A distribution center for a set of products is a warehouse or other specialized building with refrigeration or air conditioning, stocked with products to be redistributed to retailers, to wholesalers, or directly to consumers. A distribution center is a principal part, the order processing element, of the entire order fulfillment process. Distribution centers are thought of as being demand driven. A distribution center can be called a warehouse, a DC, a fulfillment center, a cross-dock facility, a bulk break center, a package handling center; the name by which the distribution center is known is based on the purpose of the operation. For example, a "retail distribution center" distributes goods to retail stores, an "order fulfillment center" distributes goods directly to consumers, a cross-dock facility stores little or no product but distributes goods to other destinations. Distribution centers are the foundation of a supply network, as they allow a single location to stock a vast number of products.
Some organizations operate both retail distribution and direct-to-consumer out of a single facility, sharing space, labor resources, inventory as applicable. A typical retail distribution network operates with centers set up throughout a commercial market, with each center serving a number of stores. Large distribution centers for companies such as Wal-Mart serve 50–125 stores. Suppliers ship truckloads of products to the distribution center, which stores the product until needed by the retail location and ships the proper quantity. Since a large retailer might sell tens of thousands of products from thousands of vendors, it would be impossibly inefficient to ship each product directly from each vendor to each store. Many retailers own and run their own distribution networks, while smaller retailers may outsource this function to dedicated logistics firms that coordinate the distribution of products for a number of companies. A distribution center can be co-located at a logistics center. A large distribution center might receive and ship more than ten thousand truckloads each year, with an individual store receiving from only a couple trucks per week up to 20, 30, or more per week.
Distribution centers range in size from less than 50,000 square feet to the largest approaching 3 million square feet. Goods arrive and are stored in a distribution center in varying types of storage locations and containers suited to the product characteristics and the amount of product to be transported or stored; these types of locations and containers have specific industry-accepted names. Specialized pieces of equipment are used to handle the various types of containers; the following is a list of some of the names and characteristics of common storage containers: Intermodal containers are used for the efficient transportation of goods. Standards specify the volume and dimensions of containers to facilitate efficient handling. Pallets are one of the most used means to store and move product in a distribution center. There are many specialized devices used to handle pallets - see forklift truck, pallet jack, pallet inverter, unit load..... Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems. Pallets are stored on the floor, may be stacked, may be stored in pallet racking.
Gaylords are large single boxes connected or attached to a pallet. Cases and Cartons are boxes containing many items. In distribution centers there is a accepted distinction made between the terms "carton" and "case", although both are boxes. Goods are stored in cartons, while goods are shipped in cases. A stored carton is called a case once it has been pulled for shipment. Totes are reusable containers used to transport goods. Another way to look at a distribution center is to see it as a production or manufacturing operation. Goods arrive in bulk, they are stored until needed and assembled into shipments; the efficient processing of a distribution center can impact the final price of the product delivered to the end user. Efficient processing not only directly impacts the cost of goods through reduced labor, but it indirectly impacts the cost of goods through reduced inventory. Inventory represents an investment with its associated investment interest or inventory carrying cost. Reducing the processing time of order processing can directly reduce the amount of inventory necessary to be stocked in the operation.
The most efficient method of distribution would be to ship a full truckload or railcar directly from the manufacturer to the retailer. The next most efficient method would be to ship a full truckload to a distribution center, unload full pallets of products, load the pallets onto trucks destined for individual stores. Both of these methods can only be used on high-volume items. Most products cannot be delivered in this manner, pallets or individual boxes must be broken down and divided. Once a full pallet must be broken apart, the costs of handling the product can increase quickly. Many distribution centers use large sortation systems with miles of conveyor to move products through the facility and into a truck, they may have automated equipment for de-palletizing and re-palletizing product. Some of the most sophisticated systems can convey product directly into storage racks and convey out of the racks to trucks, all automatically. With a wide variety of product sizes and weights, these systems are designed to handle a specific range of products.
