Office of Strategic Services
The Office of Strategic Services was a wartime intelligence agency of the United States during World War II, a predecessor to the Central Intelligence Agency. The OSS was formed as an agency of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to coordinate espionage activities behind enemy lines for all branches of the United States Armed Forces. Other OSS functions included the use of propaganda and post-war planning. On December 14, 2016, the organization was collectively honored with a Congressional Gold Medal. Prior to the formation of the OSS, the various departments of the executive branch, including the State, Treasury and War Departments conducted American intelligence activities on an ad hoc basis, with no overall direction, coordination, or control; the US Army and US Navy had separate code-breaking departments: Signal Intelligence Service and OP-20-G. The FBI was responsible for domestic anti-espionage operations. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was concerned about American intelligence deficiencies. On the suggestion of William Stephenson, the senior British intelligence officer in the western hemisphere, Roosevelt requested that William J. Donovan draft a plan for an intelligence service based on the British Secret Intelligence Service and Special Operations Executive.
After submitting his work, "Memorandum of Establishment of Service of Strategic Information", Colonel Donovan was appointed "coordinator of information" on July 11, 1941, heading the new organization known as the office of the Coordinator of Information. Thereafter the organization was developed with British assistance; until some months after Pearl Harbor, the bulk of OSS intelligence came from the UK. British Security Co-ordination trained the first OSS agents in Canada, until training stations were set up in the US with guidance from BSC instructors, who provided information on how the SOE was arranged and managed; the British made available their short-wave broadcasting capabilities to Europe and the Far East and provided equipment for agents until American production was established. The Office of Strategic Services was established by a Presidential military order issued by President Roosevelt on June 13, 1942, to collect and analyze strategic information required by the Joint Chiefs of Staff and to conduct special operations not assigned to other agencies.
During the war, the OSS supplied policymakers with facts and estimates, but the OSS never had jurisdiction over all foreign intelligence activities. The FBI was left responsible for intelligence work in Latin America, the Army and Navy continued to develop and rely on their own sources of intelligence. OSS proved useful in providing a worldwide overview of the German war effort, its strengths and weaknesses. In direct operations it was successful in supporting Operation Torch in French North Africa in 1942, where it identified pro-Allied potential supporters and located landing sites. OSS operations in neutral countries Stockholm, provided in-depth information on German advanced technology; the Madrid station set up agent networks in France that supported the Allied invasion of southern France in 1944. Most famous were the operations in Switzerland run by Allen Dulles that provided extensive information on German strength, air defenses, submarine production, the V-1 and V-2 weapons, it revealed some of the secret German efforts in biological warfare.
Switzerland's station supported resistance fighters in France and Italy, helped with the surrender of German forces in Italy in 1945. For the duration of World War II, the Office of Strategic Services was conducting multiple activities and missions, including collecting intelligence by spying, performing acts of sabotage, waging propaganda war and coordinating anti-Nazi resistance groups in Europe, providing military training for anti-Japanese guerrilla movements in Asia, among other things. At the height of its influence during World War II, the OSS employed 24,000 people. From 1943–1945, the OSS played a major role in training Kuomintang troops in China and Burma, recruited Kachin and other indigenous irregular forces for sabotage as well as guides for Allied forces in Burma fighting the Japanese Army. Among other activities, the OSS helped arm and supply resistance movements in areas occupied by the Axis powers during World War II, including Mao Zedong's Red Army in China and the Viet Minh in French Indochina.
