California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
History of radar
The history of radar started with experiments by Heinrich Hertz in the late 19th century that showed that radio waves were reflected by metallic objects. This possibility was suggested in James Clerk Maxwell's seminal work on electromagnetism. However, it was not until the early 20th century that systems able to use these principles were becoming available, it was German inventor Christian Hülsmeyer who first used them to build a simple ship detection device intended to help avoid collisions in fog. Numerous similar systems, which provided directional information to objects over short ranges, were developed over the next two decades; the development of systems able to produce short pulses of radio energy was the key advance that allowed modern radar systems to come into existence. By timing the pulses on an oscilloscope, the range could be determined and the direction of the antenna revealed the angular location of the targets; the two, produced a "fix", locating the target relative to the antenna.
In the 1934–1939 period, eight nations developed independently, in great secrecy, systems of this type: the United Kingdom, the United States, the USSR, the Netherlands and Italy. In addition, Britain shared their information with the United States and four Commonwealth countries: Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, these countries developed their own radar systems. During the war, Hungary was added to this list; the term RADAR was coined in 1939 by the United States Signal Corps as it worked on these systems for the Navy. Progress during the war was rapid and of great importance one of the decisive factors for the victory of the Allies. A key development was the magnetron in the UK, which allowed the creation of small systems with sub-meter resolution. By the end of hostilities, Germany, the United States, the USSR, Japan had a wide diversity of land- and sea-based radars as well as small airborne systems. After the war, radar use was widened to numerous fields including: civil aviation, marine navigation, radar guns for police and medicine.
Key developments in the post-war period include the travelling wave tube as a way to produce large quantities of coherent microwaves, the development of signal delay systems that led to phased array radars, ever-increasing frequencies that allow higher resolutions. Increases in signal processing capability due to the introduction of solid state computers has had a large impact on radar use; the place of radar in the larger story of science and technology is argued differently by different authors. On the one hand, radar contributed little to theory, known since the days of Maxwell and Hertz. Therefore, radar did not advance science, but was a matter of technology and engineering. Maurice Ponte, one of the developers of radar in France, states: The fundamental principle of the radar belongs to the common patrimony of the physicists, but others point out the immense practical consequences of the development of radar. Far more than the atomic bomb, radar contributed to the Allied victory in World War II.
Robert Buderi states that it was the precursor of much modern technology. From a review of his book:... radar has been the root of a wide range of achievements since the war, producing a veritable family tree of modern technologies. Because of radar, astronomers can map the contours of far-off planets, physicians can see images of internal organs, meteorologists can measure rain falling in distant places, air travel is hundreds of times safer than travel by road, long-distance telephone calls are cheaper than postage, computers have become ubiquitous and ordinary people can cook their daily dinners in the time between sitcoms, with what used to be called a radar range. In years radar was used in scientific instruments, such as weather radar and radar astronomy. In 1886–1888 the German physicist Heinrich Hertz conducted his series of experiments that proved the existence of electromagnetic waves, predicted in equations developed in 1862–4 by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell. In Hertz's 1887 experiment he found that these waves would transmit through different types of materials and would reflect off metal surfaces in his lab as well as conductors and dielectrics.
The nature of these waves being similar to visible light in their ability to be reflected and polarized would be shown by Hertz and subsequent experiments by other physicists. Radio pioneer Guglielmo Marconi noticed radio waves were being reflected back to the transmitter by objects in radio beacon experiments he conducted on March 3, 1899 on Salisbury Plain. In 1916 he and a British engineer called Charles Samuel Franklin used short-waves in their experiments, critical to the practical development of radar, he would relate his findings 6 years in a 1922 paper delivered before the Institution of Electrical Engineers in London: I described tests carried out in transmitting a beam of reflected waves across country... and pointed out the possibility of the utility of such a system if applied to lighthouses and lightships, so as to enable vessels in foggy weather to locate dangerous points around the coasts... It seems to me that it should be possible to design apparatus by means of which a ship could radiate or project a divergent beam of these rays in any desired direction, which rays, if coming across a metallic object, such as another steamer or ship, would be reflected back to a receiver screened from the local transmitter on the sending ship, the
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications
The Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications, Heinrich Hertz Institute, HHI known as Fraunhofer HHI or Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute, is an organization of the Fraunhofer Society based in Berlin. The institute engages in applied research and development in the fields of physics, electrical engineering and computer sciences; the Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute develops mobile and stationary broadband communication networks and multimedia systems. Focal points of independent and contract research conducted by Fraunhofer HHI are photonic components and systems, fiber optic sensor systems, image signal processing and transmission. Future applications for broadband networks are developed as well. Research in this area focuses on 3D displays, UHD panorama video production, human-machine interaction through gesture control, optical satellite communication and data transmission technologies such as visible light communications. Scientists at the institute work together with national and international research and industry partners.
