Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Guinness World Records
The book itself holds a world record, as the best-selling copyrighted book of all time. As of the 2017 edition, it is now in its 63rd year of publication, the international franchise has extended beyond print to include television series and museums. On 10 November 1951, Sir Hugh Beaver, the director of the Guinness Breweries, went on a shooting party in the North Slob, by the River Slaney in County Wexford. After missing a shot at a golden plover, he involved in an argument over which was the fastest game bird in Europe. That evening at Castlebridge House, he realised that it was impossible to confirm in reference books whether or not the golden plover was Europes fastest game bird. Beaver knew that there must be numerous other questions debated nightly in pubs throughout Ireland and abroad and he realised that a book supplying the answers to this sort of question might prove successful. Beavers idea became reality when Guinness employee Christopher Chataway recommended University friends Norris and Ross McWhirter, the twin brothers were commissioned to compile what became The Guinness Book of Records in August 1954.
A thousand copies were printed and given away, after the founding of The Guinness Book of Records at 107 Fleet Street, the first 198-page edition was bound on 27 August 1955 and went to the top of the British best seller lists by Christmas. The following year, it launched in the US, and sold 70,000 copies, since then, Guinness World Records has become a household name and the global leader in world records. Because the book became a hit, many further editions were printed, eventually settling into a pattern of one revision a year, published in September/October. The McWhirters continued to compile it for many years, Ross McWhirter was assassinated by the Provisional Irish Republican Army in 1975. Following Ross assassination, the feature in the show where questions about records posed by children were answered was called Norris on the Spot, Guinness Superlatives Limited was formed in 1954 to publish the first book. Sterling Publishing owned the rights to the Guinness book in the US for decades, under their management, the group was owned by Guinness PLC and subsequently Diageo until 2001, when it was purchased by Gullane Entertainment.
Gullane was itself purchased by HIT Entertainment in 2002, with offices in New York City and Tokyo, Guinness World Records global headquarters remain in London, while its museum attractions are based at Ripley headquarters in Orlando, Florida, US. Recent editions have focused on record feats by person competitors, many records relate to the youngest person who achieved something, such as the youngest person to visit all nations of the world, being Maurizio Giuliano. Each edition contains a selection of the records from the Guinness database, as well as new records. The majority of records are no longer listed in the book or on the website. For those unable to wait the 4–6 weeks for a reply, the Guinness Book of Records is the worlds most sold copyrighted book, earning it an entry within its own pages
Makalu is the fifth highest mountain in the world at 8,485 metres. It is located in the Mahalangur Himalayas 19 km southeast of Mount Everest, one of the eight-thousanders, Makalu is an isolated peak whose shape is a four-sided pyramid. Makalu has two subsidiary peaks. Kangchungtse, or Makalu II lies about 3 km north-northwest of the main summit, rising about 5 km north-northeast of the main summit across a broad plateau, and connected to Kangchungtse by a narrow,7,200 m saddle, is Chomo Lonzo. The first climb on Makalu was made by an American team led by William Siri in the spring of 1954, the expedition was composed of Sierra Club members including Allen Steck, and was called the California Himalayan Expedition to Makalu. They attempted the southeast ridge but were turned back at 7,100 m by a constant barrage of storms, a New Zealand team including Sir Edmund Hillary was active in the spring, but did not get very high due to injury and illness. In the fall of 1954, a French reconnaissance expedition made the first ascents of the subsidiary summits Kangchungtse, Makalu was first climbed on May 15,1955 by Lionel Terray and Jean Couzy of a French expedition led by Jean Franco.
