Beethoven's Mass in C major with the New Philharmonia Chorus and Orchestra, conducted by Carlo Maria Giulini, alongside Janet Baker, Theo Altmeyer and Marius Rintzler, she recorded in 1979 Mahler Second and Fourth Symphony with the Netherlands Radio Chorus and the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra conducted by Bernard Haitink, the Second alongside Aafje Heynis. In 1985, she recorded the Schubert's complete incidental music to Rosamunde with the Rundfunkchor Leipzig and the Gewandhausorchester, conducted by Kurt Masur. Icon: Elly Ameling, The Dutch Nightingale, 2012, EMI Classics Elly Ameling 75 jaar, Live Concertopnamen 1957-1991, Nederlandse Omroep, 2008, Radio Broadcasts 1957-91, incl.
Richard Strauss Vier letzte Lieder, Van Omnium audiovisueel, GW 80003. The Artistry of Elly Ameling, Philips. Elly Ameling, After Hours... Songs by Gershwin, Porter, Prévert a.o.. Elly Ameling, Sentimental Me, Songs by Porter, Sondheim a.o.. Elly Ameling, Sweet Was The Song, international Christmas songs, EMI. Elly Ameling, The Early Recordings, DHM. Bach: Arias from Cantatas for soprano, oboe and b.c. Han de Vries, Albert de Klerk, Richte van der Meer, EMI. Bauern-, Kaffee-, Non sà che sia dolore, with Gerald English, Siegmund Nimsgern, Collegium Aureum, DHM. Ein feste Burg, Jauchzet Gott, Wachet auf, English Chamber Orchestra, Raymond Leppard, Deutsche Bachsolisten, Helmut Winschermann, Philips. Johannes-Passion, Stuttgarter Kammerorchester, Karl Münchinger, Decca. Matthäus-Passion, Stuttgarter Kammerorchester, Karl Münchinger, Decca. Magnificat / Osteroratorium, Stuttgarter Kammerorchester, Karl Münchinger, Decca. Weihnachtsoratorium, Stuttgarter Kammerorchester, Karl Münchinger, Decca. Berlioz: Les nuits d'été, Atlanta Symphony Orchestra, Robert Shaw, Telarc.
Brahms: Lieder, Rudolf Jansen, Hyperion. Fauré: Lieder, Complete Songs, with Gérard Souzay, Dalton Baldwin, Brilliant. Requiem, Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra, Jean Fournet, Philips. Grieg: Peer Gynt, San Francisco Symphony Orchestra, Edo de Waart, Philips. Handel: Messiah, Academy of St Martin-in-the-Fields, Neville Marriner, Decca. Elly Ameling sings Handel Haydn: Orlando Paladino, Orchestre de Chambre de Lausanne, Antal Dorati, Philips. Lieder, Jörg Demus, Brilliant Classics Mahler: Symphony No. 2 & Symphony No. 4, Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, Bernard Haitink, Philips. Martin: Le mystère de la nativité, Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, Ernest Ansermet, Cascavelle. Frank Martin interprète Frank Martin, with Frank Martin, Jecklin Disco. Mendelssohn: Elias, Gewandhausorchester, Wolfgang Sawallisch, Philips. Lieder, Rudolf Jansen, Sony BMG. Mozart Requiem, Wiener Philharmoniker, Istvan Kertesz, Decca. Mozart, Opern-und Konzertarien, Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra, Edo de Waart, PENTATONE; the complete Mozart-Edition Vol. 24, Philips.