For example, institute researchers were and are involved in the development of the H.264 AVC video compression standard and its successor H.265 HEVC as part of the Moving Picture Experts Group and the Video Coding Experts Group. Work on the various video compression standards received the Technology and Engineering Emmy award multiple times; the research and development work of the Fraunhofer HHI takes place in six departments. The research focus of the Photonic Networks and Systems department are high-performance optical transmission systems for use in in-house, metropolitan, wide-area and satellite communication networks; the focus is on increasing the capacity as well as improving energy efficiency. The Photonic Components department develops optoelectronic semiconductor components as well as integrated optical circuits for data transmission. Another focus is on infrared sensor systems, terahertz spectroscopy and high-performance semiconductor lasers for industrial and medical applications.
The research on novel photonic sensors used in measuring and control systems for early hazard detection, energy management and medical technology is a focus of the Fiber Optical Sensor Systems department. The sensors are characterized by extreme miniaturization, excellent communication and network capabilities and high energy efficiency; the research focus of the Wireless Communications and Networks department is on radio-based information transmission. The department provides contributions to the theory and technical feasibility of radio systems and develops hardware prototypes; this is supplemented by scientific studies and evaluations at the link and system levels. The Video Coding & Analytics department is researching the efficient encoding, transport and analysis of video signals as well as machine learning; the focus in the Vision & Imaging Technologies department is on complex 2D/3D analysis and synthesis methods, on computer vision as well as innovative camera, sensor and projection systems.
The department is researching for the entire video processing chain from content creation to playback. Fraunhofer HHI employees hold professorships at the following universities: Technical University of Berlin Clausthal University of Technology Humboldt University of Berlin University of Potsdam Fraunhofer HHI is a member of the following internal Fraunhofer groups and alliances Fraunhofer ICT Group Fraunhofer Group for Microelectronics Fraunhofer Group for Defense and Security Fraunhofer Alliance Ambient Assisted Living Fraunhofer Alliance Big Data Fraunhofer Innovation Cluster Secure Identity Fraunhofer Innovation Cluster Life Cycle Engineering Fraunhofer Alliance Digital Media Fraunhofer Alliance Embedded Systems Fraunhofer Alliance Vision The 2015 total budget of Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute was around EUR 49,2 million; the external funding ratio was 75 percent. 49,8 percent of the budget came from industrial revenues, 13 percent from federal and state contract research, 6,5 percent from funds provided by the European Union.
Around 270 employees and 140 students worked at the institute in 2015. The founding phase of the Heinrich Hertz Institute began on August 1, 1927 with the written intention of the Study Society for Oscillation Research to establish an institute for the research on electrical and acoustic oscillation at the Technical University of Berlin. Members of this society were the German Reichspost, the Prussian Ministry of Science and National Education, the Reichs-Rundfunk-Gesellschaft, the Technische Hochschule zu Berlin, the large corporations of the electrical industry, the German Electrical Engineering Association; the institute was founded on February 23, 1928 as Heinrich Hertz Institute for Oscillation Research. The opening took place in 1930 in Berlin-Charlottenburg, Franklinstrasse 1, with the 4 departments: High-Frequency Engineering, Telecommunications and Telegraph Technology and Mechanics. Research focused on radio and television technology, room acoustics and electronic music among other things.