Large, heavy, or light products require varying degrees of manual handling. As the process of ha
Nampa is the largest city of Canyon County, Idaho. The population of Nampa was 81,557 at the 2010 census and, as of 2018, is the third-most populous city in Idaho. Nampa is about 20 miles west of Boise along Interstate 84, six miles west of Meridian. Nampa is the second principal city of the Boise-Nampa metropolitan area; the name "Nampa" may have come from a Shoshoni word meaning either footprint. Nampa began its life in the early 1880s when the Oregon Short Line Railroad built a line from Granger, Wyoming, to Huntington, which passed through Nampa. More railroad lines sprang up running through Nampa, making it a important railroad town. Alexander and Hannah Duffes established one of the town's first homesteads forming the Nampa Land and Improvement Company with the help of their friend and co-founder, James McGee. In spite of the name, many of the first settlers referred to the town as "New Jerusalem" because of the strong religious focus of its citizens. After only a year the town had grown from 15 homes to 50.
As new amenities were added to the town, Nampa continued its growth and was incorporated in 1890. Unlike most towns in that historic era with streets running true north and south, Nampa's historic roads run perpendicular to the railroad tracks that travel northwest to southeast through the town. Thus, the northside is the northeast side of the tracks, the southside is the southwest side of the railroad tracks. Founder Alexander Duffes laid out Nampa's streets this way to prevent an accident like one that occurred earlier in a town he had platted near Toronto, Canada. In that town, a woman and her two children were killed by a train when they started across the railroad tracks in a buggy and the wheel got stuck; as the Oregon Short Line railroad bypassed Boise, Nampa has the fanciest of many railroad depots built in the area. The first elementary school was built in the 1890s. Lakeview School was with a view of Lake Ethel. Just after the school's centennial celebration, it was condemned as a school and sold to the First Mennonite Church.
In 2008 the building was refurbished, is now being used by the Idaho Arts Charter School. Lake Ethel – an irrigation reservoir – had long been the site of community picnics, many citizens fished, swam and hunted on the lake and its surrounding property; the hunting didn't last for long, however, as O. F. Persons, owner of the adjoining homestead, took offense when local hunters started shooting his pet ducks; the city auctioned off the lake. E. H. Dewey was the only bidder, but occasional flooding led to a series of lawsuits from neighbors. Dewey drained Lake Ethel. Not long after, the city council became interested in buying back the Fritz Miller property as well as the Dewey home. Pressure had been building for more than four years. Nampa citizens wanted another park. On August 7, 1924, the city council passed an ordinance to purchase the Miller property and name it Lakeview Park. A bandstand was completed in 1928, the municipal swimming pool opened on August 13, 1934. Swim tickets cost 15 for a dollar.
It is Nampa's largest park and many community celebrations are held there. Colonel William H. Dewey, a man who made a fortune mining in Silver City, seeing the advantage of 4 railroad lines, built the elegant Dewey Palace Hotel in 1902 for a quarter of a million dollars. Colonel Dewey died in his hotel in 1903; the hotel survived the great fire of 1909, which burned several blocks of downtown Nampa, but was razed in 1963 because no one wanted to invest in renovating the grand structure. Relics from the hotel, such as the chandelier and the hotel safe can be found at the Canyon County Historical Museum, housed in the old train depot on Front Street and Nampa City Hall. After demolition the location on First Street between 11th and 12th Ave. South was sold to private enterprise including a bank and tire store replacing this historic building with the current modern structures. A public-use postage stamp sized park was placed across the street from the old palace property as a collaboration between the Downtown Alliance of Nampa and an Eagle Scout Project for the Boy Scouts of America.
The park includes a large mural/wall sculpture of running horses commissioned for the project. A Carnegie library was built downtown in 1908; the Nampa Public Library is now on the corner of 1st Street and 11th Avenue South in the old bank building. A new library is under construction and is expected to be completed in early 2015. Deer Flat Reservoir, an offstream irrigation storage reservoir, was constructed by the United States Bureau of Reclamation between 1906 and 1911. Known locally as Lake Lowell, it is surrounded by the Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, established in 1909 by President Theodore Roosevelt; the refuge is administered by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Lake Lowell is filled by the concrete New York Canal; the Idaho State School and Hospital was built northwest of Nampa in 1910, for the state's developmentally challenged population, opened in 1918. The institution was self-sufficient, with a large farm staffed by the residents; the higher-functioning residents cared for residents who could not care for themselves.
