Bavarian State Police
The Bavarian State Police is the official State police force of the German State of Bavaria. It has 33,500 armed officers and 8,500 other civilian employees; the Bavarian police is well-known for the coordinated and consistent actions against minor crimes. The 10 regional police authorities in Bavaria are: Munich Central Franconia: Nuremberg Lower Franconia: Würzburg Upper Franconia: Bayreuth Upper Palatinate: Regensburg Lower Bavaria: Straubing Upper Bavaria-South: Rosenheim Upper Bavaria-North: Ingolstadt Swabia-North: Augsburg Swabia-South: KemptenBavaria reorganised its police structure between 2005 and 2008 to reduce bureaucracy, changing from a four-tier hierarchy to three levels; the seven Polizeipräsidien in Würzburg, Regensburg, Augsburg and Oberbayern gave way to the 10 new areas and the Polizeidirektionen disappeared. The reorganisation required the rewiring of all police radio and emergency notification networks which are not located only at each regional police authority; the Bavarian Landeskriminalamt employs 1,800 officers and civilian staff.
Its missions are: witness protection, state security, undercover investigations, monitoring the development of crime, crime prevention, criminal investigations analysis, exchange of information with foreign countries and forensic science. Bavaria has different special units, which are the two Spezialeinsatzkommandos, one is stationed in Nuremberg for use in the north of the state and one is attached to the Munich Police Department to cover the south of Bavaria; the SEK of South Bavaria has a mountain detachment for operations in the Alps. Three Mobile Einsatzkommandos, one of, attached to the SEK based in Nuremberg and the other two to the Munich SEK, two Technische Einsatzkommandos, one at Nuremberg and the other at Munich, four Unterstützungskommandos attached to the Police Support Group and based in Dachau, Nuremberg and Würzburg an Alpine Einsatzzug, based in Rosenheim; the Police Support Group HQ in Bamberg employs 6,000 officers and civilian staff at seven Bereitschaftspolizeiabteilungen, the police schools, the police orchestra and the police helicopter squadron.
The BPAs are situated in Munich, Eichstätt, Würzburg, Nuremberg, Königsbrunn and Sulzbach-Rosenberg and have 10 companies as the state’s mobile police reserve. The helicopter squadron has nine modern choppers stationed at Munich Airport and Roth Airfield near Nuremberg. Bavaria has one professional development school and a police dog school; the Bavarian River Police is directly subordinate to the Bavarian Ministry of the Interior. The headquarters is in Nuremberg and has 10 river police stations along the Main and Danube rivers and the Main-Danube Canal, it supports 14 police stations that cover the major lakes in Bavaria. Citizens in Bavaria have been participating in public safety since 1994; this commitment to civic action is seen in the Sicherheitswacht Neighborhood Watch program, where approx. 800 citizens in 125 Bavarian towns voluntarily assist their local police. The most used car brand is BMW; the most used handgun is Heckler & Koch P7. 12 May 1972: Bomb attack on the main building of the Bavarian State Investigation Bureau in Munich by the Red Army Faction, 3 people were injured and 60 police cars were damaged.
5 September 1972: Palestinian terrorists attacked the Israeli team during the Olympic Games in Munich, known as the Munich massacre. 10 August 1994: Discovery of 363g of plutonium on a smuggler at Munich's Franz Josef Strauss airport. July 1998: Giorgio Basile who killed 30 people was arrested in Kempten and turned state witness providing testimony for the arrest of 50 Mafia members in Germany. 14 January 2005: The fashion designer Rudolph Moshammer was found murdered in his house. One day the murderer was arrested through a DNA analysis match and sentenced to life imprisonment. Bavarian Border Police Landespolizei Joseph Ratzinger, Sr. - Bavarian policeman Polizei.de Bavarian Police homepage
Otto von Lossow
General Otto Hermann von Lossow was a Bavarian Army and German Army officer who played a prominent role in the events surrounding the attempted Beer Hall Putsch by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party in November 1923. Lossow was born in Hof in the Kingdom of Bavaria, he entered the Bavarian Army in 1888. He served in a variety of assignments, was trained as a general staff officer, he served with the German contingent of the relief expedition during the Boxer Rebellion. Prior to World War I, Lossow was a lieutenant colonel and a general staff officer without a specific assignment. On mobilization in August 1914, he was assigned to be the chief of the general staff of the II. Bavarian Reserve Corps. Lossow served with the corps until July 1915, when he became the German military attaché in Istanbul in the Ottoman Empire, where he assisted the Ottoman Army and the German military mission in planning the ongoing response to Allied landings in Gallipoli, he provided valuable testimony concerning the Armenian Genocide in its stages, in which he wrote that "On the basis of all the reports and news coming to me here in Tiflis there hardly can be any doubt that the Turks systematically are aiming at the extermination of the few hundred thousand Armenians whom they left alive until now."
