Christen Andreas Fonnesbech
Christen Andreas Fonnesbech was a Danish politician. He was Council President of Denmark from 1874 to 1875 as the leader of the Cabinet of Fonnesbech
Danish Social Liberal Party
The Danish Social Liberal Party is a social-liberal political party in Denmark. The party is a member of Liberal International and the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe; the party was founded in 1905 as a split from the liberal Venstre Reform Party. The initial impetus was the expulsion of Venstre's antimilitarist wing from the party in January 1905; the expelled members held a founding conference for the new party in Odense, on 21 May 1905. In addition to the differences over military spending, the social liberals took a more positive view than Venstre towards measures that aimed to reduce social inequality; the party became the political leg of the cultural radical movement. The party was cautiously open to aspects of the welfare state, advocated reforms to improve the position of smallholders, an important early group of supporters; the party's social-liberal ideals are said to have been inspired by the political economists Henry George and John Stuart Mill. The literal translation "radical left" refers to its origin as the radical wing of its parent party Venstre In a modern context, this literal translation is somewhat misleading, as the party is in fact at the centre of the Danish political spectrum.
The use of the word for "left" in the name of the party is meant to refer to liberalism and not left-wing politics. Venstre was to the left of the conservative and aristocratic right-wing party Højre, which means "right"; the party president is Svend Thorhauge and it has eight members in the Folketing. The party's political leader is Morten Østergaard; the party performed well at the 2005 elections. It came out with 9.2 % of the popular vote and 17 seats in a gain of eight seats. In the 2007 elections, the party share of the popular vote fell to 5.1% and it lost 8 seats, leaving it a total of 9. In the subsequent 2011 elections, the party support rose to 9.5%, it regained 8 seats to resume a total of 17. Around 2005 the party was inspired by Richard Florida's book The Rise of the Creative Class; the party released their own book/political program called "Det kreative Danmark". Current issues high on the agenda for the party are: Strong opposition to the tight immigration policies of the former Liberal-Conservative government the 24 year rule.
Opposition to the educational policies of the former Liberal-Conservative government, which according to the party stresses centralisation, nationalised testing and old-fashioned educational ideas over creativeness, freedom in teaching methods and personal development of pupils. A major tax reform, which should simplify the tax system in such a way that income taxes will be reduced in favour of more environmental taxes, less tax deductions and higher taxes on real estate; the point of this is to make working more attractive and the hiring of service workers more attractive. This implies that the party is opposed to the Liberal-Conservative government's "tax freeze" which prohibits any tax increases, but changes of the taxation pattern. In 2007 some prominent members of the party criticised the strategy as being too left-leaning and depending too much on the Social Democrats. On 7 May 2007, MP Naser Khader and MEP Anders Samuelsen announced that they had left the party to found the economic liberal New Alliance renamed the Liberal Alliance, party along with Conservative MEP Gitte Seeberg.
During the following debate the party first distanced itself from the Social Democrats, but after being criticised internally for that too, returned to an oppositional role. On 6 January 2009 MP Simon Emil Ammitzbøll left the party and founded a new party called Borgerligt Centrum, again as a centre-right alternative. In June 2009 he joined Liberal Alliance. At a press release on 15 June 2007, it was announced that MP Margrethe Vestager would take over the leadership of the party after Marianne Jelved, that the party would rethink its strategy and will now consider forming a coalition government with either the left or right side of parliament. Vestager clarified during the run-up to the 2007 election that her party would only be supporting a government led by the Social Democrats. In the 2007 parliamentary elections, it received 5.1% of the vote, 9 out of 179 seats. In the 2011 parliamentary election, in which it ran as part of the "Red Bloc" with the Social Democrats, Socialist People's Party, Red-Green Alliance, it received 9.5% of the votes and went from 9 to 17 seats doubling its share of votes and of seats in the Folketing.
