Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Grundtvigs Church is located in the Bispebjerg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is an example of expressionist church architecture. Due to its appearance, it is one of the best known churches in the city. The foundation of the new church was laid after World War I, on 8 September 1921. Building took place mainly from 1921 to 1926 when the section was completed. Further work on the interior and on adjacent buildings continued until 1940 and was completed by Klints son Kaare Klint after his fathers death in 1930, the church stands at the centre of a residential development, in yellow brick, designed by Jensen-Klint in harmony with the church. Jensen-Klints design for Grundtvigs Church is a synthesis of architectural styles, in preparation for the project, the architect studied many Danish village churches, particularly those on the island of Zealand with stepped gables. Their traditional building techniques and decoration inspired his design, Klint merged the modern geometric forms of Brick Expressionism with the classical vertical of Gothic architecture.
The most striking feature of the building is its west facade and it includes the 49 m tall bell tower. The imposing facade with its strong verticality guides ones eyes towards the sky, the bottom half of the tower is simple brick while the upper reaches present the appearance of one solid, rippling surface. Klint decorated the nave with a version of the stepped gables common on Danish churches, the nave was designed with generous dimensions, the triple-aisled hall church is 76 m long in total and 35 m wide, the nave has a height of 22 m. The interior, inspired by Gothic architecture and comparable in size to Copenhagen cathedral, some six million yellow bricks, a typical Danish building material, were used for the edifice. In its floor plan, the interior resembles that of a typical Gothic church with a nave, two lateral aisles and a small transept. Its proportions are Gothic, a long, narrow nave, a high ceiling, the columns which rise up to pointed arches. But it is the brick and the lack of ornamentation which contribute to the Gothic verticality while adhering to the minimalist modern aesthetic.
The one on the side of the nave near the chancel was built in 1940 by Marcussen & Søn. It has 14 stops, two manuals and a pedalboard, the much larger Marcussen instrument at the western end of the nave was added in 1965 with a facade designed by Kaare Klints son, Esben Klint. It has 55 stops, four manuals and a pedalboard, the largest of its pipes weighs 425 kg and, with a length of 32 feet, is the longest organ pipe in Scandinavia
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Anna Church, Copenhagen
Anna Church is a Lutheran church in the Nørrebro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It was designed by Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint, best known for his design of Grundtvigs Church, built in three stages, it was completed between 1914 and 1928. In 1907 the Copenhagen Church Trust acquired a plot of land. An Anna Committee was therefore set up, consisting of women named Anna from throughout the country, Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint was commissioned to make a design in 1911 and it was built from 1913 to 1914. The church is named after Anna the Prophetess who appears in the passage from the Gospel about the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple which was read at the opening on 27 December 1914. After some years the church had become too small and Jensen-Klint was asked to design an extension, once again the Anna Committee raised the necessary funds. This extension added a hall in a lateral which had a gable toward the street. The last extension was carried out from 1924 to 1928 and added a second wing at the other end of the nave.
The church consists of three built in red brick. The two lateral wings have stepped gables facing the street and flank a U-shaped space in front of the main wing, the roof is of red tiles and has two Flèches with the bells. The brickwork is an exemplar of Jensen Klints style
Immanuel Church, Copenhagen
Immanuel Church is a church in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It belongs to Københavns Valgmenighed and Vartov Valgmenighed, two Grundtvigian congregations under Church of Denmark, the building was designed by Andreas Clemmesen and completed in 1893. The church was built for the first Grundtvigian concregation in Denmark which had separated from the Vartov congregation, the congregation first assembled at a local folk high school on Cjr. Winters Vej, but soon began construction of the new church which was consecrated on 29 October 1893, the detached clock tower was designed by af R. V. Rue in 1904 and completed in 1905 together with some of the surrounding features, the church is built in large red brick of the type in Denmark known as Munkesten in a Romanesque Revival style inspired by Italian churches in Ravenna and Sienna. It is a building under a barrel vaulted roof with a semi-circular choir to the east. The round-arched entrance is located in the west gable and it has a tympanum with a glass mosaic.