He remained in the Ottoman Empire for the rest of the war, becoming in April 1916 the "German Military Plenipotentiary at the Imperial Embassy in Constantinople." Despite the title, he was junior to many of the German officers in the Ottoman Empire serving as advisors to and commanders of Ottoman military formations. In 1919, now a major general, was part of the transitional force which would become the Reichswehr, the 100,000-man army permitted to Germany under the Treaty of Versailles. From 1920 to 1923, he was the commander of the infantry school. On 1 January 1923 he became the commander in Wehrkreis VII, the Reichswehr military region which covered Bavaria, he held this assignment through the attempted Beer Hall Putsch until his replacement in March 1924. 1935 Portrait bust Otto von Lossow by Arno Breker. 1938 death in Munich. Generalmajor von Lossow became prominent in German history as being, with Gustav Ritter von Kahr, Minister President of Bavaria and Colonel Hans Ritter von Seisser, head of the Bavarian State Police, part of the triumvirate who at that time exercised political control in Bavaria.
The political situation in Germany was one of turmoil and political violence. The Bavarian Government under Ritter von Kahr tended to take a line independent of that of the national government of the Weimar Republic in Berlin; when ordered to arrest three of the leaders of some armed groups currently operating in Bavaria, the triumvirate refused. General von Lossow was ordered by the Commander-in-Chief of the army, General Hans von Seeckt, to arrest the three men and to suppress the daily newspaper of the Nazi Party, the Völkischer Beobachter; this he hesitated to do, was sacked from his command by General von Seeckt and replaced by General Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein. However, Ritter von Kahr announced that von Lossow would retain the command. In 1923, many right-wing groups wanted to emulate Mussolini's "March on Rome" by a "March on Berlin". Among these were the wartime General Erich Ludendorff and the Nazi group, led by Adolf Hitler. Hitler decided to try to seize power in what was known as the "Hitler Putsch" or Beer Hall Putsch.
Hitler and Ludendorff sought support of the triumvirate. However, Kahr and Lossow had their own plan to install a nationalist dictatorship without Hitler. On 8 November 1923, Hitler and the SA stormed a public meeting of 3,000 people, organized by Kahr in the Bürgerbräukeller, a large beer hall in Munich. Hitler interrupted Kahr's speech and announced that the national revolution had begun, declaring the formation of a new government with Ludendorff. While waving his gun around, Hitler demanded the support of Kahr and Lossow. Lossow and Seisser were detained. After Hitler left the Beer Hall to supervise the activities of the putschists, Kahr and Lossow were released, ostensibly to fulfill Hitler's orders at their respective offices. Instead, the men fled to join the opposition to Hitler, they went to the barracks of the local infantry regiment, where General Jakob Ritter von Danner, Munich garrison commandant and technically Lossow's deputy, met them. Ritter von Danner, directed independently by General von Seeckt to put down the coup, asked if their statements at the Beer Hall was a ruse to escape Nazi custody.
The triumvirate agreed, fearing the consequences of their initial cooperation with the putschists, acted to put down the putsch attempt. Lossow escaped any disciplinary action for his behavior during the putsch attempt, but never held another command. Witnesses and testimonies of the Armenian Genocide
A triumvirate is a political regime ruled or dominated by three powerful individuals known as triumvirs. The arrangement can be informal. Though the three are notionally equal, this is the case in reality; the term can be used to describe a state with three different military leaders who all claim to be the sole leader. In the context of the Soviet Union and Russia, the term troika is used for "triumvirate". Another synonym is triarchy. Triumviri were special commissions of three men appointed for specific administrative tasks apart from the regular duties of Roman magistrates; the triumviri capitales, for instance, oversaw prisons and executions, along with other functions that, as Andrew Lintott notes, show them to have been "a mixture of police superintendents and justices of the peace." The capitales were first established around 290–287 BCE. They were supervised by the praetor urbanus; these triumviri, or the tresviri nocturni, may have taken some responsibility for fire control. The triumviri monetalis supervised the issuing of Roman coins.