Franco, G. Magnone and Sardar Gyaltsen Norbu summitted the next day, followed by Bouvier, S. Coupe and this was an amazing achievement at the time to have the vast majority of expedition members summit, especially on such a difficult peak. Prior to this time, summits were reached by 1-2 people at most with the rest of teams providing logistical support before turning around, the French team climbed Makalu by the north face and northeast ridge, via the saddle between Makalu and Kangchungtse, establishing the standard route. 1955 North Face to Northeast Ridge FA by Lionel Terray and Jean Couzy of France,1970, Southeast Ridge FA of ridge attempted by the Americans in 1954, was made by Y. Ozaki and A. Tanaka from Japan on May 23,1971, The very technical West Pillar route was climbed in May by Frenchmen B. 1975, South Face - an expedition led by Aleš Kunaver reached the top of Makalu up its steep southern side, the first amongst them was Stane Belak. This was the ascent of an eight-thousand meter peak by a great mountain face.
1976 – South pillar route completed by Czechoslovak expedition, route goes via south butress to Makalu South and via southeast ridge. Makalu South was climbed by 11 expedition members, two of them - Karel Schubert and Milan Kriššák summited main summit together with Jorge Camprubi from Spanish expedition which climbed southeast ridge. Karel Schubert died after bivouac near the summit, the route wasnt repeated till today. 1980, The second ascent of the West Pillar was completed in May by John Roskelley, Chris Kopczynski, James States and Kim Momb, without Sherpa support and without bottled oxygen. 1981, On 15 October renowned Polish climber Jerzy Kukuczka ascended Makalu via a new route up the north-western side, Kukuczka climbed solo, in Alpine style, without supplemental oxygen
South Tyrol, known by its alternative Italian name Alto Adige, is an autonomous province in northern Italy. It is one of the two provinces that make up the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. The province has an area of 7,400 square kilometres and its capital is the city of Bolzano. As of 2011, South Tyrol is among the wealthiest regions in Italy, South Tyrol is the term most commonly used in English for the province, and its usage reflects that it was created from a portion of the southern part of the historic County of Tyrol. German and Ladin speakers usually refer to the area as Südtirol, Alto Adige, one of the Italian names for the province, is used in English. The term had been the name of political subdivisions along the Adige River in the time of Napoleon Bonaparte and it was reused as the Italian name of the current province after its post-World War I creation, and was a symbol of the subsequent forced Italianization of South Tyrol. The official name of the today in German is Autonome Provinz Bozen — Südtirol.
German speakers usually refer to it not as a Provinz, provincial institutions are referred to using the prefix Landes-, such as Landesregierung and Landeshauptmann. The official name in Italian is Provincia autonoma di Bolzano — Alto Adige, South Tyrol as an administrative entity originated during the First World War. The Allies promised the area to Italy in the Treaty of London of 1915 as an incentive to enter the war on their side, with the rise of Fascism, the new regime made efforts to bring forward the Italianization of South Tyrol. The German language was banished from public service, German teaching was officially forbidden, the regime favored immigration from other Italian regions. The subsequent alliance between Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini declared that South Tyrol would not follow the destiny of Austria, the region was de facto annexed to the German Reich until the end of the war. This status ended along with the Nazi regime, and Italian rule was restored in 1945, after the war the Allies decided that the province would remain a part of Italy, under the condition that the German-speaking population be granted a significant level of self-government.
Italy and Austria negotiated an agreement in 1946, recognizing the rights of the German minority, alcide De Gasperi, Italys prime minister, a native of Trentino, wanted to extend the autonomy to his fellow citizens. This led to the creation of the region called Trentino-Alto Adige/Tiroler Etschland and Italian were both made official languages, and German-language education was permitted once more. Still Italians were the majority in the combined region, in a first phase, only public edifices and fascist monuments were targeted. The second phase was bloodier, costing 21 lives, the South Tyrolean question became an international issue. A fresh round of negotiations took place in 1961 but proved unsuccessful, the issue was resolved in 1971, when a new Austro-Italian treaty was signed and ratified
Hodder & Stoughton
Hodder & Stoughton is a British publishing house, now an imprint of Hachette. The firm has its origins in the 1840s, with Matthew Hodders employment, aged fourteen, with Messrs Jackson and Walford, the official publisher for the Congregational Union. In 1861 the firm became Jackson and Hodder, but in 1868 Jackson and Walford retired, Hodder & Stoughton published both religious and secular works, and its religious list contained some progressive titles. These included George Adam Smiths Isaiah for its Expositor’s Bible series, there was a sympathetic Life of St Francis by Paul Sabatier, a French Protestant pastor. Matthew Hodder made frequent visits to North America, meeting with the Moody Press and making links with Scribners, the secular list only gradually accepted fiction, and it was still subject to moral censorship in the early part of the twentieth century. Matthew Hodder was doubtful about the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, and the company refused Michael Arlens The Green Hat, a novel published by Collins in 1924.