Poulenc: Edition du centenaire 1899-1963, EMI Classics. Ravel: Mélodies-Lieder, Shéhérazade, Rudolf Jansen, Erato. Schubert, Dalton Baldwin, Rudolf Jansen, Philips. Schubert, Lieder, Jörg Demus, DHM. Schubert, Duette-Terzette-Quartette, wit
Julius Christian Stockhausen was a German singer and singer master. Stockhausen's parents, Franz Stockhausen Sr. harpist and composer, Margarethe Stockhausen née Schmuck, were musicians of some ability who recognized his talent and encouraged his development. Before he had reached his 20th year he was an excellent performer on the piano, organ and cello. In 1845 he entered the Conservatoire de Paris, where he studied piano with Charles Hallé and Camille-Marie Stamaty and singing with Manuel García. In 1849 he continued his studies with Garcia in London, he won fame as a remarkable concert singer. From 1862 to 1869 he resided in Hamburg as conductor of Singakademie, he spent the next five years in Stuttgart as Kammersänger to the King of Württemberg he became conductor of Stern's Gesangverein at Berlin, where he remained until 1878, being called to Hoch Conservatory at Frankfurt as professor of singing. Differences with Joachim Raff, the director, led to his resignation the following year and the establishment of his own school, which became world famous.
After Raff's death, Stockhausen continued his own school. Students of Stockhausen included Clarence Whitehill, Karl Perron, Anton Sistermans, Max Friedlaender, Jenny Hahn, Johan Messchaert, Hermine Spies, Horatio Connell and Hugo Goldschmidt, he wrote an excellent Gesangsmethode in 1884, translated into English by his pupil Sophie Löwe. His brother Franz Stockhausen Jr. was an eminent choral conductor. His daughter, Julia Wirth, née Stockhausen, married Joseph, son of the famous German violinist Emanuel Wirth, she was the author of Stockhausen's biography. Julius Stockhausens Gesangsmethode. Leipzig: C. F. Peters, 1884. Stockhausen, Julius. A Method of Singing. Translation: Sophie Löwe. London: Novello, Ewer and Co. 1884. Julius Stockhausens Gesangstechnik und Stimmbildung. Frankfurt am Main: C. F. Peters, 1886/87. Wirth, Julia. Julius Stockhausen: der Sänger des Deutschen Liedes. Frankfurt am Main: Englert/Schlosser, 1927. Stiftung Dr. Hoch's Konservatorium Joseph Hoch zum 100. Todestag, Frankfurt am Main: Kramer, 1974.
Cahn, Peter. Das Hoch'sche Konservatorium in Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main: Kramer, 1979. Biography in German The grave of Julius Stockhausen at the Ohlsdorfer Friedhof, Hamburg Julius Stockhausen's Gesangsmethode and A Method of Singing This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead
The clavichord is a European stringed rectangular keyboard instrument, used in the Late Middle Ages, through the Renaissance and Classical eras. It was used as a practice instrument and as an aid to composition, not being loud enough for larger performances; the clavichord produces sound by striking brass or iron strings with small metal blades called tangents. Vibrations are transmitted through the bridge to the soundboard; the name is derived from the Latin word clavis, meaning "key" and chorda meaning "string of a musical instrument". An analogous name is used in other European languages. Many languages have another name derived from Latin manus, meaning "hand". Other names refer to the monochord-like nature of a fretted clavichord. Italian used sordino, a reference to its quiet sound; the clavichord was invented in the early fourteenth century. In 1404, the German poem "Der Minne Regeln" mentions the terms clavicimbalum and clavichordium, designating them as the best instruments to accompany melodies.
One of the earliest references to the clavichord in England occurs in the privy-purse expenses of Elizabeth of York, queen of Henry VII, in an entry dated August 1502: Item. The same day, Hugh Denys for money by him delivered to a stranger that gave the queen a payre of clavycordes. In crowns form his reward iiii libres; the clavichord was popular from the 16th century to the 18th century, but flourished in German-speaking lands and the Iberian Peninsula in the latter part of this period. It had fallen out of use by 1850. In the late 1890s, Arnold Dolmetsch revived clavichord construction and Violet Gordon-Woodhouse, among others, helped to popularize the instrument. Although most of the instruments built before the 1730s were small, the latest instruments were built up to seven feet long with a six octave range. Today clavichords are played by Renaissance and Classical music enthusiasts, they attract many interested buyers, are manufactured worldwide. There are now numerous clavichord societies around the world, some 400 recordings of the instrument have been made in the past 70 years.