Three-man commissions were appointed for purposes such as establishing colonies or distributing land. Triumviri mensarii served as public bankers. Another form of three-man commission was the tresviri epulones, who were in charge of organizing public feasts on holidays; this commission was created in 196 BCE by a tribunician law on behalf of the people, their number was increased to seven. The term is most used by historians to refer to the First Triumvirate of Julius Caesar, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Pompey the Great, the Second Triumvirate of Octavianus, Mark Antony, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. In the Bible triumvirates occurred at some notable events in both the Old Testament and New Testament. In the Book of Exodus Moses, his brother Aaron and, according to some views their nephew or brother-in-law, Hur acted this way during Battle of Rephidim against the Amalekites. In the Gospels as a leading trio among the Twelve Apostles at three particular occasions during public ministry of Jesus acted Peter, son of Zebedee and his brother John.
They were the only apostles present at the Raising of Jairus' daughter, Transfiguration of Jesus and Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane. At the time of the Early Christian Church this triumvirate of the leading apostles changed as it became composed of Peter and James, brother of Jesus. One of the most notable triumvirates formed in the history of China was by the Han Dynasty statesmen Huo Guang, Jin Midi, Shangguan Jie 上官桀, following the death of Emperor Wu of Han and the installation of the child emperor Zhao. Despite the Three Excellencies—including the Chancellor, Imperial Secretary, irregularly the Grand Commandant—representing the most senior ministerial positions of state, this triumvirate was supported by the economic technocrat and Imperial Secretary Sang Hongyang, their political lackey; the acting Chancellor Tian Qianqiu was easily swayed by the decisions of the triumvirate. The Three Excellencies existed in Western Han as the Chancellor, Imperial Secretary, Grand Commandant, but the Chancellor was viewed as senior to the Imperial Secretary while the post of Grand Commandant was vacant for most of the dynasty.
After Emperor Guangwu established the Eastern Han, the Grand Commandant was made a permanent official while the Minister over the Masses replaced the Chancellor and the Minister of Works replaced the Imperial Secretary. Unlike the three high officials in Western Han when the Chancellor was senior to all, these new three senior officials had equal censorial and advisory powers; when a young or weak-minded emperor ascended to the throne, these Three Excellencies could dominate the affairs of state. There were other types of triumvirates during the Eastern Han. In Hinduism, the gods Brahma and Shiva form the triumvirate Trimurti "in which the cosmic functions of creation and destruction are personified" by those gods.." Tamil Triumvirate refers to the triumvirate of Chola and Pandya who dominated the politics of the ancient Tamil country. The title was revived a few times for three-headed political'magistratures' in post-feudal times. While French Huguenots had derisively bestowed the name Triumvirate on the alliance formed in 1561 between Catholic Francis, Duke of Guise, Anne de Montmorency, Jacques Dalbon, Seigneur de Saint Andre during the French Wars of Religion, in years the term would be used to describe other arrangements within France.
At the end of the 1700s, when the French revolutionaries turned to several Roman Magistrature names for their new institutions, the three-headed collective Head of State was named Consulat, a term in use for two-headed magistratures since Antiquity.
Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ritter von Ludendorff was a German general, the victor of the Battle of Liège and the Battle of Tannenberg. From August 1916, his appointment as Quartermaster general made him the leader of the German war efforts during World War I; the failure of Germany's great Spring Offensive in 1918 in its quest for total victory was his great strategic failure and he was forced out in October 1918. After the war, Ludendorff became a prominent nationalist leader, a promoter of the Stab-in-the-back myth, which posited that the German loss in World War I was caused by the betrayal of the German Army by Marxists and Jews who were furthermore responsible for the disadvantageous settlement negotiated for Germany in the Treaty of Versailles, he took part in the failed Kapp Putsch with Wolfgang Kapp in 1920 and the Beer Hall Putsch of Adolf Hitler in 1923, in 1925, he ran unsuccessfully for the office of President of Germany against his former superior Hindenburg. From 1924 to 1928, he represented the German Völkisch Freedom Party in the Reichstag.