Much has changed in the care of persons with developmental disabilities from the time of the state school's opening. The land for the old farm was sold and are now golf courses, the residents no longer give primary care to other reside
Design–build is a project delivery system used in the construction industry. It is a method to deliver a project in which the design and construction services are contracted by a single entity known as the design–builder or design–build contractor, it can be subdivided into architect-led design -- contractor-led design -- build. In contrast to "design–bid–build", design–build relies on a single point of responsibility contract and is used to minimize risks for the project owner and to reduce the delivery schedule by overlapping the design phase and construction phase of a project. "DB with its single point responsibility carries the clearest contractual remedies for the clients because the DB contractor will be responsible for all of the work on the project, regardless of the nature of the fault". The traditional approach for construction projects consists of the appointment of a designer on one side, the appointment of a contractor on the other side; the design–build procurement route changes the traditional sequence of work.
It answers the client's wishes for a single point of responsibility in an attempt to reduce risks and overall costs. It is now used in many countries and forms of contracts are available. Design–build is sometimes compared to the "master builder" approach, one of the oldest forms of construction procedure. Comparing design–build to the traditional method of procurement, the authors of Design-build Contracting Handbook noted that: “from a historical perspective the so-called traditional approach is a recent concept, only being in use 150 years. In contrast, the design–build concept—also known as the "master builder" concept—has been reported as being in use for over four millennia."Although the Design-Build Institute of America takes the position that design–build can be led by a contractor, a designer, a developer or a joint venture, as long as a design–build entity holds a single contract for both design and construction, some architects have suggested that architect-led design–build is a specific approach to design–build.
Design-build plays an important role in pedagogy, both at universities and in independently organised events such as Rural Studio or ArchiCamp. The "design–builder" is a general contractor, but in many cases a project is led by a design professional; some design–build firms employ professionals from both the design and construction sector. Where the design–builder is a general contractor, the designers are retained directly by the contractor. Partnership or a joint venture between a design firm and a construction firm may be created on a long term basis or for one project only; until 1979, the AIA American Institute of Architects' code of ethics and professional conduct prohibited their members from providing construction services. However today many architects in the United States and elsewhere aspire to provide integrated design and construction services, one approach towards this goal is design–build; the AIA has acknowledged that design–build is becoming one of the main approaches to construction.
In 2003, the AIA endorsed "The architect's guide to design–build services", written to help their members acting as design–build contractors. This publication gives guidance through the different phases of the process: design services, management and finances. On contractor-led design–build projects, management is structured so that the owner works directly with a contractor who, in turn, coordinates subcontractors. Architects contribute to contractor-led design–build projects in one of several ways, with varying degrees of responsibility: Architect as employee of contractor: The architect works for the contractor as an in-house employee; the architect still bears professional risk and is to have less control than in other contractor-led design–build approaches. Architect as a subcontractor: Here, the architect is one of the many subcontractors on the team led by the contractor; the architect bears similar professional risk but still with little control. Architect as second party in contractor-led integrated project delivery: The architect and contractor work together in a joint venture, both coordinating the subcontractors to get the project built.
The building owner has a single contract with this joint venture. The contractor leads the joint venture so in supervising the subs, the architect might defer to the contractor; the architect bears the same risk as they do in the traditional approach but has more control in IPD if they were to defer to the contractor. Architect-led design–build projects are those in which interdisciplinary teams of architects and building trades professionals collaborate in an agile management process, where design strategy and construction expertise are seamlessly integrated, the architect, as owner-advocate, project-steward and team-leader, ensures high fidelity between project aims and outcomes. In architect-led design–build projects, the architect works directly with the owner, acts as the designer and builder, coordinating a team of consultants and materials suppliers throughout the project lifecycle. Architects lead design–build projects in several ways, with varying degrees of responsibility: Architect as provider of extended services: Contracted to the owner, the architect extends his or her services beyond the design phase, taking responsibility for managing the subcontractors on behalf of the owner.
Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States. It borders the state of Montana to the east and northeast, Wyoming to the east and Utah to the south, Washington and Oregon to the west. To the north, it shares a small portion of the Canadian border with the province of British Columbia. With a population of 1.7 million and an area of 83,569 square miles, Idaho is the 14th largest, the 12th least populous and the 7th least densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. The state's capital and largest city is Boise. Idaho prior to European settlement was inhabited by Native American peoples, some of whom still live in the area. In the early 19th century, Idaho was considered part of the Oregon Country, an area disputed between the U. S. and the United Kingdom. It became U. S. territory with the signing of the Oregon Treaty of 1846, but a separate Idaho Territory was not organized until 1863, instead being included for periods in Oregon Territory and Washington Territory. Idaho was admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890, becoming the 43rd state.
Forming part of the Pacific Northwest, Idaho is divided into several distinct geographic and climatic regions. In the state's north, the isolated Idaho Panhandle is linked with Eastern Washington, with which it shares the Pacific Time Zone – the rest of the state uses the Mountain Time Zone; the state's south includes the Snake River Plain, while the south-east incorporates part of the Great Basin. Idaho is quite mountainous, contains several stretches of the Rocky Mountains; the United States Forest Service holds about 38 % of the most of any state. Industries significant for the state economy include manufacturing, mining and tourism. A number of science and technology firms are either headquartered in Idaho or have factories there, the state contains the Idaho National Laboratory, the country's largest Department of Energy facility. Idaho's agricultural sector supplies many products, but the state is best known for its potato crop, which comprises around one-third of the nationwide yield; the official state nickname is the "Gem State".
The name's origin remains a mystery. In the early 1860s, when the United States Congress was considering organizing a new territory in the Rocky Mountains, eccentric lobbyist George M. Willing suggested the name "Idaho", which he claimed was derived from a Shoshone language term meaning "the sun comes from the mountains" or "gem of the mountains". Willing claimed he had invented the name. Congress decided to name the area Colorado Territory when it was created in February 1861. Thinking they would get a jump on the name, locals named a community in Colorado "Idaho Springs". However, the name "Idaho" did not fall into obscurity; the same year Congress created Colorado Territory, a county called Idaho County was created in eastern Washington Territory. The county was named after a steamship named Idaho, launched on the Columbia River in 1860, it is unclear after Willing's claim was revealed. Regardless, part of Washington Territory, including Idaho County, was used to create Idaho Territory in 1863.
Despite this lack of evidence for the origin of the name, many textbooks well into the 20th century repeated as fact Willing's account the name "Idaho" derived from the Shoshone term "ee-da-how". A 1956 Idaho history textbook says:"Idaho" is a Shoshoni Indian exclamation; the word consists of three parts. The first is "Ee", which in English conveys the idea of "coming down"; the second is "dah", the Shoshoni stem or root for both "sun" and "mountain". The third syllable, "how", denotes the exclamation and stands for the same thing in Shoshoni that the exclamation mark does in the English language; the Shoshoni word is "Ee-dah-how", the Indian thought thus conveyed when translated into English means, "Behold! the sun coming down the mountain. An alternative etymology attributes the name to the Plains Apache word "ídaahę́", used in reference to The Comanche. Idaho borders six U. S. states and one Canadian province. The states of Washington and Oregon are to the west and Utah are to the south, Montana and Wyoming are to the east.
Idaho shares a short border with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north. The landscape is rugged with some of the largest unspoiled natural areas in the United States. For example, at 2.3 million acres, the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness Area is the largest contiguous area of protected wilderness in the continental United States. Idaho is a Rocky Mountain state with scenic areas; the state has snow-capped mountain ranges, vast lakes and steep canyons. The waters of the Snake River rush through the deepest gorge in the United States. Shoshone Falls plunges down rugged cliffs from a height greater than Niagara Falls; the major rivers in Idaho are the Snake River, the Clark Fork/Pend Oreille River, the Clearwater River, the Salmon River. Other significant rivers include the Coeur d'Alene River, the Spokane River, the Boise River, the Payette River; the Salmon River empties into the Snake in Hells Canyon and forms the southern boundary of Nez Perce County on its north shore, of which Lewiston is the county seat.