Four additional entrances, two on each side of the building, have glass mosaics in their tympana, the eastern mosaic on the south side was designed by Niels Skovgaard, while the rest are by Joakim Skovgaard. The north and south have double-height windows. There is a blinded, ornamental gallery with 11 arches supported by columns above the entrance on the west gable. The altarpiece is a painting by Niels Skovgaard with a decorated wooden frame carved by Poul S. Christiansen. The front of the table is designed by Niels Skovgaard. The altar carpet, —decorated with lilies and crocuses, was designed by Joakim Skovgaard, the organ was made by A. H. Buch and dates from 1896. Other decorative features include several reliefs of religious subjects by Joakim Skovgaard, Niels Skovgaard and Christian C. Peters
Frederiksberg is a part of the Capital Region of Denmark. It is formally an independent municipality, Frederiksberg Municipality, but is treated as a part of Copenhagen. It occupies an area of less than 9 km2 and had a population of 103,192 in 2015, Frederiksberg is an enclave surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality and there is no clear border between the two. Some sources ambiguously refer to Frederiksberg as a quarter or neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg has its own mayor and municipal council, and is fiercely independent. Frederiksberg is considered to be an affluent, or posh, the town is characterised by its many green spaces, such as the Frederiksberg Gardens and Søndermarken. Some institutions and locations that are considered to be part of Copenhagen are actually located in Frederiksberg. For example, Copenhagen Zoo as well as stations of the Copenhagen Metro are located in Frederiksberg. The Copenhagen S-train system has stations in Frederiksberg, including Peter Bangs Vej station.
Frederiksbergs original name was Tulehøj, indicating that a thul lived there, the term is known from the Snoldelev rune stone. In Beowulf, Unferth holds the same title, in Håvamål, Odin himself is referred to as the old thul. Thula translates as song, like in the Rigsthula poem from the Edda, by 1443 the name Tulehøj was spelled Tulleshøy. It was regarded as Copenhagens border to the west, people lived here since the Bronze Age. Farming was not very successful, and in 1697 most of the burned down. This meant that the peasants were unable to pay taxes, in 1700-1703, King Frederik IV built a palace on top of the hill known as Valby Bakke. He named the palace Frederichs Berg, and the town at the foot of the hill consequently changed its name to Frederiksberg. A number of the houses were bought by wealthy citizens of Copenhagen who did not farm the land. The town changed slowly from a community to a merchant town, with craftsmen. During the summer rooms were offered for rent, and restaurants served food to the people of Copenhagen who had left the city for the open land
Indre By, known as Copenhagen Center or K or Downtown Copenhagen, is an administrative district in central Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark. It covers an area of 4.65 square kilometres, has a population of 26,223, and its boundaries pretty much reflect the entire city’s extent during the reign of King Christian IV. At the time it was a city and its borders were made of defensive walls with moats. To ensure water for the moats there was a series of dams, the gates were dismantled in 1856. The locations are now commemorated with milestones erected on the spot, additionally artificial lakes were constructed as part of Christian IVs large building project. These still exist to this day, and are simply referred to as the lakes. The area beyond the lakes, now heavily populated city districts, was used primarily for grazing. It was prohibited to build beyond these original city limits so that the cannons could have clear shot. The fortification system was sold to Copenhagen municipality in 1869 and largely dismantled the year after, evidence of the walls can be found in the street names outlining the central part of the city.
From Kastellet at the northeast point of the district runs Øster Voldgade to the southwest, the street changes names near Nørreport Train Station and continues as Nørre Voldgade. Vester Voldgade starts at Ørsteds Park and runs southeast until it reaches the water of Copenhagen Harbour, the fortification system continues on the other side of the water in the Christianshavn city district. Copenhagen was founded around year 1000 by Sweyn I Forkbeard and his son Canute the Great and it was only a fishing village until the middle of the 12th century when Havn, as the town was called, assumed increasing importance in the Danish kingdom. Around 1160 King Waldemar the Great gave control of Copenhagen to Absalon, whereas other cities in the Danish realm were under the governance of the king, Havn or Købmannehavn as it comes to be known, was given to the Bishop of Roskilde. Bishop Absalon built his fortified Castle at Havn in 1167 on an island outside the harbour itself. In the years that follow, the town grew tenfold in size, the excellent harbour encouraged Copenhagens growth until it became an important centre of commerce.
