Windsor, Nova Scotia
Windsor is a town located in Hants County, Nova Scotia, Canada. It is a service centre for the western part of the county and is situated on Highway 101; the town has a history dating back to its use by the Mi'kmaq Nation for several millennia prior to European invasion and seizure. When the Acadians lived in the area, the town was raided by New England forces in 1704; the area was central to both Father Le Loutre's War and the Expulsion of the Acadians during the Bay of Fundy Campaign in 1755. The town promotes itself as the birthplace of ice hockey and was the home of Canada's first internationally best-selling author, Thomas Chandler Haliburton. Having migrated from Port Royal, Nova Scotia, the Acadians were the first to settle in Pisiguit by the early 1680s. French census records dated 1686 list well established farms utilizing dyked marshlands. During Queen Anne's War, in response to the Wabanaki Confederacy of Acadia military campaign against the New England frontier and the Canadian Raid on Deerfield, Benjamin Church led the Raid on Pisiquid and burned the village to the ground.
In the Raid on Pisiquid, Church burned 40 houses along with out-buildings and cattle. There was resistance and two Mi ` kmaq. Despite the British Conquest of Acadia in 1710, Nova Scotia remained occupied by Catholic Acadians and Mi'kmaq. Father Le Loutre's War began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports on June 21, 1749. By unilaterally establishing Halifax the British were violating earlier treaties with the Mi'kmaq, which were signed after Dummer's War; the British began to build other settlements. To guard against Mi'kmaq and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax, Bedford and Lawrencetown. Within 18 months of establishing Halifax, the British took firm control of peninsula Nova Scotia by building fortifications in all the major Acadian communities: present-day Windsor. Many Acadians left this region in the Acadian Exodus. During the French and Indian War, Fort Edward and Windsor played a significant role in the deportation the Bay of Fundy Campaign.
Acadians were imprisoned in the fort. Acadians numbering in the thousands were deported from mainland Nova Scotia; the deportees were held onboard ships for several weeks before being moved to their destinations, thus exacerbating unhealthy conditions below decks and leading to the deaths of hundreds. Many hundreds more were lost through ship sinkings and disease onboard ships while en route to ports in Britain's American colonies and France; the British broke apart families and sent them to different places. Their justification for this was to more efficiently put people on the boats; this resulted in more loss of life. The Township of Windsor was founded in 1764 by New England Planters; the next year, its first Agricultural Fair was held. This fair is still continued today, is the oldest and longest-running such fair in North America. In the American Revolution, Windsor was an important British stronghold. Fort Edward was the headquarters in Atlantic Canada for 84th Regiment of Foot. A relief force was mustered at Windsor to crush the American-led siege at the Battle of Fort Cumberland in 1776.
Following the American Revolution, Windsor was settled by United Empire Loyalists. Windsor developed its gypsum deposits selling it to American markets at Passamaquoddy Bay; this trade was illegal. The University of King's College and its secondary school, King's Collegiate School, were founded in 1788-1789 by United Empire Loyalists as Anglican academic institutions; the college remained in the community until a disastrous fire on February 3, 1920. In 1922 it moved to Halifax, with the assistance of the Carnegie Foundation and continues to this day; the King's Collegiate School continued operation on the campus and was joined by a sister girls school,'Edgehill School', in 1890. In 1976 both institutions merged to form King's-Edgehill School, remains the oldest independent school in the Commonwealth outside of the United Kingdom. Thomas Chandler Haliburton brought fame to Windsor during the 19th century with his writings about a clockmaker named Sam Slick. In 1878, Windsor was incorporated as a town.