Leading modern exponents of the instrument have included Thurston Dart. The clavichord has gained attention in other genres of music, in the form of the Clavinet, an electric clavichord that uses a magnetic pickup to produce a signal for amplification. Stevie Wonder uses a Clavinet in many of his songs, such as "Superstition" and "Higher Ground". A Clavinet played through an instrument amplifier with guitar effect pedals is associated with funky, disco-infused 1970s rock. Guy Sigsworth has played clavichord in a modern setting with Björk, notably on the studio recording of "All Is Full of Love". Björk made extensive use of and played the instrument herself on the song "My Juvenile" of her 2007 album Volta. Tori Amos uses the instrument on "Little Amsterdam" from the album Boys for Pele and on the song "Smokey Joe" from her 2007 album American Doll Posse. Amos featured her use of the Clavinet on her 2004 recording "Not David Bowie", released as part of her 2006 box set, A Piano: The Collection.
In 1976 Oscar Peterson played songs from Bess on the clavichord. Keith Jarrett recorded an album entitled Book of Ways in which he plays a series of clavichord improvisations; the Beatles' "For No One" features Paul McCartney playing the clavichord. Rick Wakeman plays the Clavinet in the track "The Battle" from the album Journey to the Centre of the Earth. In the clavichord, strings run transversely from the hitchpin rail at the left-hand end to tuning pegs on the right. Towards the right end they pass over a curved wooden bridge; the action is simple, with the keys being levers with a small brass tangent, a small piece of metal similar in shape and size to the head of a flat-bladed screwdriver, at the far end. The strings, which are of brass, or else a combination of brass and iron, are arranged in pairs, like a lute or mandolin; when the key is pressed, the tangent strikes the strings above, causing them to sound in a similar fashion to the hammering technique on a guitar. Unlike in a piano action, the tangent does not rebound from the string.
The volume of the note can be changed by striking harder or softer, the pitch can be affected by varying the force of the tangent against the string. When the key is released, the tangent loses contact with the string and the vibration of the string is silenced by strips of damping cloth; the action of the clavichord is unique among all keyboard instruments in that one part of the action initiates the sound vibration while at the same time defining the endpoint of the vibrating string, thus its pitch. Because of this intimate contact between the player's hand and the production of sound, the clavichord has been referred to as the most intimate of keyboard instruments. Despite its many limitations, including low volume, it has considerable expressive power, the player being able to control attack, duration and provide certain subtle effects of swelling of tone and a type of vibr
Shura Cherkassky was an American classical pianist known for his performances of the romantic repertoire. His playing was characterized by a virtuoso singing piano tone. For much of his life, Cherkassky resided in London. Alexander Isaakovich Cherkassky was born in Odessa, Ukraine in 1909. Cherkassky's family fled to the United States to escape the Russian Revolution, his family was Jewish. Cherkassky's first music lessons were from his mother, Lydia Cherkassky, who once played for Tchaikovsky in St. Petersburg, she taught the pianist Raymond Lewenthal. In the United States, Cherkassky continued his piano studies at the Curtis Institute of Music under Josef Hofmann. Before studying with Hofmann, Cherkassky auditioned for Sergei Rachmaninoff, who advised him to give up performing for at least two years and to change the position of his hands at the keyboard. Conversely, Hofmann suggested Cherkassky should continue giving concerts, this long association with public performance meant that Cherkassky felt comfortable before an audience.
Hofmann recommended that he practice for four hours every day and Cherkassky did this religiously throughout his life, maintaining an extensive repertoire to an exacting standard. His studies and advisory sessions with Hofmann continued until 1935. In the interim he began his lifelong obsession with world travel with trips to Australia, New Zealand, the Far East and Europe. Cherkassky performed until the end of his life, many of his best recordings were made under live concert recital conditions. In the 1940s Cherkassky moved to California, he appeared at the Hollywood Bowl with conductors such as Sir John Barbirolli and Leopold Stokowski, he played the sound track for the Bette Davis 1946 film Deception. He played Stravinsky's Three Pieces from Petrushka for the composer, who advised him to use the'una corda' pedal for certain loud passages in order to obtain a particular special effect. Concert engagements were infrequent for Cherkassky in California during World War II. In 1946 he divorced two years later.
