Order of the Cross of the Eagle
The Order of the Cross of the Eagle was instituted in 1928 by the Estonian Defence League to commemorate the tenth anniversary of Estonian independence. It was adopted as a state order in 1936; the Order of the Cross of the Eagle is bestowed to give recognition for military services and services in the field of national defence. It is awarded in military divisions; the awards made to members of the military are denoted by the addition of crossed swords to the decoration. The Order of the Cross of the Eagle comprises eight classes: Five basic classes - 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th class; the colour tone of the orange moiré ribands belonging to the decorations of all the classes of the Order of the Cross of the Eagle is determined according to the international PANTONE colour-table as 137 MC. The Order of the Cross of the Eagle is a military decoration if two crossed swords are affixed to it as follows: The cross has crossed swords movably attached at the hilts of the swords to the tips of the top arms of the cross.
The length of the swords together with their hilts is 35 mm for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd class decorations and 33 mm for the 4th and 5th class decorations and the gold and iron crosses. The swords are set hilts down; the length of each sword is 85 mm. The medals of the affiliated crosses of the Order of the Cross of the Eagle have swords in the same metal as their cross. List of recipients
Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218, it forms the core of the wider urban area of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; the Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. A Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment; this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure; the city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, many museums and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen; the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC Brøndby football clubs; the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world; the Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Serving two million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a place of commerce; the original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn, meaning "merchants' harbour". By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven". However, the English term for the city was adapted from Kopenhagen. Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century; the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, was founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard; the natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century. The first habitations were centred on Gammel Strand in the 11thcentury or earlier; the earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus
Royal Danish Army
The Royal Danish Army is the land-based branch of the Danish Defence, together with the Danish Home Guard. For the last decade, the Royal Danish Army has undergone a massive transformation of structures and training methods, abandoning its traditional role of anti-invasion defence, instead focusing on out of area operations by, among other initiatives, reducing the size of the conscripted and reserve components and increasing the active component, changing from 60% support structure and 40% operational capability, to 60% combat operational capability and 40% support structure; when implemented, the Danish Army will be capable of deploying 1,500 troops permanently on three different continents continuously, or 5,000 troops for a shorter period of time, in international operations without any need for extraordinary measures such as parliamentary approval of a war funding bill. Founded in 1614, in the wake of the Kalmar War, the Royal Danish Army was designed to prevent conflicts and war, maintain Denmark's sovereignty and protect her interest.
With time, these goals have developed into encompassing the need to protect freedom and peaceful development in the world with respect for human rights. The Danish King remained commander in chief throughout the Early Modern period, in the Thirty Years' War, the Dano-Swedish War and the Scanian War, the Great Northern War, the Theatre War of 1789/9 and the Napoleonic Wars. In 1815, however, as a result of continued evolution and division of command, four general commands were created with the King as the supreme authority: Zealand and adjacent islands, Funen Langeland and the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. At the same time, the need for maintenance of the army in peacetime became pertinent, the Army Operational Command was established; the Royal Danish Army has been an integral part of the defence of Denmark and thus involved in warfare and battles continuously to protect her interests. Most notably various territorial wars with Sweden and Prussia, the Napoleonic Wars on the side of France, the Second World War and famously against the wishes of the Danish government, which had ordered immediate surrender to Germany.
In modern times the Royal Danish Army has become the backbone of Danish international missions, such as those in Kosovo and Afghanistan. The Royal Danish Army has been committed to a number of United Nations and NATO peacekeeping and unconventional warfare operations since becoming involved in the Yugoslav Wars under UN mandate in 1994, most notably in the famous Operation Bøllebank; the Royal Danish Army was engaged in the Kosovo War and continues to this day to maintain peacekeeping operations in Kosovo as part of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, together with the Danish Home Guard. Furthermore, the Royal Danish Army was involved in the War in Iraq from 2003-2007 with a significant contingent of soldiers responsible for creating and maintaining peace in the province of Basra, together with the British. Denmark lost its first soldier in Iraq on 17 August 2003: Preben Pedersen a 34-year-old Lance Corporal with the Jutland Dragoon Regiment became the first coalition soldier not from the United States or Britain to die in the Iraq War.
Starting in 2001, the Royal Danish Army has been involved in the War in Afghanistan. For the past few years, the Royal Danish Army and the British Army have been involved in heavy clashes with the Taliban in the Helmand Province, where about 760 Danish soldiers control a large battlegroup; the Danish army withdrew its combat forces from Afghanistan in May 2014. After the Afghan National Army took responsibility for the security in Afghanistan in 2015, the Danish Army, has provided training and security support as part of Resolute Support Mission. Following an escalating gang war in Copenhagen, in an effort to relieve police officers in Copenhagen and at the border control, Danish soldiers replaced police officers at different locations. Marking the first time in 86 years soldiers were used to keep order in cities; the structure of the Danish army changed in 2015, leaving Danish Division without brigades or support troops directly under its command. The two brigades have only command over combat battalions, as combat support and logistic support units are now grouped under various support centres.