The party joined the new centre-left government led by incoming Prime Minister and Social Democrat leader Helle Thorning-Schmidt following the 2011 elections. The Danish Social Liberal Party has traditionally kept itself in the centre of the political scale. Since the early nineties, though, it has cooperated with the Social Democrats. Carl Theodor Zahle, Prime Minister 1909–1910 and 1913–1920, Erik Scavenius, Prime Minister 1942–1945, Hilmar Baunsgaard, Prime Minister 1968–1971, Trade Minister 1961–1964 Edvard Brandes, Finance Minister 1909–1910 and 1913–1920 Christopher Krabbe, Defence Minister 1909–1910 P. Munch, Minister of the Interior 1909–1910, Defence Minister 1913–1920, Foreign Minister 1929–1940 Poul Christensen, Agriculture Minister 1909–1910 Ove Rode, Minister of the Interior 1913
MS Hans Hedtoft
MS Hans Hedtoft was a Danish liner that struck an iceberg and sank on 30 January 1959 on her maiden voyage off the coast of Western Greenland. The only piece of wreckage found was a lifebelt; as of 2019, she remains the last known ship sunk by an iceberg with casualties. Hans Hedtoft was 82.65 metres long, with a depth of 6.43 metres. She was assessed at 2,875 GRT, 1,368 NRT. Hans Hedtoft was built by Frederikshavns Værft at Frederikshavn in northern Denmark, she was yard number 226, completed on 17 December. She had an armoured bow and stern, she was designed to provide a year-round service between Greenland. Like the RMS Titanic, Hans Hedtoft had a riveted hull, a feature, criticised by Knud Lauritzen, a shipowner. Lauritzen claimed. Hans Hedtoft had the Code Letters and radio callsign OXKA; the ship was named for a former prime minister of Denmark. The ship was armed with three 40 mm anti-aircraft guns, on the orders of the Danish Ministry of Defence; the armament was not part of the original plans, the ship was strengthened in three places to take the guns.
An ammunition room was built into the bow of the ship. The MoD provided the anti-aircraft guns free of charge. Although fitted during tests, the guns were dismounted and carried aboard Hans Hedtoft at the time of her sinking. An order had been issued that the guns were to be removed from the ship after she arrived back in Copenhagen, it was claimed that the arming of Hans Hedtoft resulted in a warship being constructed without the approval of the Folketing. Hans Hedtoft sailed from Copenhagen on her maiden voyage on 7 January 1959, her voyage to Julianehaab, was made in record time. Hans Hedtoft called at Nuuk and Maniitsoq before returning to Julianehaab. On 29 January, she began her return journey; the ship had 40 crew, 55 passengers and a cargo of frozen fish on board and in addition to that 3,25 tons of archives concerning Greenlandic history. One of her passengers was the Danish parliament member Augo Lynge; the next day, Hans Hedtoft collided with an iceberg about 35 miles south of Cape Farewell, the southernmost point of Greenland.
A distress call was given at 13:56 stating that the ship had hit an iceberg at 59°30′N 43°00′W. The call was answered by the USCGC Campbell, the West German trawler Johannes Krüss of Bremerhaven and another West German trawler. Within an hour, another message was sent stating. At 15:12, it was announced. A final message was sent at 17:41 stating the ship was sinking and requesting immediate assistance. Aircraft in Newfoundland were grounded by the weather and unable to assist in the search for Hans Hedtoft; the beginning of an SOS was received by Johannes Krüss at 17:41 after which communication with Hans Hedtoft was lost. On 31 January, USCGC Campbell reported that conditions were the worst seen and there was no sign of Hans Hedtoft or her passengers and crew; the search was called off on 7 February. The only piece of wreckage recovered was a lifebuoy which washed ashore on Iceland and discovered on 7 October 1959, some nine months after the ship sank; the ship sank with parish registers from parishes of Greenland, which were meant to be deposited in archives in Denmark, causing a major loss for Greenlandic genealogy.