Pursuing a purely military line of thought after the war, Ludendorff developed the theory of "Total War", which he published as Der totale Krieg in 1935. In this work, he argued that the entire physical and moral forces of the nation should be mobilized, because peace was an interval between wars. Ludendorff was a recipient of the Grand Cross of the Pour le Mérite. Ludendorff was born on 9 April 1865 in Kruszewnia near Posen, Province of Posen, Kingdom of Prussia, the third of six children of August Wilhelm Ludendorff, his father was descended from Pomeranian merchants who had achieved the prestigious status of Junker. Erich's mother, Klara Jeanette Henriette von Tempelhoff, was the daughter of the noble but impoverished Friedrich August Napoleon von Tempelhoff and his wife Jeannette Wilhelmine von Dziembowska, who came from a Germanized Polish landed family on the side of her father Stephan von Dziembowski. Through Dziembowski's wife Johanna Wilhelmine von Unruh, Erich was a remote descendant of the Counts of Dönhoff, the Dukes of Duchy of Liegnitz and Duchy of Brieg and the Marquesses and Electors of Brandenburg.
He had a comfortable childhood, growing up on their small family farm. Erich received his early schooling from his maternal aunt and had a gift for mathematics, as did his younger brother Hans who became a distinguished astronomer, he passed the entrance exam for the Cadet School at Plön with distinction, he was put in a class two years ahead of his age group, thereafter he was first in his class. Ludendorff's education continued at the Hauptkadettenschule at Groß-Lichterfelde near Berlin through 1882. In 1885, Ludendorff was commissioned as a subaltern into the 57th Infantry Regiment at Wesel. Over the next eight years, he was promoted to lieutenant and saw further service in the 2nd Marine Battalion, based at Kiel and Wilhelmshaven, in the 8th Grenadier Guards at Frankfurt on the Oder, his service reports reveal the highest praise, with frequent commendations. In 1893, he entered the War Academy, where the commandant, General Meckel, recommended him to the General Staff, to which he was appointed in 1894.
He rose and was a senior staff officer at the headquarters of V Corps from 1902 to 1904. Next he joined the Great General Staff in Berlin, commanded by Alfred von Schlieffen, Ludendorff directed the Second or Mobilization Section from 1904–13. Soon he was joined by a brilliant artillery officer, who became a close friend. In 1910 at age 45 "the'old sinner', as he liked to hear himself called" married the daughter of a wealthy factory owner, Margarethe Schmidt, they met in a rainstorm. She divorced bringing three stepsons and a stepdaughter, their marriage pleased both families and he was devoted to his stepchildren. By 1911, Ludendorff was a full colonel, his section was responsible for writing the mass of detailed orders needed to bring the mobilized troops into position to implement the Schlieffen Plan. For this they covertly surveyed frontier fortifications in Russia and Belgium. For instance, in 1911 Ludendorff visited the key Belgian fortress city of Liège. Deputies of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, which became the largest party in the Reichstag after the German federal elections of 1912 gave priority to army expenditures, whether to build up its reserves or to fund advanced weaponry such as Krupp's siege cannons.
Instead, they preferred to concentrate military spending on the Imperial German Navy. Ludendorff's calculations showed that to properly implement the Schlieffen Plan the Army lacked six corps. Members of the General Staff were instructed to keep out of politics and the public eye, but Ludendorff shrugged off such restrictions. With a retired general, August Keim, the head of the Pan-German League, Heinrich Class, he vigorously lobbied the Reichstag for the additional men. In 1913 funding was approved for four additional corps but Ludendorff was transferred to regimental duties as commander of the 39th Fusiliers, stationed at Düsseldorf. "I attributed the change for my having pressed for those three additional army corps."Barbara Tuchman characterizes Ludendorff in her book The Guns of August as Schlieffen's devoted disciple, a glutton for work and a ma
The Reichswehr formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the new Wehrmacht. At the end of World War I, the forces of the German Empire were disbanded, the men returning home individually or in small groups. Many of them joined the Freikorps, a collection of volunteer paramilitary units that were involved in suppressing the German Revolution and border clashes between 1918 and 1923; the Reichswehr was limited to a standing army of 100,000 men, a navy of 15,000. The establishment of a general staff was prohibited. Heavy weapons such as artillery above the calibre of 105 mm, armoured vehicles and capital ships were forbidden, as were aircraft of any kind. Compliance with these restrictions was monitored until 1927 by the Military Inter-Allied Commission of Control, it was conceded that the newly formed Weimar Republic did need a military, so on 6 March 1919 a decree established the Vorläufige Reichswehr, consisting of the Vorläufiges Reichsheer and Vorläufige Reichsmarine.