In 1922 Hodder and Stoughton published an edition of Lewis Carrolls Alices Adventures in Wonderland, in 1928, the company became the exclusive British hardback publisher of Leslie Charteriss adventure novel series, The Saint, publishing all 50 UK first editions of the series until 1983. In this decade they took over ownership of the medical journal. Hodder & Stoughton were the originators of the Teach Yourself line of self-instruction books, as the company expanded at home and overseas, Hodder & Stoughtons list swelled to include the real life adventures in Pearys North Pole and several works by Winston Churchill. During the war, Ralph Hodder Williams set up the Brockhampton Book Co. to sell off overstocks of theological works. The manager, Ernest Roker, had an interest in books and managed to persuade author Enid Blyton to write a series of books for them about four children. In 1942, the Famous Five series was born with Five on a Treasure Island, in 1962, Brockhampton took over the childrens writer Elinor Lyon, whose novels the parent company had introduced in 1948.
Hodder & Stoughton published the Biggles books by Captain W. E. Johns, Hodder & Stoughton published their first original Biggles book in 1942 with Biggles Sweeps the Desert around Sept/Oct of that year and the Brockhampton Press published Johns Gimlet books from 1947. Hodder & Stoughton published some of Johns Worrals books, Hodder & Stoughton eventually published 35 Biggles first editions and Brockhampton Press published a further 29 Biggles first editions. In 1953 they published Sir John Hunts successful The Ascent of Everest, in the 1970s, they brought the Knight and Coronet imprints into common use. The latter is memorable for David Nivens much-celebrated autobiography The Moons a Balloon. The non-fiction publishing included Anthony Sampsons era-defining The Anatomy of Britain in 1962, another notable title in the childrens sphere was the 1969 Brockhampton Press publication of Asterix the Gaul by Goscinny and Uderzo. In 1974, John le Carré’s Tinker, Soldier, Spy was published to critical acclaim
The Dhaulagiri massif in Nepal extends 120 km from the Kaligandaki River west to the Bheri. This massif is bounded on the north and southwest by tributaries of the Bheri River, Dhaulagiri I is the seventh highest mountain in the world at 8,167 metres above sea level. It was first climbed on May 13,1960 by a Swiss/Austrian/Nepali expedition, the mountains name is धौलागिरी in Nepali. This comes from Sanskrit where धवल means dazzling, beautiful, Dhaulagiri I is the highest point of the Gandaki river basin. Annapurna I is 34 km. east of Dhaulagiri I, the Kali Gandaki River flows between the two in the Kaligandaki Gorge, said to be the worlds deepest. The town of Pokhara is south of the Annapurnas, an important regional center, in 1808 A. D. survey computations showed it to be the highest mountain yet surveyed. This lasted until 1838 when Kangchenjunga took its place, followed by Mount Everest in 1858, Dhaulagiri Is sudden rise from lower terrain is almost unequaled. It rises 7,000 m from the Kali Gandaki River 30 km to the southeast, the south and west faces rise precipitously over 4,000 m.