The institute was reorganized in 1936 and the name Heinrich Hertz was wiped out from its designation in the course of National Socialist "cleansing" in the interest of the Third Reich. After the institute building was destroyed in 1945, the Heinrich Hertz Institute for Oscillation Research was newly founded in the same year by Gustav Leithäuser with the former department structure. During the time of the currency reform and Berlin Blockade in 1950, the institute was split into an eastern section (Berlin-Adlers
Telefunken was a German radio and television apparatus company, founded in Berlin in 1903, as a joint venture of Siemens & Halske and the Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft. The name "Telefunken" appears in: the product brand name "Telefunken". H. System Telefunken, founded 1903 in Berlin as a subsidiary of Siemens & Halske. H.. KG" in Heilbronn, Germany. L." The company Telefunken USA was incorporated in early 2001 to provide restoration services and build reproductions of vintage Telefunken microphones. Around the start of the 20th century, two groups of German researchers worked on the development of techniques for wireless communication; the one group at AEG, led by Adolf Slaby and Georg Graf von Arco, developed systems for the Kaiserliche Marine. Their main competitor was the British Marconi Company; when a dispute concerning patents arose between the two companies, Kaiser Wilhelm II urged both parties to join efforts, creating Gesellschaft für drahtlose Telegraphie System Telefunken joint venture on 27 May 1903, with the disputed patents and techniques invested in it.
On 17 April 1923, it was renamed The Company for Wireless Telegraphy. Telefunken was the company's telegraphic address; the first technical director of Telefunken was Count Georg von Arco. Telefunken became a major player in the radio and electronics fields, both civilian and military. During World War I, they supplied radio sets and telegraphy equipment for the military, as well as building one of the first radio navigation systems for the Zeppelin force; the Telefunken Kompass Sender operated from 1908 to 1918, allowing the Zeppelins to navigate throughout the North Sea area in any weather. Starting in 1923, Telefunken built broadcast transmitters and radio sets. In 1928, Telefunken made history by designing the V-41 amplifier for the German Radio Network; this was the first two-stage, "Hi-Fi" amplifier. Over time, Telefunken perfected their designs and in 1950 the V-72 amplifier was developed; the TAB V-72 soon became popular with recording facilities. The V-72S was the only type of amplifier found in the REDD.37 console used by the Beatles at Abbey Road Studios on many of their early recordings.
In 1932, record players were added to the product line. In 1941, Siemens transferred its Telefunken shares to AEG as part of the agreements known as the "Telefunken settlement", AEG thus became the sole owner and continued to lead Telefunken as a subsidiary. During the Second World War, Telefunken was a supplier of vacuum tubes and radio relay systems, developed Funkmess facilities and directional finders, as part of the German air defence against aerial bombing. During the war, manufacturing plants were developed in west of Germany or relocated. Thus, under AEG, turned into the smaller subsidiary, with the three divisions realigning and data processing technology, elements as well as broadcast and phono. Telefunken was the originator of the FM radio broadcast system. Telefunken, through the subsidiary company Teldec, was for many decades one of the largest German record companies, until Teldec was sold to WEA in 1988. In 1959, Telefunken established a modern semiconductor works in Heilbronn, where in April 1960 production began.
The works was expanded several times, in 1970 a new 6-storey building was built at the northern edge of the area. At the beginning of the 1970s it housed 2,500 employees. In 1967, Telefunken was merged with AEG, renamed to AEG-Telefunken. In the beginning of the 1960s, Walter Bruch developed the PAL-colour television system for the company, in use by most countries of the western Hemisphere. PAL is established i.e. in the United Kingdom and, except France, many other European countries - in Brazil, South Africa and Australia. The mainframe computer TR 4 was developed at Telefunken in Backnang, the TR 440 model was developed at Telefunken in Konstanz, including the first ball-based mouse named Rollkugel in 1968; the computers were in use at many German university computing centres from the 1970s to around 1985. The development and manufacture of large computers was separated in 1974 to the Konstanz Computer Company; the production of mini- and process computers was integrated into the automatic control engineering division of AEG.
When AEG was bought by Daimler in 1985, "Telefunken" was dropped from the company name. In 1995, Telefunken was sold to Tech Sym Corporation for $9 million. However, Telefunken remained a German company. In the 1970s and early 1980s, Telefunken was instrumental in the development of high quality audio noise reduction sy