The Vorläufige Reichswehr was made up of 43 brigades. On 30 September 1919, the army was reorganised as the Übergangsheer, the force size was reduced to 20 brigades. About 400,000 men were left in the armed forces, in May 1920 it further was downsized to 200,000 men and restructured again, forming three cavalry divisions and seven infantry divisions. On 1 October 1920 the brigades were replaced by regiments and the manpower was now only 100,000 men as stipulated by the Treaty of Versailles; this lasted until 1 January 1921, when the Reichswehr was established according to the limitations imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. The Reichswehr was a unified organisation composed of the following: The Reichsheer, an army consisted of: seven infantry divisions, three cavalry divisions. General Command 1 at Berlin supervised 1st Division, 2nd Division, 3rd Division, 4th Division as well as 1st and 2nd Cavalry Divisions. General Command 2 at Kassel supervised 5, 6, 7 and 3rd Cavalry divisions; the Reichsmarine, a navy with a limited number of certain types of ships and boats.
No submarines were allowed. Despite the limitations on its size, their analysis of the loss of World War I, research and development, secret testing abroad and planning for better times went on. In addition, although forbidden to have a General Staff, the army continued to conduct the typical functions of a general staff under the disguised name of Truppenamt. During this time, many of the future leaders of the Wehrmacht – such as Heinz Guderian – first formulated the ideas that they were to use so a few years later. In 1918, Wilhelm Groener, Quartermaster General of the German Army, had assured the government of the military's loyalty, but most military leaders refused to accept the democratic Weimar Republic as legitimate and instead the Reichswehr under the leadership of Hans von Seeckt became a state within the state that operated outside of the control of the politicians. Reflecting this position as a “state within the state”, the Reichswehr created the Ministeramt or Office of the Ministerial Affairs in 1928 under Kurt von Schleicher to lobby the politicians.
The German historian Eberhard Kolb wrote that …from the mid-1920s onwards the Army leaders had developed and propagated new social conceptions of a militarist kind, tending towards a fusion of the military and civilian sectors and a totalitarian military state. The biggest influence on the development of the Reichswehr was Hans von Seeckt, who served from 1920 to 1926 as Chef der Heeresleitung – succeeding Walther Reinhardt. After the Kapp Putsch, Hans von Seeckt took over this post. After Seeckt was forced to resign in 1926, Wilhelm Heye took the post. Heye was in 1930 succeeded by Kurt Freiherr von Hammerstein-Equord, who submitted his resignation on 27 December 1933; the forced reduction of strength of the German army from 4,500,000 in 1918 to 100,000 after Treaty of Versailles, enhanced the quality of the Reichsheer because only the best were permitted to join the army. However the changing face of warfare meant that the smaller army was impotent without mechanization and air support, no matter how much effort was put into modernising infantry tactics.
During 1933 and 1934, after Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany, the Reichswehr began a secret program of expansion. In December 1933, the army staff decided to increase the active strength to 300,000 men in 21 divisions. On 1 April 1934, between 50,000 and 60,000 new recruits entered and were assigned to special training battalions; the original seven infantry divisions of the Reichswehr were expanded to 21 infantry divisions, with Wehrkreis headquarters increased to the size of a corps HQ on 1 October 1934. These divisions used cover names to hide their divisional size, during October 1935, these were dropped. During October 1934, the officers, forced to retire in 1919 were recalled; the Nazi Party came to power in Germany in 1933. The Sturmabteilung, the Nazi Party militia, played a prominent part in this change. Ernst Röhm and his SA colleagues thought of their force – at that time over three million strong – as the future army of Germany, replacing the smaller Reichswehr and
William L. Shirer
William Lawrence Shirer was an American journalist and war correspondent. He wrote The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, a history of Nazi Germany, read by many and cited in scholarly works for more than 50 years. A foreign correspondent for the Chicago Tribune and the International News Service, Shirer was the first reporter hired by Edward R. Murrow for what would become a CBS radio team of journalists known as "Murrow's Boys", he became known for his broadcasts from Berlin, from the rise of the Nazi dictatorship through the first year of World War II. With Murrow, he organized the first broadcast world news roundup, a format still followed by news broadcasts. Shirer wrote more than a dozen books besides The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, including Berlin Diary. Born in Chicago in 1904, Shirer attended Washington High School and Coe College in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, he graduated from Coe in 1925. Working his way to Europe on a cattle boat to spend the summer there, he remained in Europe for 15 years.