In 1949 he had a great success in Hamburg playing Rachmaninoff's Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini under Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt. This concert resulted in Cherkassky's popularity in Germany and Austria which lasted until the end of his life and confirmed him as one of the foremost pianists of the day, it was after his Wigmore Hall recital of 27 March 1957 that Cherkassky's career accelerated in the United Kingdom, following the death of his mother in Nice in 1961, he settled in London where he lived at The White House Hotel until his death in 1995. His career continued to flourish with appearances at all the great concert venues of the world: the Concertgebouw in Amsterdam, the Herkulessaal in Munich, the Philharmonie in Berlin, the Musikverein in Vienna, the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, at Suntory Hall in Tokyo, with all the world's great orchestras and conductors. Cherkassky's love of spontaneity and his dislike of a fixed standard performance meant that some conductors were reluctant to work with him.
With Cherkassky, there was no guarantee. Cherkassky's performing career lasted for over 70 years, yet it was only in the last few decades of his life that he was recognized as one of the greatest pianists - a re-creative genius who relished spontaneity, beauty of sound and the kaleidoscopic possibilities of the piano. Cherkassky died in London, aged 86, on 27 December 1995, he is buried in Highgate Cemetery, England. Over seven decades of his concert career, starting in the 1920s, Cherkassky made a large number of recordings for RCA Victor, Swedish Cupol label, HMV, DG, Tudor and Decca, he made his last recordings in May 1995, seven months before his death. These were a selection of Rachmaninov's pieces to act as fillers for his recording of Rachmaninov's Piano Concerto No. 3 made the previous year. Shura Cherkassky - Chopin Shura Cherkassky - Rachmaninoff Piano Concerto 3, Prokofiev Piano Concerto 2 Shura Cherkassky / Sir Georg Solti - Tchaikovsky, Cherkassky, Rimsky-Korsakov Shura Cherkassky - Rameau, Mendelssohn, Scriabin, Liszt Shura Cherkassky - Handel, Berg, Chopin Shura Cherkassky - Beethoven Piano Concerto 5, Gershwin Piano Concerto Shura Cherkassky - Mendelssohn, Schumann, Tchaikovsky arr.
Rachmaninov, Schumann arr. Tausig Kaleidoscope - Piano Encores Rachmaninoff - Piano Concerto No. 3 and others Vol.1 - Schubert. Chopin Vol.2 - 80th Birthday Recital from Carnegie Hall Vol.3 - Encores Vol.4 - Chopin: Sonata No.2 & 3 Vol.5 - Liszt Vol.6 - Schumann Vol.7 - Stravinsky, Ravel, etc. Vol.8 - Rachmaninoff, etc. Anton Rubinstein - Piano Concerto No. 4 in D minor, Op. 70 + Encores Tchaikovsky - Klavierkonzerte Nos. 1 & 2 Liszt - Orchestral Works Chopin - Polonaises Shura Cherkassky - The Historic 1940s Recordings (2-C
A clavicytherium is a harpsichord in which the soundboard and strings are mounted vertically facing the player. The primary purpose of making a harpsichord vertical is the same as in the upright piano, namely to save floor space. In a clavicytherium, the jacks move horizontally without the assistance of gravity, so that clavicytherium actions are more complex than those of other harpsichords. In any harpsichord, the strings are plucked by small plectra, held by jacks, which are thin strips of wood. In a standard harpsichord, the strings are placed horizontally and the jacks are vertical, thus to make the jack return to position is a simple matter of gravity. A clavicytherium must find some other means to make the jacks return. In some instruments, this is accomplished with a spring. Another possibility is to couple the jack mechanically to other portions of the action that do return by gravity, pulling the jacks back with them. Neither strategy is as simple as the direct vertical drop of the jacks in a standard harpsichord.