The Port of Lewiston, at the confluence of the Clearwater and the Snake Rivers is the farthest inland seaport on the West Coast at 465 river miles from the Pacific at Astoria, Oregon. Idaho's highest point is 12,662 ft, in the Lost River Range north of Mackay. Idaho's lowest poi
Boise State University
Boise State University is a public research university in Boise, Idaho. Founded in 1932 by the Episcopal Church, it became an independent junior college in 1934, has been awarding baccalaureate and master's degrees since 1965. Boise State offers more than 100 graduate programs, including the MBA and MAcc programs in the College of Business and Economics. Boise State has invested in the future over the past decade, including spending over $300 million since 2003 on academic and athletics facilities across campus; the university's intercollegiate athletic teams, the Broncos, have participated in NCAA Division I since 1978. The school became Idaho's third state university in 1974, after the University of Idaho and Idaho State University. Boise State now awards associate, bachelor's, master's, doctoral degrees, is accredited by the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities; as of 2010, the university has over 75,000 living alumni. The 285-acre campus is located near downtown Boise, on the south bank of the Boise River, opposite Julia Davis Park.
With more than 170 buildings, the campus is at an elevation of 2,700 feet above sea level, bounded by Capitol Boulevard on the west and Broadway Avenue to the east. Boise State broke ground in May 2017 on a $42 million Center for the Fine Arts, which will house sculpture, painting, graphic design and other visual arts, as well as gallery space and a digital “World Museum” devoted to high-tech arts experiences; the school's library is named for longtime Boise resident Joe Albertson. It houses more than 650,000 books, over 100,000 periodicals, 107 public terminals for student use, access to over 300 online databases; the physical structure features a Starbucks and public lounge area, houses the College of Innovation and Design, including the fast growing degree program in Gaming, Interactive Mobile and Media. The "Velma V. Morrison Center for the Performing Arts" has 2,000 seats in its primary performance hall, hosts a wide variety of fine arts performances, including the Broadway in Boise series and other events.
The venue opened its doors in April 1984. The computer science department moved away from the main campus to a new building in downtown Boise; the CS department occupies 53,549 gross square feet, the full second and third floors of the building. The university's CS program is now located in the same building as Clearwater Analytics and within short walking distance of about 20 more of Boise's top technology companies; the Micron Center for Materials Research was established with a $25 million gift from Micron Technology, headquartered in Boise. Scheduled for completion in 2020, the building was designed by Hummel Architects and Anderson Mason Dale Architects, with Hoffman Construction as lead contractor; the building is designed with one research wing, planned to house sensitive equipment, state of the art research laboratories and a second wing, to hold classrooms, office space. This latest donation by Micron marks a total of $40 million invested in materials science and engineering programs and associated research at Boise State University, resulting in a full complement of degrees in materials science and engineering including bachelors and doctoral programs.
Extended Studies at Boise State offers regional programming at the College of Western Idaho in Nampa, Idaho, at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Gowen Field, Twin Falls, Lewiston and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. Boise State offers 29 degrees and certificates online. Beginning in 2016, Boise State began partnering with the Harvard University Business School to offer the Harvard Business School Online business fundamentals program to Idaho students and the business community; this collaboration is the only such Harvard collaboration with a public U. S. university. Boise State's more than 190 fields of study are organized these colleges: Arts and Sciences Business and Economics Education Engineering Graduate Studies Health Sciences School of Public Service Innovation and DesignBoise State's fall enrollment in 2016 was 23,886 students. 76 percent of these students were Idaho residents, with the remaining 24 percent coming from out of state or out of country. More than 90 percent of Boise State's first-year students come directly from high school.
In the 2015-2016 school year, Boise State awarded diplomas to 3,916 distinct graduates, including 18 doctorates, 10 education specialists, 670 master's and 2,998 bachelor's degrees. The university has "Moderate Research Activity" as scored by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. Since 1971 the university has published the Western Writers Series, monographs focusing on authors of the American Frontier and American West; the university maintains an on-line library of publications and documents related to Idaho history through the Albertsons Library. A not-for-profit literary publisher, Ahsahta was founded in 1974 at Boise State University to preserve the best works by early poets of the American West, its name, ahsahta, is the Mandan word meaning “Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep,” and was first recorded by members of the Lewis and Clark expedition. The Center for Idaho History and Politics offers a nine-credit place-based field school called "Investigate Boise" which focuses on heritage and urban affairs.
Each series of classes results in faculty edited publication. Boise State's athletic nickname is the Broncos; the offici