He was European correspondent for the Chicago Tribune from 1925 to 1932, covering Europe, the Near East and India. In India he formed a friendship with Mohandas Gandhi. Shirer lived and worked in France for several years starting in 1925, he left in the early 1930s but returned to Paris throughout the decade. He lived and worked in Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1940. In 1931, Shirer married an Austrian photographer; the couple had two daughters and Linda. Shirer and his wife divorced in 1970. In 1972 he married Martha Pelton, whom he divorced in 1975, his third marriage was to a long-time teacher of Russian at Simon's Rock College. Shirer and Irina had no children. Shirer was residing in Massachusetts at the time of his death; as a print journalist and as a radio reporter for CBS, Shirer covered the strengthening one-party rule in Nazi Germany beginning in 1933. Shirer reported on Adolf Hitler's peacetime triumphs like the return of the Saarland to Germany and the remilitarization of the Rhineland. Shirer was hired in 1934 for the Berlin bureau of the Universal Service, one of William Randolph Hearst's two wire services.
In Berlin Diary, Shirer described this move, in a self-proclaimed bad pun, as going from "bad to Hearst". When Universal Service folded in August 1937, Shirer was first taken on as second man by Hearst's other wire service, International News Service laid off a few weeks later. On the day when Shirer received two weeks' notice from INS, he received a wire from Edward R. Murrow, European manager of Columbia Broadcasting System, suggesting that the two meet. At their meeting a few days in Berlin, Murrow said that he couldn't cover all of Europe from London and that he was seeking an experienced correspondent to open a CBS office on the Continent, he offered Shirer a job subject to an audition—a "trial broadcast"—to let CBS directors and vice presidents in New York judge Shirer's voice. Shirer feared that his reedy voice was unsuitable for radio; as European bureau chief, he set up headquarters in Vienna, a more central and more neutral spot than Berlin. His job was to arrange broadcasts, early in his career he expressed disappointment at having to hire newspaper correspondents to do the broadcasting.
Shirer was the first of "Murrow's Boys", broadcast journalists who provided news coverage during World War II and afterward. CBS's prohibition of correspondents talking on the radio, viewed by Murrow and Shirer as "absurd", ended in March 1938. Shirer was in Vienna on March 11, 1938, when the German annexation of Austria took place after weeks of mounting pressure by Nazi Germany on the Austrian government; as the only American broadcaster in Vienna, Shirer had a scoop but lacked the facilities to report it to his audience. Occupying German troops controlling the Austrian state radio studio would not let him broadcast. At Murrow's suggestion, Shirer flew to London via Berlin. Once in London, Shirer broadcast the first uncensored eyewitness account of the annexation. Meanwhile, Murrow flew from London to Vienna to cover for Shirer; the next day, CBS's New York headquarters asked Shirer and Murrow to produce a European roundup, a 30-minute broadcast featuring live reporting from five European capitals: Berlin, Paris and London.
The broadcast, arranged in eight hours using the telephone and broadcasting facilities of the day, was a major feat. This first news roundup established a formula still used in broadcast journalism, it was the genesis of what became CBS World News Roundup, still on the network each morning and evening, network broadcasting's oldest news series. Shirer reported on the Munich Agreement and Hitler's occupation of Czechoslovakia before reporting on the growing tensions between Germany and Poland in 1939 and the German invasion of Poland that launched World War II on September 1, 1939. During much of the pre-war period, Shirer was based in Berlin and attended Hitler's speeches and several party rallies in Nuremberg; when war broke out on the Western Front in 1940, Shirer moved forward with the German troops, reporting firsthand on the German "Blitzkrieg". Shirer reported on the invasion of Denmark and Norway in April from Berlin and on the invasion of the Netherlands, Luxembour
The Bürgerbräukeller was a large beer hall in Munich, Germany. Opened in 1885, it was one of the largest beer halls of the Bürgerliches Brauhaus. After Bürgerliches merged with Löwenbräu in 1921, the hall was transferred to that company; the Bürgerbräukeller was where Adolf Hitler launched the Beer Hall Putsch in November 1923, in 1939 saw an attempted assassination of Hitler and other Nazi leaders by Georg Elser. It survived aerial bombing in World War II; the Bürgerbräukeller was demolished in the Gasteig complex being built on its site. The Bürgerbräukeller was located in the Haidhausen district of Munich on the east side of the Isar River; the entrance was with rear access from Keller Street. Since 1980, the site has been redeveloped with the construction of the Gasteig Culture Centre, the Hilton Munich City Hotel and the headquarters of GEMA; as early as the 16th century, brewers in Bavaria would collect the barrels of beer near the end of the brewing season and stock them in specially developed cellars for the summer.