Its harbour made the town a centre for shipbuilding during the age of sail. Notable shipbuilders such as Bennett Smith built a large fleet of merchant vessels, one of the last being the ship Black Watch; as the port of registry for the massive wooden shipbuilding industry of the Minas Basin, Windsor was the homeport of one of the largest fleet of sailing ships in Canada. Notable vessels registered at Windsor included Hamburg, the largest three masted barque built in Canada, Kings County, the largest four masted barque. Following the completion of the Nova Scotia Railway's line from Halifax in 1857, the town became an important steamship connection giving Halifax access to the Bay of Fundy shipping routes; the railway continued westward as the Windsor and Annapolis Railway in 1870 connecting to Yarmouth as the Dominion
Windsor and Annapolis Railway
The Windsor and Annapolis Railway was a historic Canadian railway that operated in Nova Scotia's Annapolis Valley. The railway ran from Windsor to Annapolis Royal and leased connections to Nova Scotia's capital of Halifax; the W&AR played a major role in developing Nova Scotia's agriculture and tourism industries, operating from 1869 until 1894 when it evolved into the larger Dominion Atlantic Railway. The W&AR was formed by British railway investors and Nova Scotian railway promoters in 1864; the company's operations centre was in Kentville, although corporate headquarters remained in London, United Kingdom. The Windsor and Annapolis negotiated running rights over the government-owned "Windsor Branch" of the Nova Scotia Railway to connect Windsor to the city and harbour of Halifax. Vernon Smith, an experienced railway manager and engineer from Britain was the engineer in charge of construction and became the first general manager; the resident engineer was Henry Ernest Milner from England. Construction began in 1866 with locomotives landed for work crews at Windsor, Nova Scotia and Kentville.
The line began operation between Kentville and Annapolis Royal on June 26, 1869 while work continued on the line's two large bridges east of Kentville over the large estuaries of the Avon River at Windsor and the Gaspereau River at Hortonville. An official opening was celebrated on August 18, 1869 with dignitaries including Lord Lisgar the Governor General of Canada arriving by rail from Halifax, although shuttled over the uncompleted bridge works by stage coach; the devastating Saxby Gale on October 5, 1869 destroyed much of the newly built line between Hortonville and Wolfville which required hasty rebuilding. Despite these challenges, the railway opened for full operation on December 18, 1869 when the Avon and Gaspereau Bridges were complete and first train ran across the entire line from Halifax to Annapolis Royal; the railway struggled at first with inexperienced staff, limited equipment and with extensive and ongoing repairs required on the sections of the line along the Minas Basin damaged by the Saxby Gale.
However passenger traffic blossomed, helped by early tourism promotion of steamship connections to the emerging New England tourism market. Freight traffic began more but an explosion in apple shipments in the early 1880s ensured the prosperity of the line; the railway was built at first to the Canadian broad gauge of 5 ft 6 in. It converted to the standard gauge of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in in 1875; the W&AR bought out the thriving branchline, the Cornwallis Valley Railway in 1890 which ran from Kentville to Kingsport through rich apple districts. A formidable rival to the W&AR was the Western Counties Railway, based in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, which used political allies to threaten the exclusive W&AR access to the critical "Windsor Branch" connection into Halifax. However, the W&AR was able to buy out the WCR in 1894 to create the Dominion Atlantic Railway, thus providing a through line from Halifax to Yarmouth; the W&AR set the direction for the new united company which took over the W&AR headquarters in Kentville as well as the W&AR's "Land of Evangeline" identity.
The Windsor and Hantsport Railway continued to operate over portions of the old Windsor and Annapolis mainline until 2011. A monument to the Vernon Smith and his work constructing of the Windsor and Annapolis Railway was installed beside the line at the waterfront park in Wolfville in 2013. Gary Ness Canadian Pacific's Dominion Atlantic Railway, page 1 and, page 13. Marguerite Woodworth, History of the Dominion Atlantic Railway, 1937, p. 51-87. "Windsor and Annapolis Railway" Canada By Train - Virtual Exhibit Library and Archives of Canada Ivan Smith "Significant Dates in Nova Scotia's Railway History" Railways of Canada Archives "Windsor and Annapolis Railway" Dominion Atlantic Railway Digital Preservation Institute "Windsor and Annapolis Line" New York Times February 11, 1894, Wednesday, p. 2 Windsor & Annapolis Railway
Molded pulp named moulded pulp or molded fibre, is a packaging material made from recycled paperboard and/or newsprint. It is used for food service trays and beverage carriers. Other typical uses are end caps, plates and clamshell containers. For many applications, molded pulp is less expensive than expanded polystyrene, vacuumed formed PET and PVC, foams. Molded pulp is considered a sustainable packaging material, as defined by the Sustainable Packaging Coalition, since it is produced from recycled materials, can be recycled again after its useful life-cycle. Molded pulp products can be made waterproof with a dip coating of wax. Several types of molded pulp can be manufactured by several processes; these products have wall thicknesses of 1.5 to 6mm and are used for support packaging applications. Thick-Wall is commonly referred to as "Slush Molded." The surfaces are rough on one side and moderately smooth on the opposite side. Product definition is moderate due to the use of inexpensive single-pass molds and the use of mixed recovered paper and kraft paper slurries.