1st Brigade consists of four combat battalions and is tasked with providing troops for international deployments. 2nd Brigade is tasked with the defence of the Danish territory. Support centres contain the army's combat support, combat logistic and general support units, in some cases perform tasks for the entire Danish defence structure: i.e. the Logistic Regiment, Army Logistics Centre and Defence Military Police Centre provides operational units for the army and overall logistic services to army and military police units and functions for all of the Danish defence establishment. Army Command in Karup Danish Division - Army Tactical Staff in Karup 1st Brigade in Holstebro HQ Battalion, The Signal Regiment I Armored Infantry Battalion, Gardehusarregimentet I Armored Infantry Battalion, Den Kongelige Livgarde II Armored Infantry Battalion, Jydske Dragonregiment 1st Danish Artillery Battalion 1st ISR Battalion 1st Armored Engineer Battalion 1st Logistic Battalion Military Police company 2nd Brigade in Slagelse I Armored Battalion, Jydske Dragonregiment III Reconnaissance Battalion, Gardehusarregimentet XIII Light Infantry Battalion, Slesvigske Fodregiment V Training Battalion, Jydske Dragonregiment V Training Battalion, Gardehusarregimentet Service branch regiments: D
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Tim Sloth Jørgensen
Tim Sloth Jørgensen is a senior officer in the Royal Danish Navy and former Chief of Defence of the Danish Armed Forces. Jørgensen resigned as chief of staff on 4 October 2009 due to his involvement in a controversial fake Arabic translation of Jæger – i krig med eliten, a book by a former special forces member the Danish Army Command tried to suppress. In 2012, he became an advisor to a Danish defense and aerospace manufacturer. Commander 1st Class of the Order of the Dannebrog Queen Ingrid Commemorative Medal The Nordic Blue Berets Medal of Honour Navy Long Service Medal NATO medal for the former Yugoslavia
Commemorative Medal for Advancing Latvia's Membership to NATO
Memory Medal for Advancing Latvia’s Membership to NATO is the Minister’s of Defence Award. It was established on 19 March 2004 due to the admission of the Republic of Latvia to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation – NATO; the Memory Medal is awarded to express gratitude for the person’s contribution to the development of the Latvian Defence by advancing Latvia’s membership to NATO. The Memory Medal is a round-shaped medal made in bronze – diameter: 38 mm; the medal’s averse contains a carved image of the NATO’s symbol - the four-pointed star - surrounded by decorative beams. There is a 2 mm belt around the medal’s perimeter on its both sides – averse and reverse. There is an inscription – For Advancing Latvia’s Membership to NATO – in the centre of the medal’s reverse, a circular inscription – MINISTER’S OF DEFENCE AWARD – at the edge of the medal’s reverse; the Memory Medal is hanged on a 32 mm wide and 50 mm long ribbon, formed of a 15 mm belt in the red colour of the Latvian flag symbolising Latvia, a 15 mm belt in the colour of blue symbolising NATO and a 2 mm wide silver stripe in the middle symbolising justice and loyalty.
The By-Law on Memory Medal stipulates that the medal, when worn, should be placed after the awards of the state and the Minister of Defence. Military personnel wear a 10 mm ribbon on their daily uniforms, or a 15 mm wide and a 3 mm high tack-ribbon in the bow-tie shape on their civil clothes. Civilians wear only the tack-ribbon in the bow-tie shape on their everyday clothes. There are 740 persons awarded with the Memory Medal being Latvian and foreign officials, staff of the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, NAF soldiers, foreign military personnel, public organisation representatives and others. Hans Jesper Helsø Timothy A. Kinnan Benk Korthals Ģirts Valdis Kristovskis Dzintars Rasnačs Edgars Rinkēvičs Commemorative Medal for Participants of the Barricades of 1991 "Memory Medal for Advancing Latvia's Membership to NATO"
Peace Prize Medal (Denmark)
The Peace Prize Medal was instituted in 1995 by Queen Margrethe II and may be awarded to any Dane who has completed a tour of duty on a UN mission and has received a medal for it. UN veterans are allowed to apply for the medal themselves thus making this the only Danish medal that the recipient himself can apply for; the medal commemorates the 1988 Nobel Peace Prize given to United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations personnel. Persons who have been deployed with the UN before 1988 may attach a silver oak-leaf to the ribbon of the medal. List of orders and medals of the Kingdom of Denmark Peacekeeping United Nations Medal Canadian Peacekeeping Service Medal