As a result of the sinking, the airfield at Narsarsuaq, which had closed in November 1958, was reopened. An appeal fund for the relatives of the victims was opened. Kr40,000 was raised amongst ten countries in two months. Compensation for the relatives amounted to Kr1,184,936. Like the RMS Titanic, Hans Hedtoft was said to be the safest ship afloat, being described as "unsinkable" by some. On 30 January 2005, Queen Margrethe unveiled a monument at North Atlantic Wharf, Copenhagen, to the 95 people lost on Hans Hedtoft; the shipwreck is the theme of the 2014 song "All Hope Abandon" by the Greenlandic band Small Time Giants. Projekt Hans Hedtoft 1959–2009 Overview and pictures LIFE Magazine Feb. 16, 1959
Jacob Brønnum Scavenius Estrup
Jacob Brønnum Scavenius Estrup, was a Danish politician, member of the Højre party. He was Interior Minister from 1865 to 1869 in the Cabinet of Frijs and Council President as well as Finance Minister from 1875 to 1894 as the leader of the Estrup Cabinet. With 23 years he is the longest sitting Danish minister ever. From a Danish historical perspective, he is most famous for the so-called "Provisorietiden" 1885-1894. After a huge defeat in the 1884 Folketinget parliamentary election, in which the Højre party only gained 19 out of 102 seats, he refused to resign as Head of Government, he wasn't able to get parliamentary support for the imperative annual Financial Laws, he instead managed to bring about King Christian IX's support for Provisional Financial Laws. This included support from the so-called Landstinget as well; the Landstinget was a smaller assembly of politicians, of which half of its members were chosen by the Monarch. A reason to why the Monarch agreed to nine such annual provisional laws, the King and Estrup both believed in the building of the Copenhagen defense wall, at the time known as "Vestencienten".
Estrup was son of the landowner Hector Frederik Janson Estrup, inherited the estate Kongsdal in Holbæk amt in 1846. In 1852 he bought the estate Skaføgård in Randers amt; as Interior Minister in the Cabinet of Frijs Estrup took control of the railroads of Jutland and Funen, ceded to an English consortium in 1861. He expanded the railroads in Vendsyssel and built new lines from Skanderborg to Silkeborg and along the west coast of Jutland to Esbjerg, earning him the nickname "Railway Minister", he built up the harbour in Esbjerg, which turned into an important center for exports. In 1869 he was forced to step down from his post because of health problems. In 1875 Estrup was able to replace Christen Andreas Fonnesbech as Council President and form the Cabinet of Estrup. Estrup himself took the post as Finance Minister the most important post as Denmark was economically worn down after the Second War of Schleswig. In 1877 Estrup was unable to secure support for his budget bill in Folketinget, as demanded by the Danish Constitution, but chose instead to issue it as a provisional law.
This happened in the years 1885 to 1894, the so-called provisorietid. Among others he was opposed by the Venstre leaders Christen Viggo Hørup; when an assassination attempt failed on 21 October 1885, Estrup responded by passing various laws restricting the press, restricting the right to own arms, broadening the powers of the police. In 1894, Venstre and Estrup's Højre cooperated to pass a budget bill, Estrup resigned, he would not hold any future offices as minister, but retained significant influence in the following governments formed by Højre. Biography - From Museums in Copenhagen. Biography - From the Danish Biographical Lexicon, scanned by Project Runeberg. Contemporary drawing showing the assassination attempt on Estrup. Original: Woodcut, Illustreret Tidende 25 October 1885
H. C. Hansen
Hans Christian Svane Hansen known as H. C. Hansen or H. C. was a social democrat and Prime Minister of Denmark from 29 January 1955 to 19 February 1960 as the head of the Cabinet of H. C. Hansen I and II. Before becoming Prime Minister, H. C. Hansen served as Finance Minister in the Cabinet of Hans Hedtoft I and Foreign Minister in the Cabinet of Hans Hedtoft II. Hansen was trained as a typographer, he was a secretary and chairman in the Social Democratic Youth and became a member of parliament in 1936. As Foreign Minister, H. C. Hansen was seen as the natural successor as Prime Minister and leader of the Social Democrats, when his friend Hans Hedtoft died of a heart attack on 29 January 1955. In addition to becoming Prime Minister, H. C. Hansen retained the post as Foreign Minister until 1958. Amongst the laws passed by this government included the universal people's pension and the enactment of agricultural price supports; the law on assistance to single mothers of April 1955 introduced special assistance for widows with children and certain other categories of single women, while under the Accident Insurance Act of 1959, an independent board of appeal was set up, waiting times were reduced, compensation for survivors was converted from lump sums into running benefits, the scheme extended to cover occupational diseases.