The south face of Gurja Himal in the massif is notably immense. Most ascents have followed the northeast ridge route of the first ascent, as of 2007 there had been 358 successful ascents and 58 fatalities. Between 1950 and 2006,2. 88% of 2,016 expedition members and staff going above base camp on Dhaulagiri I died. On all 8,000 metre peaks in Nepal the death rate was 1. 63%,1950 – Dhaulagiri I reconnoitered by a French expedition led by Maurice Herzog. They do not see a feasible route and switch to Annapurna, 1953–1958 – Five expeditions attempt the north face, or Pear Buttress, route. 1959 – Austrian expedition led by Fritz Moravec makes the first attempt on the northeast ridge. 1960 – Swiss-Austrian expedition led by Max Eiselin, successful ascent by Kurt Diemberger, P. Diener, E. Forrer, A. Schelbert, Nyima Dorje Sherpa, Nawang Dorje Sherpa on May 13. First Himalayan climb supported by an aircraft, which eventually crashed in Hidden Valley north of the mountain during takeoff and was abandoned.
1969 – American team led by Boyd Everett attempt southeast ridge, seven team members,1970 – second ascent, via the northeast ridge by a Japanese expedition led by Tokufu Ohta and Shoji Imanari. Tetsuji Kawada and Lhakpa Tenzing Sherpa reach the summit,1973 – American team led by James Morrissey makes third ascent via the northeast ridge
Mount Logan /ˈloʊɡən/ is the highest mountain in Canada and the second-highest peak in North America, after Denali. The mountain was named after Sir William Edmond Logan, a Canadian geologist, Mount Logan is located within Kluane National Park and Reserve in southwestern Yukon, less than 40 kilometres north of the Yukon/Alaska border. Mount Logan is the source of the Hubbard and Logan Glaciers, Logan is believed to have the largest base circumference of any non-volcanic mountain on Earth, including a massif with eleven peaks over 5,000 metres. Due to active tectonic uplifting, Mount Logan is still rising in height, before 1992, the exact elevation of Mount Logan was unknown and measurements ranged from 5,959 to 6,050 metres. In May 1992, a GSC expedition climbed Mount Logan and fixed the current height of 5,959 metres using GPS, temperatures are extremely low on and near Mount Logan. On the 5,000 m high plateau, air temperature hovers around −45 °C in the winter, minimal snow melt leads to a significant ice cap, reaching almost 300 m in certain spots.
An international team of Canadian and American climbers was assembled and initially they had planned their attempt in 1924 but funding, the international team of climbers began their journey in early May, crossing the mainland from the Pacific coast by train. They walked the remaining 200 kilometres to within 10 kilometres of the Logan Glacier where they established base camp, in the early evening of June 23,1925, Albert H. MacCarthy, H. F. Lambart, Allen Carpé, W. W. Foster, Norman H. Read and Andy Taylor stood on top for the first time and it had taken them 65 days to approach the mountain from the nearest town, McCarthy and return, with all climbers intact. Don Monk, Gil Roberts and 3 others reached the summit on July 19, dick Long, Allen Steck, Jim Wilson, John Evans, Franklin Coale Sr. and Paul Bacon over 30 days, mid-July to Mid-August. Fred Beckey remarked, When they got back we just couldnt believe that they had climbed that thing and we didnt think they had a chance. Featured in Fifty Classic Climbs of North America, dave Jones, Frank Baumann, Fred Thiessen, Jay Page and Rene Bucher in 22 days.