Typical uses are for edge and edge protector, heavy item packaging, auto replacement parts, molded pulp pallet trays etc. Transfer molded products are thin walled, 1/16" to 3/16", are the most prevalent type in use today; the process uses vacuum forming and take-off or transfer molds, where the mold is an fine wire mesh in the shape of the upper/exposed surface. The fibrous slurries are made up of a high percentage or of recycled newspaper, which produces a smooth surface on one side and a smooth surface on the opposite side with good accuracy and definition. Prior to the molding process, the mesh is mated with a vacuum chamber that draws water through the mesh into the chamber, with the mesh mold suspended above a liquid return pool; the fibrous slurry is sprayed from below onto the mold, the vacuum draws the slurry against the mesh, filling all gaps and spaces. When airflow through the mesh has been sufficiently blocked, the excess slurry falls into the return pool for recycling, the mold advances onward to the drying process, following by separation of the mesh mold from the dried fiber plating.
Typical uses of transfer molded products are for packaging electronic equipment, cellular phones and other household and hardware items. High-capacity, high-speed transfer molding equipment is used to produce drink trays, cup carriers, wine shippers, egg cartons, egg trays, pulp bedpan liners, pulp urinals, fruit trays, slipper pans, commode pans, end caps, etc; this newest form of molded pulp is the highest quality of thin walled products available today. The process uses "Cure-In-The-Mold" technology which produces well defined, smooth surfaced molded pulp products. After being formed, the product is captured in heated forming molds which presses and densifies the molded products, they are formed and have the appearance of plastic material. The products are ejected from the heated molds in their finished state as opposed to being dried in a heated oven. Typical uses for this type are for point-of-purchase packaging and those applications where high definition and appearance are of prime importance.
This type of molded pulp product is that which has undergone some kind of secondary processing, different from or in addition to, the basic production procedure. This could apply to any of the first three types. Secondary processing could be coating, hot-pressing, die-cutting, trimming or manufactured using colors or special slurry additives. Uses are for many kinds of custom applications. Packaging cushioning Sustainable packaging Yam, K. L. "Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology", John Wiley & Sons, 2009, ISBN 978-0-470-08704-6
The Victoria Cross is the highest and most prestigious award of the British honours system. It is awarded for gallantry "in the presence of the enemy" to members of the British Armed Forces, it may be awarded posthumously. It was awarded to Commonwealth countries, most of which have established their own honours systems and no longer recommend British honours, it may be awarded to a person of any military rank in any service and to civilians under military command although no civilian has received the award since 1879. Since the first awards were presented by Queen Victoria in 1857, two-thirds of all awards have been presented by the British monarch; these investitures are held at Buckingham Palace. The VC was introduced on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria to honour acts of valour during the Crimean War. Since the medal has been awarded 1,358 times to 1,355 individual recipients. Only 15 medals, 11 to members of the British Army, four to the Australian Army, have been awarded since the Second World War.