Indeed, finding a good design for a clavicytherium action is not easy, builders sought better solutions. Van der Meer writes, "no standard was devised, there are nearly as many variations of it as there are instruments in existence." Many designs were rather unsuccessful: Ripin reports that clavicytheria have "a heavy touch and unresponsive action". Describing the unusually fine clavicytheria of Delin, Kottick observes "the action feels quite good to the fingers, not a statement one can always make about a clavicytherium."A special property of clavicytheria is that the player is seated directly in front of the soundboard, at close range. Kottick notes, " all clavicytheria, close proximity to the soundboard provides the player with an overwhelming sense of sonic immersion." Indeed, the modern builder William Horn suggests that it is this esthetic end, not space-saving, the primary justification for making clavicytheria. In shape, clavicytheria were like ordinary harpsichords, with the left side longer than the right to accommodate the long bass strings.
Symmetrical clavicytheria were made, with two bentsides and the peak in the middle. The pyramidal design was a challenge to builders, as Ripin notes: "Difficulties arise, since the longer bass strings are in the middle and the treble strings are at the sides, system of intermediate levels is required to permit each key to play the correct string unless diagonal stringing is used."Except in the early period of their construction, clavicytheria were tall. William Horn warns potential buyers that they will need 280 cm. of room below their ceilings to accommodate his Delin replica. The Instrument Workshop, offering plans for a Delin-based instrument reduces its height to 262 cm. in order to "adapt Delin’s design to modern interiors". The earliest harpsichord known, dating from about 1470, is a clavicytherium, it may have been built in Ulm, resides in the musical instrument collection of the Royal College of Music in London. It is a small instrument with a short compass, just 41 notes; the apex forms a sharp edge.
Kottick observes that the RCM instrument resembles another clavicytherium found as a diagram in the work of Henri Arnaut de Zwolle. Ripin describes its "unique and simple action" thus: "the key, a vertical lever and the forward-projecting jack are all assembled into a single rigid piece; when the key is depressed the entire assembly rocks forward so that the jack is forced past its string. Indeed, since the harpsichord was invented before 1400, the RCM instrument reflects several decades of development. Clavicytheria are mentioned in Sebastian Virdung's 1511 work Musica Getutscht, the first surviving reference work on music, they are mentioned in the Syntagma Musicum of Michael Praetorius, the Harmonie universelle of Marin Mersenne, in the French Encyclopédie méthodique. Bartolomeo Cristofori, who invented the piano, built clavicytheria, of which one may survive. In the 18th century fine clavicytheria were made by Albert Delin, a Flemish builder who worked in Tournai. Chung describes his work thus: " succeeded in overcoming the difficulties of building an upright harpsichord better than any other builder.
His three instruments, which are considered by many to be the finest of all surviving clavicytheria, have an amazingly fine touch, achieved by a special action that upon the release of the keys allows the jacks to return without the need of springs or additional weights."The city of Dublin apparently enjoyed a vogue in the 18th century for clavicytheria, quality instruments were made by a number of builders. Instruments survive today built by Ferdinand Weber, Henry Rother, Robert Woffington; the instruments by Rother and Weber are pyramidal. The clavicytherium became temporarily extinct along with the horizontal harpsichord around the end of the 18th century; the 20th-century revival of the har
Karlheinz Stockhausen was a German composer acknowledged by critics as one of the most important but controversial composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries. A critic calls him "one of the great visionaries of 20th-century music", he is known for his groundbreaking work in electronic music, for introducing controlled chance into serial composition, for musical spatialization. He was educated at the Hochschule für Musik Köln and the University of Cologne studying with Olivier Messiaen in Paris and with Werner Meyer-Eppler at the University of Bonn. One of the leading figures of the Darmstadt School, his compositions and theories were and remain influential, not only on composers of art music, but on jazz and popular music, his works, composed over a period of nearly sixty years, eschew traditional forms. In addition to electronic music—both with and without live performers—they range from miniatures for musical boxes through works for solo instruments, chamber music and orchestral music, to a cycle of seven full-length operas.