Michael Down, Paul Kindree, John Howe, Reid Carter and John Wittmayer climbed to the summit over 22 days, raymond Jotterand, Alan Burgess, Jim Elzinga and John Laughlan reached the summit after 15 days of climbing on June 30 and July 1. 1992 June 6, an expedition sponsored by the Royal Canadian Geographic Society confirmed the height of Mount Logan using GPS, the leader was Michael Schmidt, with Lisel Currie, Leo Nadeay, Charlie Roots, J-C. Lavergne, Roger Laurilla, Pat Morrow, Karl Nagy, Sue Gould, Alan Björn, Lloyd Freese, Kevin McLaughlin, a mountain in British Columbias Premier Range was named Mount Pierre Elliott Trudeau instead. During the last few days of May 2005, three climbers from the North Shore Search and Rescue team of North Vancouver became stranded on the mountain, a joint operation by Canadian and American forces rescued the three climbers and took them to Anchorage, Alaska for treatment of frostbite. London, J. M. Dent & Sons, Fifty Classic Climbs of North America. San Francisco, CA, USA, Sierra Club Books, pushing the Limits, The Story of Canadian Mountaineering
Among other things by issuing a common international document of identification. When needed to give an arbitral tribunal, that has advisory function, to study problems of general and economic nature affecting the occupation of mountain guides. To order to arrange closer comradeship and the exchange of ideas amongst the mountain guides of all nations
Annapurna is a massif in the Himalayas in north-central Nepal that includes one peak over 8,000 metres, thirteen peaks over 7,000 metres, and sixteen more over 6,000 metres. The massif is 55 kilometres long, and is bounded by the Kali Gandaki Gorge on the west, the Marshyangdi River on the north and east, at the western end the massif encloses a high basin called the Annapurna Sanctuary. Annapurna I Main is the tenth highest mountain in the world at 8,091 metres above sea level, the entire massif and surrounding area are protected within the 7,629 square kilometres Annapurna Conservation Area, the first and largest conservation area in Nepal. The Annapurna Conservation Area is home to several world-class treks, including the Annapurna Circuit, by March 2012, there had been 191 summit ascents of Annapurna I Main, and 61 climbing fatalities on the mountain. This fatality-to-summit ratio is the highest of any of the eight-thousanders, in particular, the ascent via the south face is considered, by some, the most difficult of all climbs.
In October 2014, at least 39 people were killed as a result of snowstorms and avalanches on and around Annapurna, Annapurna is a Sanskrit name that literally means full of food, but is normally translated as Goddess of the Harvests. According to Devdutt Pattanaik, Annapoorna devi is, without her there is starvation, a universal fear, This makes Annapurna a universal goddess. Her most popular shrine is located in Varanasi, on the banks of the Ganges River and her association with the giving of food led her in time to be transformed into Lakshmi, the Goddess of Wealth. Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal, of a French expedition led by Herzog, ichac made a documentary of the expedition, called Victoire sur lAnnapurna. Its summit was the highest summit attained for three years, until the first successful ascent of Mount Everest and they were, beaten to the second ascent of Annapurna by a matter of days by a British Army expedition led by Colonel Henry Day. In 1978, the American Womens Himalayan Expedition, a team led by Arlene Blum, the first summit team, composed of Vera Komarkova and Irene Miller, and Sherpas Mingma Tsering and Chewang Ringjing, reached the top at 3,30 pm on October 15,1978.
The second summit team, Alison Chadwick-Onyszkiewicz and Vera Watson, died during this climb, in 1981 Polish expedition Zakopane Alpine Club set a new route on Annapurna I Central. Maciej Berbeka and Bogusław Probulski reached the summit on May 23,1981, the road called Zakopiańczyków Way was recognized as the best achievement of the Himalayan season in 1981. On 3 February 1987, Polish climbers Jerzy Kukuczka and Artur Hajzer made the first winter ascent of Annapurna I, the first solo ascent of the south face was made in October 2007 by Slovenian climber Tomaž Humar, he climbed to the Roc Noir and to Annapurna East. The ratio of 34 deaths per 100 safe returns on Annapurna I is followed by 29 for K2 and 21 for Nanga Parbat, gangapurna was first climbed in 1965 by a German expedition led by Günther Hauser, via the East Ridge. The summit party comprised 11 members of the expedition, Annapurna South was first climbed in 1964 by a Japanese expedition, via the North Ridge. The summit party comprised S.