The traditional explanation of the source of the metal from which the medals are struck is that it derives from Russian cannon captured at the Siege of Sevastopol. However, research has suggested another origin for the material. Historian John Glanfield has established that the metal for most of the medals made since December 1914 came from two Chinese cannon, that there is no evidence of Russian origin. Owing to its rarity, the VC is prized and the medal has fetched over £400,000 at auction. A number of public and private collections are devoted to the Victoria Cross; the private collection of Lord Ashcroft, amassed since 1986, contains over one-tenth of all VCs awarded. Following a 2008 donation to the Imperial War Museum, the Ashcroft collection went on public display alongside the museum's Victoria and George Cross collection in November 2010. Beginning with the Centennial of Confederation in 1967, followed in 1975 by Australia and New Zealand, developed their own national honours systems, separate from and independent of the British or Imperial honours system.
As each country's system evolved, operational gallantry awards were developed with the premier award of each system—the Victoria Cross for Australia, the Canadian Victoria Cross and the Victoria Cross for New Zealand—being created and named in honour of the Victoria Cross. These are unique awards of each honours system, assessed and presented by each country. In 1854, after 39 years of peace, Britain found itself fighting a major war against Russia; the Crimean War was one of the first wars with modern reporting, the dispatches of William Howard Russell described many acts of bravery and valour by British servicemen that went unrewarded. Before the Crimean War, there was no official standardised system for recognition of gallantry within the British armed forces. Officers were eligible for an award of one of the junior grades of the Order of the Bath and brevet promotions while a Mention in Despatches existed as an alternative award for acts of lesser gallantry; this structure was limited. Brevet promotions or Mentions in Despatches were confined to those who were under the immediate notice of the commanders in the field members of the commander's own staff.
Other European countries had awards that did not discriminate against rank. There was a growing feeling among the public and in the Royal Court that a new award was needed to recognise incidents of gallantry that were unconnected with the length or merit of a man's service. Queen Victoria issued a Warrant under the Royal sign-manual on 29 January 1856 that constituted the VC; the order was backdated to 1854 to recognise acts of valour during the Crimean War. Queen Victoria had instructed the War Office to strike a new medal that would not recognise birth or class; the medal was meant to be a simple decoration that would be prized and eagerly sought after by those in the military services. To maintain its simplicity, Queen Victoria, under the guidance of Prince Albert, vetoed the suggestion that the award be called The Military Order of Victoria and instead suggested the name Victoria Cross; the original warrant stated that the Victoria Cross would only be awarded to officers and men who had served in the presence of the enemy and had performed some signal act of valour or devotion.
The first ceremony was held on 26 June 1857 at which Queen Victoria invested 62 of the 111 Crimean recipients in a ceremony in Hyde Park, London. A single company of jewellers, Hancocks of London, has been responsible for the production of every VC awarded since its inception, it has long been believed that all the VCs were cast from the cascabels of two cannon that were captured from the Russians at the siege of Sevastopol. However, in 1990 Creagh and Ashton conducted a metallurgical examination of the VCs in the custody of the Australian War Memorial, the historian John Glanfield wrote that, through the use of X-ray studies of older Victoria Crosses, it was determined that the metal used for all VCs since December 1914 is taken from antique Chinese guns, replacing an earlier gun. Creagh noted the existence of Chinese inscriptions on the cannon, which are now legible due to corrosion. A explanation is that these cannon were taken as trophies during the First Opium War and held in the Woolwich repository.
It was thought that some medals made during the First World War were composed of metal captured from different Chinese guns during the Boxer Rebellion. This is not so
Expulsion of the Acadians
The Expulsion of the Acadians known as the Great Upheaval, the Great Expulsion, the Great Deportation and Le Grand Dérangement, was the forced removal by the British of the Acadian people from the present day Canadian Maritime provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island — parts of an area known as Acadia. The Expulsion occurred during the French and Indian War and was part of the British military campaign against New France; the British first deported Acadians to the Thirteen Colonies, after 1758, transported additional Acadians to Britain and France. In all, of the 14,100 Acadians in the region 11,500 Acadians were deported. A census of 1764 indicates that 2,600 Acadians remained in the colony having eluded capture. During the War of the Spanish Succession, the British captured Port Royal, the capital of the colony, in a siege; the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, which concluded the conflict, ceded the colony to Great Britain while allowing the Acadians to keep their lands. Over the next forty-five years, the Acadians refused to sign an unconditional oath of allegiance to Britain.