Under a law on relations between trade union a and employers’ associations, passed in April 1956, as an offshoot of collective agreement on the labour market, a new scheme provided sickness cash benefits higher than in the existing health insurance scheme. The new scheme only covered members of trade unions and those employed by members of the Danish Employers’ Association. In addition, under the Apprenticeship Act of September 1956, theoretical training was introduced at technical schools as part of apprenticeship training. In 1956, universal pension coverage in Denmark was introduced, while the Survivors’ Pension Act of March 1959 introduced a general survivors’ pension scheme, including specific provisions for single women having reached age 60. In 1959, a law was enacted that led to the establishment of the Mental Retardation Service and a decentralised regional system of services for those with intellectual disabilities; that same year, an extension of covered occupational diseases in work injury compensation was carried out.
In 1958, an education reform was enacted. In March 1957 it had been 4 years since the last election to the Folketing, as mandated by the Danish constitution new elections were held. After the election H. C. Hansen was able to partner with the Danish Social Liberal Party and Retsforbundet to form the Cabinet of H. C. Hansen II known as the Triangle Cabinet. On 25 March 1957 France, West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg signed the Treaty of Rome to create the European Economic Community. To not be left behind the Danish government first wanted to join a Nordic free trade organization, but that failed and Denmark joined the EFTA on 3 May 1960 instead. Unlike his successors as Social Democratic leaders and prime minister, Hansen did not support Denmark joining the European Economic Community that took place in 1972. H. C. Hansen died from cancer on 19 February 1960, was succeeded by Viggo Kampmann in the Social Democratic party and as Prime Minister, he was the second Danish prime minister in a row to die while in office.
1968 Thule Air Base B-52 crash Kristian Hvidt, Statsministre i Danmark fra 1913 til 1995 Encyclopædia Britannica Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey Donald F. Busky Growth to Limits: The Western European Welfare States Since World War II, Volume 4 edited by Peter Flora https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=c-T9pxsRthMC&pg=PA56&dq=Denmark+universal+pensions+1956&hl=en&sa=X&ei=EvxgVZfcHuiO7AaG6YHQBw&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Denmark%20universal%20pensions%20 https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=F16VaIYewIEC&pg=PA200&dq=26.9.56+%28no.258%29+denmark&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ZsxgVej8Ncq57gbXpoPoBw&ved=0CCEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=26.9.56%20%20denmark&f=false https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=DM7vy5N7aTIC&pg=PT154&dq=Denmark+Law+on+care+mentally+handicapped+1959&hl=en&sa=X&ei=lv1gVd2uIOKp7AbnvYLABQ&ved=0CFcQ6AEwCTgK#v=onepage&q=Denmark%20Law%20on%20care%20mentally%20handicapped%201959&f=false https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=KcM894dMoFcC&pg=PA302&dq=denmark+Unemployment+benefits+substantially+increased+and+indexed+%281967%29&hl=en&sa=X&ei=aYtnVZy1B4a2swGGpICAAg&ved=0CCQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=denmark%20Unemployment%20benefits%20substantially%20increased%20and%20indexed%20&f=false https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=EvYxzGNPrvAC&pg=PA40&dq=denmark+1958+school+years&hl=en&sa=X&ei=RLxcVdK8O8z0UtbYgNAN&ved=0CDgQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=denmark%201958%20school%20years&f=false
Adam Wilhelm Moltke