Købmannehavns economy blossomed due to the income from an enormous herring fishery trade, in 1254, it received its charter as a city under Bishop Jakob Erlandsen. It was repeatedly attacked by Wend pirates and the Hanseatic League and again the town was besieged and laid waste by the Hanseatic League. In 1369 they tore down the castle, but a new castle—Copenhagen Castle was built in its place, at the same time the Danish king was attempting to take Copenhagen back from the bishop. The crown succeeded in 1416, when King Erik of Pomerania took control of the town, thenceforth Copenhagen belonged to the Danish Crown
St. Peter's Church, Copenhagen
St. Peters Church is the parish church of the German-speaking community in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is situated at the corner of Nørregade and Sankt Peders Stræde in the citys Latin Quarter, built as a single-nave church in the mid-15th century, it is the oldest building in central Copenhagen. It is notable for its complex of sepulchral chapels. St. Peters Church was in the Middle Ages one out of four Catholic parish churches in Copenhagen and it is first mentioned in 1304 but was most likely founded in the 12th century. The first church burnt down in 1380 but was shortly thereafter. After the Reformation the church building was for a used as a canon. Frederick II presented St. Peters Church to his German-speaking subjects in 1585, the building was renovated by Hans van Steenwinckel the Elder who added a gablet upper floor to the uncompleted tower, which was however replaced by a spire in the 17th century. The church became a centre for Copenhagens political, economic and military elite, the rapidly growing congregation made it necessary to expand the church in several stages.
Christian IV added a transept in 1631 and a southern transept in 1634. Just 60 years later, Christian V extended the north transept with a further three severies, the distinctive sepulchral chapels arose between 1648 and 1740. St. Peters Church was severely damaged in the Copenhagen Fire of 1728, the interior was lost to the flames but the outer walls were left intact and the church could fairly easily be rebuilt by Johan Cornelius Krieger. The church was first given a lantern spire which was replaced by the current copper-clad spire in 1756-57. The spire survived the British bombardment during the Battle of Copenhagen in 1807, as time passed, it became an impossible task for the congregation to maintain the large building complex, and in 1994 the state took over the church back into its care. St. Peters Church was originally built as a church but with Christian IVs addition of the northern and southern transepts. Most of the church, including the nave, the choir, the main entrance is located in the southern transept and is marked by a richly carved Baroque portal from 1731, carved by the sculptor Diderik Gercken.
The complex contains numerous tombs and epitaphs of important German families in Denmark, beneath the tombs contain the sarcofages of the most destinguished family members while other chests are placed in three to four layers in underground crypts. Many of the chapels are made by Johannes Wiedewelt and Andreas Weidenhaupt, amidst the chapels lies the idylic herb garden. The congregation arranges guided tours and other events in the historic building
Valby is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is in the corner of Copenhagen Municipality, and has a mixture of different types of housing. Valby Hill marks the boundary between Valby and the — more central and more urban — neighbouring Vesterbro district, the expression west of Valby Hill is in Danish often used as a metonym for the provinces or outside Copenhagen. With the progressing redevelopment of the Carlsberg area into a new lively, high-density neighbourhood, other former industrial sites are under redevelopment and Valby is today one of the districts in Copenhagen with the fastest growing population. Valby covers an area of 9.23 km² and has a population of 46,161, the most distinctive geographical features of the district are Valby Hill in its north-eastern corner and Harrestrup Å which marks its western boundary. Valby borders on Damhus Lake in its extreme north-western corner, the Danshøj tumulus, along with many other archeological finds in the area, provides evidence that the Valby area has been inhabited since ancient times.
Modern Valby has developed around the two villages of Valby and Vigerslev, the first recorded mention of the name Valby is from 1186, as Walbu, but the history of both settlements probably goes back considerably longer. Valby means village/house on the plain, in the early Middle Ages both villages came under Utterslev, a Crown estate which included most of the area around Havn, the small market town which became Copenhagen. In 1682, Valby had 13 farms and 25 houses with no more land than a modest garden, at the time, the Valby community did not have its own church but instead, since 1628, belonged to Hvidovre Parish. In 1675, Hvidovre Church was extended with a Valby nave, in the 17th century, the road to Roskilde was taken through Valby and an inn opened. The first holder of the license was Hans Pedersen Bladt, a merchant who was elected mayor of Copenhagen in 1675. Valby profited from the proximity of Frederiksberg Palace which was constructed from 1699 to 1703 atop Valby Hill as a new residence for King Frederick IV.