During the same period, some participated in various military operations against the British, maintained supply lines to the French fortresses of Louisbourg and Fort Beauséjour. As a result, the British sought to eliminate any future military threat posed by the Acadians and to permanently cut the supply lines they provided to Louisbourg by removing them from the area. Without making distinctions between the Acadians, neutral and those who had resisted the occupation of Acadia, the British governor Charles Lawrence and the Nova Scotia Council ordered them to be expelled. In the first wave of the expulsion, Acadians were deported to other British North American colonies. During the second wave, they were deported to Britain and France, from there a significant number migrated to Spanish Louisiana, where'Acadians' became'Cajuns'. Acadians fled to Francophone colonies such as Canada, the uncolonized northern part of Acadia, Île Saint-Jean and Île Royale. During the second wave of the expulsion, these Acadians deported.
Along with the British achieving their military goals of defeating Louisbourg and weakening the Mi'kmaq and Acadian militias, the result of the Expulsion was the devastation of both a civilian population and the economy of the region. Thousands of Acadians died in the expulsions from diseases and drowning when ships were lost. On July 11, 1764, the British government passed an order-in-council to permit Acadians to return to British territories, provided that they take an unqualified oath of allegiance; the American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow memorialized the historic event in his poem about the plight of the fictional character Evangeline, popular and made the expulsion well known. After the British gained control of Acadia in 1713, the Acadians refused to sign an unconditional oath of loyalty to become British subjects. Instead, they negotiated a conditional oath; some Acadians refused the unconditional oath. The difficulty was religious, as the British monarch was the head of the Protestant Church of England and the Acadians were Roman Catholic.
They worried that signing the oath might commit male Acadians to fight against France during wartime, that it would be perceived by their Mi'kmaq neighbours as an acknowledgement of the British claim to Acadia, putting Acadian villages at risk of attack from Mi'kmaq. Other Acadians refused to sign an unconditional oath. Various historians have observed. By the time of the Expulsion of the Acadians, there was a long history of political and military resistance by Acadians and the Wabanaki Confederacy to the British occupation of Acadia; the Mi ` kmaq and the Acadians were allies through numerous inter-marriages. While the Acadians were the largest population, the Wabanaki Confederacy the Mi'kmaq, held the military strength in Acadia after the British conquest, they were joined on numerous occasions by Acadians. These efforts were supported and led by French priests in the region; the Wabanaki Confederacy and Acadians fought against the British Empire in six wars, including the French and Indian Wars, Father Rale's War and Father Le Loutre's War, over a period of seventy-five years.
In 1753, French troops from Canada seized and fortified the Ohio Valley. Britain claimed Ohio for itself. On May 28, 1754, the war began with the Battle of Jumonville Glen. French Officer Ensign de Jumonville and a third of his escort were killed by a British patrol led by George Washington. In retaliation the French and the Indians defeated the British at Fort Necessity. Washington surrendered. Major General Edward Braddock's troops were defeated in the Battle of the Monongahela, William Johnson's troops stopped the French advance at Lake George. In Acadia, the primary British objective was to defeat the French fortifications at Beauséjour and Louisbourg and to prevent future attacks from the Wabanaki Confederacy and Acadians on the northern New England border; the British saw the Acadians' allegiance to the French and the Wabanaki Confederacy as a military threat. Father Le Loutre's War had created the conditions f
The Minas Basin is an inlet of the Bay of Fundy and a sub-basin of the Fundy Basin located in Nova Scotia, Canada. It is known for its high tides; the Minas Basin forms the eastern part of the Bay of Fundy which splits at Cape Chignecto and is delineated by the massive basalt headlands of Cape Split and Cape d'Or. The Minas Basin is split into four sections: Cobequid Bay, from the mouth of the Salmon River to a narrow point between Economy and the Noel Shore. Several important rivers in Nova Scotia drain into the Minas Basin: Shubenacadie River, Cornwallis River, Avon River, Gaspereau River, the Salmon River. Lesser rivers include the Canard River, Diligent River, Farrell River, Debert River. Along the northern edge of the Minas Basin lies a chain of intermittent high-cliffed basaltic bluffs and islands called the Basalt Headlands. Burntcoat Head, located on the "Noel Shore" along the south side of the Minas Basin, is the location of the highest tidal range recorded, exceeding 16-metre and has one of the highest average tidal ranges every day.