Uyeo and Mingma Tsering, Hiunchuli is a satellite peak extending east from Annapurna South, Hiunchuli was first climbed in 1971 by an expedition led by U. S. Mount Machhapuchchhre, named after its resemblance to a fish-tail, is another important peak, Mount Machhapuchchhre and Hiunchuli are prominently visible from the valley of Pokhara
Puncak Trikora, until 1963 Wilhelmina Peak, is a 4,730 or 4,750 m high mountain in the Papua province of Indonesia on New Guinea. It lies in the part of the Sudirman Range of the Maoke Mountains. Behind Puncak Jaya at 4,884 m, it is either the second or third highest mountain on the island of New Guinea and the Australasian continent. As such it appears on some Seven Second Summits lists, although SRTM-data support that Puncak Mandala in the Jayawijaya Range is higher with 4,760 m. At the beginning of the 20th century all the highest mountains in New Guinea, including Puncak Jaya, Puncak Mandala, Ngga Pilimsit, the first expeditions to Maoke Mountains documented a strong recent retreat of all glaciers in the area. The ice cap of Puncak Trikora melted between 1936 and 1962, in 1909 the ice cap still reached as low as 4,400 m. The leader of the first two expeditions was the diplomat and amateur biologist H. A, each expedition was accompanied by soldiers and dayaks, who were employed for their expertise with boat journeys.
The Second South New Guinea Expedition used Camp Alkmaar, from where it left on October 9,1909. A group of nine, including Lorentz and Jan Willem van Nouhuys, were the first to reach the snow of New Guinea at a height of 4,460 m on November 8,1909. From the ridge they observed a lake to the north. No attempt was made to reach the Wilhelmina summit, the return trip was severe, with a loss of four expedition members, the explorers finally returned to Camp Alkmaar in mid-December. The summit was first reached in 1913 during the Third South New Guinea Expedition, which lasted from September 1912 to April 1913 and followed the same route. It was led by Alphons Franssen Herderschee, an officer of the Royal Dutch East Indies Leger, other expedition members were the zoologist Gerard Martinus Versteeg, the botanist August Adriaan Pulle, the geologist Paul François Hubrecht, and J. B. Sitanala, an Indonesian GP. Herderschee took over the role of ethnographer, including soldiers and dayaks, the baggage train had 241 members.
They were divided up into groups in order to carry out the different tasks in a time-effective way. Herderschee and Versteeg formed the team, which reached the Wilhelminatop on 21 February 1913. The 1920-1922 Central New Guinea Expedition had as goal to reach the mountain from the north coast over a partially explored in a 1914 military expedition. On February 7,1920 the first exploration, under leadership of A. J. A. van Overeem started at the mouth of the Mamberamo, in October, they had climbed across the Doorman Mtns and reached the upper Swart Valley
The term mountaineering describes the sport of mountain climbing, including ski mountaineering. Hiking in the mountains can be a form of mountaineering when it involves scrambling, or short stretches of the more basic grades of rock climbing. All require experience, athletic ability, and technical knowledge to maintain safety, mountaineering is often called Alpinism, especially in European languages, which implies climbing with difficulty such high and often snow and ice-covered mountains as the Alps. A mountaineer with such great skill is called an Alpinist, many cultures have harbored superstitions about mountains, which they often regarded as sacred due to their proximity with heaven, such as Mount Olympus for the Ancient Greeks. In 1492 Antoine de Ville, lord of Domjulien and Beaupré, was the first to ascend the Mont Aiguille, in France, with a team, using ladders. It appears to be the first recorded climb of any technical difficulty, in 1573 Francesco De Marchi and Francesco Di Domenico ascended Corno Grande, the highest peak in the Apennine Mountains.
During the Enlightenment, as a product of the new spirit of curiosity for the natural world, in 1741 Richard Pococke and William Windham made a historic visit to Chamonix. By the early 19th century many of the peaks were reached, including the Grossglockner in 1800, the Ortler in 1804, the Jungfrau in 1811, the Finsteraarhorn in 1812. In 1808 Marie Paradis became the first female to climb Mont Blanc and this inaugurated what became known as the Golden age of alpinism, with the first mountaineering club - the Alpine Club - being founded in 1857. Well-known guides of the era include Christian Almer, Jakob Anderegg, Melchior Anderegg, J. J. Bennen, Michel Croz, in the early years of the golden age, scientific pursuits were intermixed with the sport, such as by the physicist John Tyndall. In the years, it shifted to a more competitive orientation as pure sportsmen came to dominate the London-based Alpine Club and this ascent is generally regarded as marking the end of the mountaineering golden age.