His theoretical and other writings comprise ten large volumes. He received numerous prizes and distinctions for his compositions and for the scores produced by his publishing company, his notable compositions include the series of nineteen Klavierstücke, Kontra-Punkte for ten instruments, the electronic/musique-concrète Gesang der Jünglinge, Gruppen for three orchestras, the percussion solo Zyklus, the cantata Momente, the live-electronic Mikrophonie I, Stimmung for six vocalists, Aus den sieben Tagen, Mantra for two pianos and electronics, Inori for soloists and orchestra, the gigantic opera cycle Licht. He died of sudden heart failure on 5 December 2007 at his home in Kürten, Germany. Stockhausen was born in the "castle" of the village of Mödrath; the village, located near Kerpen in the Cologne region, was displaced in 1956 to make way for lignite strip mining, but the castle itself still stands. Despite its name, the building is not a castle at all, but rather was a manor house built in 1830 by a local businessman named Arend.
Because of its imposing size, locals began calling it Burg Mödrath. From 1925 to 1932 it was the maternity home of the Bergheim district, after the war it served for a time as a shelter for war refugees. In 1950, the owners, the Düsseldorf chapter of the Knights of Malta, turned it into an orphanage, but it was subsequently returned to private ownership and became a private residence again. In 2017, an anonymous patron purchased the house and opened it in April 2017 as an exhibition space for modern art, with the first floor to be used as the permanent home of the museum of the WDR Electronic Music Studio, where Stockhausen had worked from 1953 until shortly before WDR closed the studio in 2000, his father, Simon Stockhausen, was a schoolteacher, his mother Gertrud was the daughter of a prosperous family of farmers in Neurath in the Cologne Bight. A daughter, was born the year after Karlheinz, a second son, Hermann-Josef followed in 1932. Gertrud played the piano and accompanied her own singing but, after three pregnancies in as many years, experienced a mental breakdown and was institutionalized in December 1932, followed a few months by the death of her younger son, Hermann.
From the age of seven, Stockhausen lived in Altenberg, where he received his first piano lessons from the Protestant organist of the Altenberger Dom, Franz-Josef Kloth. In 1938 his father remarried, his new wife, had been the family's housekeeper. The couple had two daughters; because his relationship with his new stepmother was less than happy, in January 1942 Karlheinz became a boarder at the teachers' training college in Xanten, where he continued his piano training and studied oboe and violin. In 1941 he learned that his mother had died, ostensibly from leukemia, although everyone at the same hospital had died of the same disease, it was understood that she had been a victim of the Nazi policy of killing "useless eaters". The official letter to the family falsely claimed she had died 16 June 1941, but recent research by Lisa Quernes, a student at the Landesmusikgymnasium in Montabaur, has determined that she was gassed along with 89 other people at the Hadamar Euthanasia Centre in Hesse-Nassau on 27 May 1941.
Stockhausen dramatized his mother's death in hospital by lethal injection, in Act 1 scene 2 of the opera Donnerstag aus Licht. In the autumn of 1944, he was conscripted to serve as a stretcher bearer in Bedburg. In February 1945, he met his father for the last time in Altenberg. Simon, on leave from the front, told his son, "I'm not coming back. Look after things". By the end of the war, his father was regarded as missing in action, may have been killed in Hungary. A comrade reported to Karlheinz that he saw his father wounded in action. Fifty-five years after the fact, a journalist writing for the Guardian newspaper stated unequivocally, though without offering any fresh evidence, that Simon Stockhausen was killed in Hungary in 1945. From 1947 to 1951, Stockhausen studied music pedagogy and piano at the Hochschule für Musik Köln and musicology and Germ