The waters of Minas Bay exchange with the main part of the Bay of Fundy through the Minas Channel which flows between Cape Split and Cape Sharp, creating strong tidal currents and, near Cape d'Or, the turbulent collision of currents known as the Dory Rips. The water in the Minas Basin is a dense and nearly opaque reddish brown due to large amounts of suspended silt which are continually churned by tidal currents. At mid-tide, the currents exceed 8 knots, the flow in the deep, 5-kilometre -wide channel on the north side of Cape Split equals the combined flow of all the rivers and streams on Earth together. Several communities border the rivers that flow into it, they include Truro, Parrsboro, Great Village, Bass River, Five Islands, Wolfville and Kingsport. Parrsboro and Kingsport were connected by the MV Kipawo ferry, whose name was derived from the three communities. Provincial parks at Anthony, Five Islands, Cape Blomidon allow visitors to enjoy and explore the Minas Basin. Community parks interpreting the Basin include the Kingsport waterfront in Kings County.
The Mi'kmaq were the first people to inhabit the area around the Minas Basin. Mi'kmaq tradition ties the god Glooscap in with significant geographical features such as Cape Blomidon and Five Islands. European explorers and traders arrived in the early 1600s. Among them were the French explorer Samuel de Champlain who explored the copper deposits at Cape d'Or at the entrance to the Basin in 1607. Champlain bestowed the name Port of Mines on nearby Advocate Harbour to reflect the seams of copper ore at Cape d'Or. While the French did not establish a mine, the name "Les Mines" became associated with the upper Bay of Fundy beyond Cape d'Or which became known as the "Baie des Mines"' Anglicized to Minas Basin. French Acadian settlements began in the late 1600s first with settlements around the southern shore of the Minas Basin which became known as Les Mines; the Acadians had a significant impact of the area in that they reclaimed considerable farmland through the use of dykes and aboiteaux. They founded in the area Grand-Pré, Les Mines, Cobequid, Rivière-aux-Canards, Beaubassin.
Today their dyke systems—greatly expanded by additions—are still used near Truro and Wolfville at Port Williams and Grand Pré. In 1755, the British forcibly expelled the over 12,000 Acadians from Grand Pré, Pisiguit and Beaubassin, in what became known as the Grand Dérangement, or Great Expulsion; the vacant Acadian settlements around the Minas Basin were succeeded by the New England Planters who arrived in 1760 and were joined by Loyalists settlers in the 1780s. The Planters rebuilt and expanded the Acadian dyke systems, reclaiming more farmland from the Basin through projects like the Wellington Dyke in 1816; the communities around the Minas Basin were sustained by fishing, farming, boat building and shipbuilding. In the late 19th Century the Basin's shipyards produced some of the highest numbers of wooden ships in Canadian history and some of the largest, including the ship William D. Lawrence, the largest wooden ship built in Canada along with the giant barques Kings County, Canada's largest four masted-barque and Hamburg, Canada's largest three-masted barque.