By this point the sport of mountaineering had largely reached its modern form, with a body of professional guides, mountaineering in the Americas became popular in the 1800s. In North America, Pikes Peak in the Colorado Rockies was first climbed by Edwin James, though lower than Pikes Peak, the heavily glaciated Fremont Peak in Wyoming was thought to be the tallest mountain in the Rockies when it was first climbed by John C. Frémont and two others in 1842, pico de Orizaba, the tallest peak in Mexico and third tallest in North America, was first climbed by U. S. military personnel which included William F. Raynolds and a half dozen other climbers in 1848. Heavily glaciated and more technical climbs in North American were not achieved until the late 19th, in 1897 Mount Saint Elias on the Alaska-Yukon border was summitted by the Duke of the Abruzzi and party. But it was not until 1913 that Mount Mckinley, the tallest peak in North America was successfully climbed by Hudson Stuck, Mount Logan, the tallest peak in Canada was first summitted by a half dozen climbers in 1925 in an expedition that took more than two months.
In 1879-1880 the exploration of the highest Andes in South America began when English mountaineer Edward Whymper climbed Chimborazo, the summit of Aconcagua was finally reached on January 14,1897 by Swiss mountaineer Matthias Zurbriggen during an expedition led by Edward FitzGerald that began in December 1896. The Andes of Bolivia were first explored by Sir William Martin Conway in 1898 and it took until the late 19th century for European explorers to penetrate Africa
Reinhold Messner is an Italian mountaineer, adventurer and author from the autonomous Italian province of South Tyrol. He made the first ascent of Mount Everest without supplemental oxygen, along with Peter Habeler and he was the first person who crossed the Antarctica and Greenland without snowmobiles or dog sleds. Furthermore he crossed the Gobi Desert alone, Messner published more than 80 books about his experiences as a climber and explorer. Born in Brixen, Messner is an Italian citizen whose mother tongue is German and he is fluent in Italian and English. He grew up in Villnöß and spent his early climbing in the Alps. His father, Josef Messner, was a teacher and he was very strict and sometimes severe with Reinhold. Josef led Reinhold to his first summit at the age of five, Reinhold had eight brothers and one sister, he climbed with his brother Günther and made Arctic crossings with his brother Hubert. When Reinhold was 13, he began climbing with his brother Günther, by the time Reinhold and Günther were in their early twenties, they were among Europes best climbers.
Messner considered the expedition style disrespectful toward nature and mountains. Messners first major Himalayan climb in 1970, the unclimbed Rupal face of Nanga Parbat, both he and his brother Günther reached the summit, but Günther died two days on the descent of the Diamir face. Reinhold lost seven toes, which had become badly frostbitten during the climb, Reinhold was severely criticized for persisting on this climb with the less experienced Günther. The 2010 movie Nanga Parbat by Joseph Vilsmaier is based on his account of the events. While Messner and Peter Habeler were noted for fast ascents in the Alps of the Eiger North Wall, standard route and Les Droites and this was unheard of at the time. In the 1970s, Messner championed the cause for ascending Mount Everest without supplementary oxygen, in 1978, he reached the summit of Everest with Habeler. This was the first time anyone had been that high without bottled oxygen and Messner and Habeler proved what certain doctors, specialists and he repeated the feat, without Habeler, from the Tibetan side in 1980, during the monsoon season.
This was Everests first solo summit, in 1978, he made a solo ascent of the Diamir face of Nanga Parbat. In 1986, Messner became the first to all fourteen eight-thousanders. Messner has crossed Antarctica on skis, together with fellow explorer Arved Fuchs and he has written over 60 books about his experiences, a quarter of which have been translated