By the 18th century, brewers discovered they could make a greater profit if they opened their garden-topped cellars to the public and served the beer on site. In the 20th century, the Bürgerbräukeller had both a cellar and a beer garden, as well as the grand hall for indoor functions; the grand hall was a rectangular space accommodating up to 3,000 people, though less in full dining mode. Freestanding pillars on either side of the hall supported the roof; the load-bearing walls and the internal pillars with classical capitals were plastered brickwork. A decorative plastered ceiling, divided into bays with three rows of chandeliers, concealed steel beams supporting the timber roof structure. From 1920 to 1923, the Bürgerbräukeller was one of the main gathering places of the Nazi Party. There, on 8 November 1923, Adolf Hitler launched the Beer Hall Putsch. After Hitler seized power in 1933, he commemorated each anniversary on the night of 8 November with an address to the Alte Kämpfer in the great hall of the Bürgerbräukeller.
The following day, a re-enactment was conducted of the march through the streets of Munich from the Bürgerbräukeller to Königsplatz. The event climaxed with a ceremony at the Feldherrnhalle to revere the 16'blood martyrs' of the Beer Hall Putsch. In 1939, a time bomb concealed inside a pillar in the Bürgerbräukeller was set to go off during Hitler's Beer Hall Putsch address on 8 November; the bomb exploded, killing eight people and injuring 57, but Hitler had cut short his speech and had left. An Anarchist, Georg Elser, was arrested, imprisoned for 5 ½ years, executed shortly before the end of the war; the building suffered severe structural damage from Elser's bomb, in subsequent years, 1940-1943, the Beer Hall Putsch address was held at the Löwenbräukeller at Stiglmaierplatz, in 1944 at the Circus Krone Building. After the attempted assassination of Hitler on 8 November 1939, repairs began on the Bürgerbräukeller with the intention of repairing the building to its original state. Due to the shortage of materials, work was never completed.
During the Allied aerial bombing of Munich, a single bomb hit the hall where the 1939 explosion had taken place, but failed to explode. When American forces entered Munich on April 30, 1945, the 42nd ‘Rainbow’ Infantry Division found the Bürgerbräukeller filthy, piled with Nazi Party records, unused; the Bürgerbräukeller served as an American Red Cross Club starting in late 1945 and became a Special Services club in September 1947. An average of 1,700 servicemen made use of the various facilities of the club every day; the Bürgerbräukeller was one of nine service clubs in the Munich Military Post. With the departure of American forces in 1957, the Bürgerbräukeller was taken over by the Lowenbrau Beer Company, after partial rebuilding, was reopened as a bierkeller at Christmas, 1958. In preparation for the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich, the city authorities undertook the construction of an underground railway system; the construction of station escalators emerging on Rosenheimerstrasse, next to the Bürgerbräukeller, required the cellar, used for Nazi Party meetings, to be sealed off.
In 1976, the great hall at the rear was still available for large gatherings. In the 1970s, it was in use as a recording studio, Carlos Kleiber's La Traviata being recorded there in 1976; the Bürgerbräukeller was demolished in 1979 in a redevelopment programme, as were the nearby Münchner-Kindl-Keller and the Hofbräu brewery. On the Bürgerbräukeller site now stands the GEMA building, the Gasteig Cultural Centre, the Munich City Hilton Hotel. Near the entrance to the GEMA building, a plaque in the paving marks the position of the pillar that concealed Georg Elser's bomb in his attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler. Third Reich in Ruins-photographs Hitler Pages-photographs 1939 Bürgerbräukeller Bombing-List of Victims