The tidal water provided a means of transporting commodities such as lumber and gypsum and powered Tide mills at locations such as Canning and Walton. Mining included gypsum, barite and copper. Gypsum was shipped from Hantsport until 2009. Marine mammals include porpoises. Fish include bass and flounder. Many types of seaweed, worms and more are found. Birds include sandpipers, eagles, seagulls and kingfishers. Fossils are found near Parrsboro, Blue Beach and othe
Liberal Party of Canada
The Liberal Party of Canada is the oldest and longest-serving governing political party in Canada. The Liberals form the current government, elected in 2015; the party has dominated federal politics for much of Canada's history, holding power for 69 years in the 20th century—more than any other party in a developed country—and as a result, it is sometimes referred to as Canada's "natural governing party". The party espouses the principles of liberalism, sits at the centre to centre-left of the Canadian political spectrum, with the Conservative Party positioned to the centre-right and the New Democratic Party, occupying the left. Like their federal Conservative Party rivals, the party is defined as a "big tent", attracting support from a broad spectrum of voters. In the late 1970s, Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau claimed that his Liberal Party adhered to the "radical centre"; the Liberals' signature policies and legislative decisions include universal health care, the Canada Pension Plan, Canada Student Loans, multilateralism, official bilingualism, official multiculturalism, patriating the Canadian constitution and the entrenchment of Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Clarity Act, making same-sex marriage and cannabis use legal nationwide.
In the 2015 federal election, the Liberal Party under Justin Trudeau had its best result since the 2000 election, winning 39.5 percent of the popular vote and 184 seats, gaining a majority of seats in the House of Commons. The Liberals are descended from the mid-19th century Reformers who agitated for responsible government throughout British North America; these included George Brown, Alexander Mackenzie, Robert Baldwin, William Lyon Mackenzie and the Clear Grits in Upper Canada, Joseph Howe in Nova Scotia, the Patriotes and Rouges in Lower Canada led by figures such as Louis-Joseph Papineau. The Clear Grits and Parti rouge sometimes functioned as a united bloc in the legislature of the Province of Canada beginning in 1854, a united Liberal Party combining both English and French Canadian members was formed in 1861. At the time of confederation of the former British colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the radical Liberals were marginalized by the more pragmatic Conservative coalition assembled under Sir John A. Macdonald.
In the 29 years after Canadian confederation, the Liberals were consigned to opposition, with the exception of one stint in government. Alexander Mackenzie was the de facto leader of the Official Opposition after Confederation and agreed to become the first official leader of the Liberal Party in 1873, he was able to lead the party to power for the first time in 1873, after the MacDonald government lost a vote of no confidence in the House of Commons due to the Pacific Scandal. Mackenzie subsequently won the 1874 election, served as Prime Minister for an additional four years. During the five years the Liberal government brought in many reforms, which include the replacement of open voting by secret ballot, confining elections to one day and the creation of the Supreme Court of Canada, the Royal Military College of Canada, the Office of the Auditor General; however the party was only able to build a solid support base in Ontario, in 1878 lost the government to MacDonald. The Liberals would spend the next 18 years in opposition.
In their early history, the Liberals were the party of opposition to imperialism. The Liberals became identified with the aspirations of Quebecers as a result of the growing hostility of French Canadians to the Conservatives; the Conservatives lost the support of French Canadians because of the role of Conservative governments in the execution of Louis Riel and their role in the Conscription Crisis of 1917, their opposition to French schools in provinces besides Quebec. It was. Laurier was able to capitalize on the Tories' alienation of French Canada by offering the Liberals as a credible alternative. Laurier was able to overcome the party's reputation for anti-clericalism that offended the still-powerful Quebec Roman Catholic Church. In English-speaking Canada, the Liberal Party's support for reciprocity made it popular among farmers, helped cement the party's hold in the growing prairie provinces. Laurier led the Liberals to power in the 1896 election, oversaw a government that increased immigration in order to settle Western Canada.
Laurier's government created the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta out of the North-West Territories, promoted the development of Canadian industry. Until the early part of the century, the Liberal Party was a loose, informal coalition of local and regional bodies with a strong national party leader and caucus but with an informal and regionalized extra-parliamentary organizational structure. There was no national membership of the party, an individual became a member by joining a provincial Liberal party. Laurier called the party's first national convention in 1893 in order to unite Liberal supporters behind a programme and build the campaign that brought the party to power in 1896; as a result of the party's defeats in the 1911 and 1917 federal elections, Laurier attempted to organize the party on a national level by creating three bodies: the Central Liberal Information Office, the National Liberal Advisory Committee, the National Liberal Organization Committee. Howev