OSS officer Archimedes Patti played a central role in OSS operations in French Indochina and met with Ho Chi Minh in 1945. One of the greatest accomplishments of the OSS during World War II was its penetration of Nazi Germany by OSS operatives; the OSS was responsible for training Austrian individuals for missions inside Germany. Some of these agents included exiled communists and Socialist party members, labor activists, anti-Nazi prisoners-of-war, German and Jewish refugees; the OSS recruited and ran one of the war's most important spies, the German diplomat Fritz Kolbe. In 1943, the Office of Strategic Services set up operations in Istanbul. Turkey, as a neutral country during the Second World War, was a place where both the Axis and Allied powers had spy networks; the railroads connecting central Asia with Europe, as well as Turkey's close proximity to the Balkan states, placed it at a cr
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Port de Pollença
Port de Pollença is a small town in northern Majorca, situated on the Bay of Pollença. It is located about 6 km east of the inland town of Pollença and two kilometres southeast of Cala Sant Vicenç; the Cap de Formentor is connected to Port de Pollença via a 13.5 km road. Port de Pollença is the most northerly town in Majorca, it is split into several main areas: Pine walk, Central, Pinaret and Gotmar. The scenic Boquer Valley runs north-east from the town, near the ruins of the pre-Roman city of Bocchoris, one of the oldest settlements on the island; the Pine Walk fronts onto a sheltered part of the larger Badia de Pollença. It is the most popular walk around the coastal line of the town and features a bronze bust of the artist Hermenegildo Anglada Camarasa. Near the end of the Pine Walk stands the old Military Base, home of a number of fire fighting aircraft. During the Spanish Civil War, the base was supporting National Spanish Seefliegerstaffel aircraft from the German Condor Legion, for instance, a number of Heinkel He 59.
Nowadays, a number of amphibious fire fighting aircraft Canadair CL-415, are kept at the air base to the north of the town and can be seen on exercise around the bay. The air base is used as a holiday destination for military personnel from member states of NATO; the main square Plaça Miguel Capllonch and featuring a bronze bust of pianist and composer Miquel Capllonch Rotger, is surrounded by restaurants and bars, with the Church of Our Lady of Carmen lying to the west. A weekly market, held on Wednesdays, sees the square filled with traders selling fruit, fish and crafts. To the south, there is a large, older urbanisation, consisting of three areas: Urban El Pinaret, Urban Gotmar and Urban Llenaire; the area is made up of flats, small hotels and private homes, has developed over the years. The beach around the area is family friendly, with a gentle grade into the sea, water sports and a wide promenade suitable for walking and cycling. A bypass links the main road into the town PM-220 Carretera Pollença north to the PM-221 following a scenic route along the Cap de Formentor.
Many artists and celebrities have made Port de Pollença their home, or made short trips to the bay during their life. Famous painters such as the Argentinian Atilio Boveri and Hermenegildo Anglada Camarasa lived in Port de Pollença and popularized the place. A number of Atilio Boveri's paintings can be seen at the Museum of Pollença. Famous writers such as Ruben Darío visited the place in the early 1900s and wrote a number of poems while on the island; the Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa stayed at the Hotel Formentor. Hotel Formentor is the backdrop to Màxim Huerta's 2018 novel, "Firmamento". Agatha Christie visited the town in the early 20th century and stayed at a hotel in the Pine Walk area, which she describes in her book Problem at Pollensa Bay and Other Stories: "... a small hotel standing on the edge of the sea looking out over a view that in the misty haze of a fine morning had the exquisite vagueness of a Japanese print."
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Portrait photography or portraiture in photography is a photograph of a person or group of people that captures the personality of the subject by using effective lighting and poses. A portrait picture might be artistic. Portraits are commissioned for special occasions, such as weddings or school events. Portraits can serve many purposes, from usage on a personal Web site to display in the lobby of a business; the low cost of the daguerreotype in the middle of the 19th century and the reduced sitting time for the subject, though still much longer than now, led to a general rise in the popularity of portrait photography over painted portraiture. The style of these early works reflected the technical challenges associated with long exposure times and the painterly aesthetic of the time. Hidden mother photography, in which portrait photographs featured young children's mothers hidden in the frame to calm them and keep them still, arose from this difficulty. Subjects were seated against plain backgrounds and lit with the soft light of an overhead window and whatever else could be reflected with mirrors.