The royal presence in the area brought along more activity in the village and it is said that Queen Marie Sophie, consort of King Frederick VI, often rode through Valby, handing out candy to the children. In 1721, the granted the community new trading privileges and a Rytterskole. Valby became particularly associated with raising poultry which the Valby women sold beside the Caritas Well on Gammeltorv in Copenhagen, the trade took place on Wednesdays and Saturdays, which were market days, until 1857. Instead Valby began to develop into an area where members of the bourgeoisie took up summer residency, one of the first to arrive in Valby proper was the actor James Price who spent his first summer there in 1795, shortly after his arrival in Denmark. He was followed by members of the bourgeoisie. When the first railway out of Copenhagen opened in 1847, a 30 km rail line to Roskilde, it had an intermediate station slightly east of where Valby station lies today
St. Paul's Church, Copenhagen
St. Pauls Church is a Lutheran church in central Copenhagen, colloquially known as Nyboders Church due to its location in the middle of the Nyboder area. It was designed by Johannes Emil Gnudtzmann and constructed from 1872 to 1877, the church is part of a wave of church constructions which took place in Copenhagen in the 1870s to provide capacity for the citys growing population. Stephens and St. James in Østerbro and St. Mathews in Vesterbro—St, the church is built in red brick and the masonry is decorated with blinds, arches and pinnacles on all corners. The churchs first altarpiece was a painting by Hendrick Krock entitled The Eucharist, in 1887 it was replaced by a gilded crucifix created by the sculptor Jens Adolf Jerichau, a donation from pastor Christian Møller. The space surrounding the church is called Sankt Pauls Plads, on the southeast side of the church are some of the socalled Grey Tows of the Nyboder development. They were designed by Olaf Schmidth and are younger than the more well-known terraces of the neighbourhood, on the other side of the church street are a row of apartment buildings from the 1870s.
To the rear of the church is the former Gernersgade Barracks, two of Nyboders Yellow Rows flank Adelgade in front of the church
St. Luke's Church, Copenhagen
St. Lukes Church is a Church of Denmark church located in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. Completed in 1897 to the design of Valdemar Koch, who built several other churches in Copenhagen around that time. By the late 19th century, the population of Frederiksberg parish had grown to about 60,000 inhabitants, at the same time it was decided to divide Frederiksberg into four parishes with St. Luke’s Church as the first of the three new churches to be built. The architect Valdemar Koch was charged with the commission and he had already designed two churches in Copenhagen, Kapernaum Church in Nørrebro and Zions Church in Østerbro. Ground was broken on 26 April 1896 and the new church was consecrated on 29 May 1897 with Ostenfeld as pastor, the construction costs amounted to DKK 75–80,000. The church was expanded with a porch in 1964 which was replaced in 1995 by one designed by the firm Per Gents, St. Lukes is built in Neo-Romanesque style. It stands on a plinth, and is built in red brick with ornamental bands.
The reliefs and sculptures by Thomas Bærentzen are in light-coloured stone, there is a flèche at the west end of the building. The barrel vaulted interior opens into an arcade leading to the sacristy at the eastern end, the rich interior decorations are partly made to Kochs own design and include paradise flowers which can be found in all of Koch’s churches in Copenhagen. On the walls above the windows there are fluttering angels and citations from the Gospel of Luke painted by Carl Budtz Møller in 1910, on the walls over the windows there are fluttering angels and citations from St Lukes gospel, painted by Carl Budtz Møller in 1910. The altarpiece is painted by Frans Schwartz and entitled Christ who reveals himself to his disciples, the altar table is a reconstruction from 1984 based on old oil paintings and photographs. The crucifix to the right of the altarpiece is executed in bog oak by Johannes Kragh and is a donation from 1929, the baptismal font is carved in granite from drawings by Valdemar Koch.
The church is a church within the Church of Denmark. Church of Christ, Copenhagen Official website
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning administration. When now used in a sense, it refers to a territorial unit of administration. This structure of governance is known as episcopal polity. The word diocesan means relating or pertaining to a diocese and it can be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese. An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese, an archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or have had importance due to size or historical significance. The archbishop may have authority over any other suffragan bishops. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the bishopric is used to describe the bishop himself. Especially in the Middle Ages, some bishops held political as well as religious authority within their dioceses, in the organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. With the adoption of Christianity as the Empires official religion in the 4th century, a formal church hierarchy was set up, parallel to the civil administration, whose areas of responsibility often coincided.
With the collapse of the Western Empire in the 5th century, a similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was largely retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division, modern usage of diocese tends to refer to the sphere of a bishops jurisdiction. As of January 2015, in the Catholic Church there are 2,851 regular dioceses,1 papal see,641 archdioceses and 2,209 dioceses in the world, in the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy. Eastern Orthodoxy calls dioceses metropoleis in the Greek tradition or eparchies in the Slavic tradition, after the Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as provinces and this usage is relatively common in the Anglican Communion.
Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics and these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory. The Lutheran Church-International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure and its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes. The Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States, in the COGIC, each state is divided up into at least three dioceses that are all led by a bishop, but some states as many as seven dioceses