Adam Wilhelm, Greve Moltke was Prime Minister of Denmark from 1848 to 1852. He was the first Danish Prime Minister in the Danish constitutional monarchy outlined in 1848 and signed as the Danish Constitution on 5 June 1849 by Frederik VII of Denmark. Adam Wilhelm Moltke was born at Einsiedelsborg on the island of Funen on 25 August 1785, the son of Prime Minister Joachim Godske Moltke, his paternal grandfather was Adam Gottlob Moltke, the influential Lord Steward and companion of Frederik V of Denmark. He was no outstanding political figure. From 1845, he was Minister of Financial Affairs. At the fall of the last absolute government, he too was dismissed but, a few days he was persuaded to form the new national government as the most suitable leader both as for his social position and as for his moderate views; the cabinet created on 22 March 1848 was called the March Cabinet. On 16 November 1848 it was replaced by the November Cabinet, which in turn was replaced by the July Cabinet on 13 July 1851, which again was replaced by the October Cabinet on 18 October 1851.
The cabinet a Conservative-Liberal one became more and more conservative both because of the general liberal withdrawal and because of foreign pressure. On 27 January 1852, Christian Albrecht Bluhme replaced Moltke as Prime Minister. Molke was married twice. First to Frederikke Louise Knuth. After the death of his first wife, he married the sister of the first wife, they were the parents of: Frederik Moltke Christian Moltke, who married Caroline Amalie komtesse Danneskiold in 1865. Adam Wilhelm Moltke died on 15 February 1864 in Copenhagen and is buried in the Moltke burial chapel in Karise Church in the town Karise, located in Faxe Municipality. Notes Sources This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Bain, Robert Nisbet. "Moltke, Adam Wilhelm, Count". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. P. 677
Anders Sandøe Ørsted
Anders Sandøe Ørsted was a Danish lawyer and jurist. He served as the Prime Minister of Denmark in 1853–1854, he studied philosophy and law at Copenhagen and was admitted to the bar in 1799. He became a noted jurist. An early case overseen by him was that of Hans Jonatan, an escaped slave, a major test case in Danish law on slavery. Early, he was connected to the national administration, from 1825 to 1848, he was “generalprokurør”, he drew up the constitution granted in 1831. He was cabinet minister 1842-48, from October 1853 to December 1854 was prime minister, he was forced to resign from his office as prime minister by his unpopular conservatism, a distinct departure from his earlier politics. In 1855, he was impeached on the charge of breaking the constitution, but he was acquitted and retired to private life, he is considered one of the most important jurists in 19th century Danish legal history. He was a pioneer of connecting jurisprudence and practice, both as a judge and as an author, he worked on making practice the foundation of legislation.
His political career was one of paradoxes. As a royal councillor of the absolute monarchy, he was rather liberal and tolerant and therefore unpopular with the more conservative elements; as the opposition grew stronger however, he became more conservative and as prime minister, he was considered a full-blood reactionary. His attempt to charter a conservative constitution led to cooperation between the king and the liberals that forced him to resign. Throughout his career Ørsted was a prolific writer. Among other things he wrote on Kantian and Hegelian philosophy, on Danish and Norwegian law, on Scandinavian politics and left an autobiography, he was the editor of several journals, most notable Juridisk Arkiv, Nyt Juridisk Arkiv and Juridisk Tidsskrift, as well as the official government periodical publication Collegial-Tidende. He was the brother of the famous physicist Hans Christian Ørsted, uncle of the botanist Anders Sandøe Ørsted. Dansk Biografisk Leksikon, vol. 16, 1984. Svend Thorsen: De danske ministerier, vol 1.
Copenh. 1967. Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Oersted, Anders Sandöe". Encyclopedia Americana