Advances in photographic equipment and techniques developed, gave photographers the ability to capture images with shorter exposure times and the making of portraits outside the studio. When portrait photographs are composed and captured in a studio, the photographer has control over the lighting of the composition of the subject and can adjust direction and intensity of light. There are many ways to light a subject's face, but there are several common lighting plans which are easy enough to describe. One of the most basic lighting plans is called three-point lighting; this plan uses three lights to model the subject's features. The three main lights used in this light plan are as follows: Also called a main light, the key light is placed to one side of the subject's face, between 30 and 60 degrees off center and a bit higher than eye level; the purpose of the key-light is to give shape to a subject a face. This relies on the first principle of lighting, white comes out of a plane and black goes back into a plane.
The depth of shadow created by the main-Light can be controlled with a fill-light. This is a technique used to obtain a portrait where the predominant color is light-yellow; the background should be white and several lights can be used, all at the same time. Opposed to High-Key portraits, this technique is used only to highlight a specific part of the subject's face half of the face if only one light source is used or just the facial contour if two lights are used. In modern photography, the fill-in light is used to control the contrast in the scene and is nearly always placed above the lens axis and is a large light source; as the amount of light is less than the key-light, the fill acts by lifting the shadows only. It is true to say that light bounces around a room and fills in the shadows but this does not mean that a fill-light should be placed opposite a key-light and it does not soften shadows, it lifts them; the relative intensity of the Key-light to the fill-light is most discussed in terms of "Stops" difference.
A 2 Stop reduction in intensity for the Fill-Light would be a typical start point to maintain dimensionality in a portrait shot.. Back lights, or accent lighting, serve the purpose of accentuating a subject. A back light will separate a subject from a background. Examples would be a light shining onto a subject's hair to add a rim effect or shining onto a background to lift the tones of a background. There can be many accent lights in a shot, another example would be a spotlight on a handbag in a fashion shot; when used for separation, i.e. a hair-light, the light should not be more dominant than the main light for general use. Think in terms of a "kiss of moonlight", rather than a "strike of lightning", although there are no "shoulds" in photography and it is up to the photographer to decide on the authorship of their shot. A kicker is a form of accent light. Used to give a backlit edge to a subject on the shadow side of the subject. Butterfly lighting uses only two lights; the key light is placed directly in front of the subject above the camera or to one side, a bit higher than is common for a three-point lighting plan.
The second light is a rim light. A reflector is placed below the subject's face to provide fill light and soften shadows; this lighting may be recognized by the strong light falling on the forehead, the bridge of the nose, the upper cheeks, by the distinct shadow below the nose that looks rather like a butterfly and thus, provides the name for this lighting technique. Butterfly lighting was a favourite of famed Hollywood portraitist George Hurrell, why this style of lighting is called Paramount lighting; these lights can be added to basic lighting plans to provide additional highlights or add background definition. Not so much a part of the portrait lighting plan, but rather designed to provide illumination for the background behind the subject, background lights can pick out details in the background, provide a halo effect by illuminating a portion of a backdrop behind the subject's head, or turn the background pure white by filling it with light. Most lights used in modern photography are a flash of some sort.
The lighting for portraiture is diffused by bounc
Varian Mackey Fry was an American journalist. Fry ran a rescue network in Vichy France that helped 2,000 to 4,000 anti-Nazi and Jewish refugees to escape Nazi Germany and the Holocaust, he was the first American to be recognized as "Righteous Among the Nations", an honorific given by the State of Israel to non-Jews who risked their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust. Varian Fry was born in New York City, his parents were a manager of the Wall Street firm Carlysle and Mellick. The family moved to Ridgewood, New Jersey, in 1910, he enjoyed bird-watching and reading. During World War I, at 9 years of age and friends conducted a fund-raising bazaar for the American Red Cross that included a vaudeville show, an ice cream stand and fish pond, he was educated at Hotchkiss School from 1922 to 1924, when he left the school due to hazing rituals. He attended the Riverdale Country School, graduating in 1926. An able, multi-lingual student, Fry scored in the top 10% on the entrance exams to Harvard University and, while a Harvard undergraduate, founded Hound & Horn, an influential literary quarterly, in 1927 with Lincoln Kirstein.
He had to repeat his senior year. Through Kirstein's sister, Mina, he met his future wife, Eileen Avery Hughes, an editor of Atlantic Monthly, seven years his senior and had been educated at Roedean School and Oxford University, they married on June 2, 1931. While working as a foreign correspondent for the American journal The Living Age, Fry visited Berlin in 1935, witnessed Nazi abuse against Jews on more than one occasion, which "turned him into an ardent anti-Nazi", he said in 1945, "I could not remain idle as long as I had any chances at all of saving a few of its intended victims."Following his visit to Berlin, Fry wrote about the savage treatment of Jews by Hitler's regime in the New York Times in 1935. He wrote books about foreign affairs for Headline Books, owned by the Foreign Policy Association, including The Peace that Failed, it describes the troubled political climate following World War I, the break-up of Czechoslovakia and the events leading up to World War II. Disturbed by what he saw, Fry helped raise money to support European anti-Nazi movements.
After the invasion of France in June 1940, which the Germans occupied, he went to Marseille in August 1940 as an agent of the newly formed Emergency Rescue Committee in an effort to help persons wishing to flee the Nazis, circumvent the processes by French authorities who would not issue exit visas. Fry had $3,000 and a short list of refugees under imminent threat of arrest by agents of the Gestapo Jews. Clamoring at his door came anti-Nazi writers, avant-garde artists and hundreds of others seeking any chance to escape France; some historians noted it was a miracle that a white American Protestant would risk everything to help the Jews. Beginning in 1940, in Marseille, despite the watchful eye of the collaborationist Vichy regime, Fry and a small group of volunteers hid people at the Villa Air-Bel until they could be smuggled out. More than 2,200 people were taken across the border to Spain and to the safety of neutral Portugal from which they made their way to the United States. Fry helped other exiles escape on ships leaving Marseille for the French colony of Martinique, from which they too could go to the United States.
Among Fry's closest associates were Americans Miriam Davenport, a former art student at the Sorbonne, the heiress Mary Jayne Gold, a lover of the arts and the "good life" who had come to Paris in the early 1930s. When the Nazis seized France in 1940, Gold went to Marseille, where she worked with Fry and helped finance his operation. Working with Fry was a young academic named Albert O. Hirschman. Instrumental in getting Fry the visas he needed for the artists and political dissidents on his list, was Hiram Bingham IV, an American Vice Consul in Marseille who fought against anti-Semitism in the State Department and was responsible for issuing thousands of visas, both legal and illegal. From his isolated position in Marseille, Fry relied on the Unitarian Service Committee in Lisbon to help the refugees he sent; this office, staffed by American Unitarians under the direction of Robert Dexter, helped refugees to wait in safety for visas and other necessary papers, to gain ship passage from Lisbon.
Fry was forced to leave France in September 1941 after officials both of the Vichy government and at the United States State Department had become angered by his covert activities. In 1942, the Emergency Rescue Committee and the American branch of the European-based International Relief Association joined forces under the name the International Relief and Rescue Committee, shortened to the International Rescue Committee; the IRC is a leading nonsectarian, nongovernmental international relief and development organization that still operates today. Among those Fry aided were: Fry wrote and spoke critically against U. S. immigration policies relating to the issue of the fate of Jews in Europe. In a December 1942 issue of The New Republic, he wrote a scathing article titled: "The Massacre of Jews in Europe". Although by 1942 Fry had been terminated from his position at the Emergency Rescue Committee, American private rescuers acknowledged that his program in France had been uniquely effective, recruited him in 1944 to provide behind-the-scenes guidance to the Roosevelt administration's late-breaking rescue program, the War Refugee Board.
Fry published a book in 1945 about his time in France under the title Surrender on Demand, first published by Random House, 1945