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Haole is a Hawaiian term for individuals who are not Native Hawaiian or Polynesian. In Hawaii, it may mean any foreigner or anything else introduced to the Hawaiian islands of foreign origin; the origins of the word predate the 1778 arrival of Captain James Cook, as recorded in several chants stemming from antiquity. Its connotations have ranged from descriptive to invective, while today it is considered to be pejorative. Haole first became associated with the children of European immigrants in the early 1820s, it unified the self-identity of these Hawaii-born children whose parents were as much culturally different as they were similar. With the first three generations of Haole playing key roles in the rise of the economic and political power shifts that have lasted through the current day, Haole evolved into a term, used in contempt after the missionaries imposed strict rules prohibiting games and playing, it evolved further to racial meaning, replacing "malihini" in addressing people of European descent who move to Hawaii from the U.

S. mainland by the 1860s. A 1906 phrase book sometimes translates it to "English"; the 1865 Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language, compiled by Lorrin Andrews, shows the pronunciation as ha-o-le. A popular belief is that the word is properly written and pronounced as hāʻole meaning "no breath," because foreigners did not know or use the honi, a Polynesian greeting by touching nose to nose and inhaling or sharing each other's breaths, so the foreigners were described as breathless; the implication is not only that foreigners are aloof and ignorant of local ways, but literally have no spirit or life within. St. Chad Piianaia, a Hawaiian educated in England, said the word haole implies robber. In 1944 Hawaiian scholar Charles Kenn wrote, "In the primary and esoteric meaning, haole indicates a race that has no relation to one's own. In its secondary meaning, haole... implies a thief, a robber, one not to be trusted.... During the course of time, meanings of words change, today, in a general way, haole does not connote a negative thought....

The word has come to refer to one of Nordic descent, whether born in Hawaii or elsewhere." Native Hawaiian Professor Fred Beckley said, "The white people came to be known as ha-ole because after they said their prayers, they did not breathe three times as was customary in ancient Hawaii."New findings have proven all of these theories to be incorrect. The earliest use of the word "haole" in the Hawaiian language was in the chant of Kūaliʻi; the pronunciation of the word to mean "breathless" is conjecture and should be disregarded as myth, as there is no evidence of anyone using the word "hāʻole" prior to Western contact. In Hawaii's "Rainbow" ethnic melange of peoples, "Haole" is the slang word used to describe Caucasians, by itself is not a racial slur and has no pejorative connotations, but is used in the context of a statement that in itself, is derogatory. Many visitors are haole, may be targeted by criminals, but this is because they are vulnerable tourists, not because they are haole. There are rumors that in Hawaii the last day of school is called "Kill Haole Day".

According to this rumor, on this day, "local" children beat up, harass the "haole" or "white" children in their school. Some residents say there is little to no evidence or documentation of incidents involving "Kill Haole Day" or of Caucasian students being assaulted on specific days. Other residents dispute this. Hawaii schools have responded by saying that they take the initiative to achieve tolerance, safety and acceptance for all students; some from other ethnic groups have used the word "Haole" as a racial slur or insult in incidents of harassment and physical assault towards white people in Hawaii, including tourists and military personnel. Greeks in Hawaii Isaac Davis John Young Kama'aina List of ethnic slurs List of terms for white people in non-Western cultures Pākehā, the equivalent term in the Māori language Palagi, a term in Samoan sometimes used to describe foreigners Portuguese immigration to Hawaii Spanish immigration to Hawaii Elvi Whittaker; the Mainland Haole: The White Experience in Hawaiʻi.

New York: Columbia University Press. Ohnuma, Keiko. "Local Haole - A Contradiction in Terms? The dilemma of being white and raised in Hawai'i". Cultural Values. 6: 273–285. Doi:10.1080/1362517022000007211. Rohrer, Judy. "Haole Girl: Identity and White Privilege in Hawaiʻi". Social Process in Hawaiʻi. 38: 140–161. Rohrer, Judy. ""Got Race?" The Production of Haole and the Distortion of Indigeneity in the Rice Decision". The Contemporary Pacific. 18: 1–31. Doi:10.1353/cp.2005.0102. Rohrer, Judy. "Haoles in Hawaiʻi". Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press

Binyamin Sasson

Binyamin Sasson was an Israeli politician who served as a member of the Knesset between 1951 and 1955. Born in Baghdad during the Ottoman era, Sasson made aliyah to Mandatory Palestine in 1937, he became one of the leaders of Sephardic Jews in Palestine, served as deputy chairman of the Committee of Sephardi Jewry, was a member of the board of the World Federation of Sephardi Communities and was president of the Iraqi community in Tel Aviv. He was amongst the founders of the Israeli Rotary, was president of the Tel Aviv branch between 1945 and 1946. A municipal judge, he was elected to the Knesset in 1951 on the Sephardim and Oriental Communities list. Six weeks after the elections the party merged into the General Zionists. Sasson lost his seat in the 1955 elections, he died in 1989. Binyamin Sasson on the Knesset website

Gerald Caldwell Siordet

Gerald Caldwell Siordet was an English poet and a 2nd Lieutenant in the Rifle Brigade 13th Battalion who died during World War I. The Siordets was an Huguenot family from Switzerland, on the France border. In the 18th century they moved to London, they were businessmen: shipping agents. George Crosbie Siordet, Gerald Caldwell Siordet’s father, was co-founder of "Siordet and Meyer." Siordet studied at Balliol College, Oxford. After Oxford, Siordet lived in London trying to make a living as artist and critic, he worked at the New English Art Club, the Fine Art Society, the Medici Society, the Victoria and Albert Museum. He wrote freelance reviews for The Studio and other art magazines. Siordet was friend with Glyn Philpot, Gerald Spencer Pryse, Henry Justice Ford, John Singer Sargent, Brian Hatton and William Morris’s wife, Jane Morris. Siordet met Brian Hatton in January 1906. In January 1912 Hatton set up a studio in London and shared it with Siordet: they called it The Bronze Door. Hatton enlisted in August 1914 as trooper in the Queen's Own Worcestershire Hussars, a Yeomanry regiment of the British Army.

Before leaving for his service, he sold a picture of Siordet wearing a helmet for only 35 guineas. When Siordet heard of Hatton's death during the Battle of Katia on Sunday 23 April 1916, he asked to Captain Val Burkhardt, serving in Egypt, for more information. Burkhardt managed for a memorial 2 Lieut Brian Hatton Worcester Yeomanry. A fine artist and a gallant soldier. 23rd April 1916 R. I. P to be put on the place of the battle. With the name Gerald Caldwell he had two poems printed in the Times; the first poem, "Autumn 1914" was printed on 13 November 1914. On 30 November 1915, Siordet's second poem To the Dead was first print in the Times. Siordet's contribution to the collection has been highlighted by The Dublin Review and by Henry Seidel Canby in Education by Violence: Essays on the War and the Future. In 1914, at the beginning of World War I, Siordet enlisted and at first he joined as a private. In July 1915, he was promoted 2nd Lieutenant in France while with 13th Battalion. On 1 July 1916, during the Battle of the Somme, he received the Military Cross for "conspicuous gallantry" in a failed attack that killed one of his closest friends, Geoffrey Watkins Smith.

The motivation for his military cross was: After his company commander had been killed he rallied the company under heavy fire, consolidated the position gained Siordet joined the Mesopotamian campaign in January 1917 with the King's Own Royal Regiment, 6th Battalion. Siordet died on 9 February 1917, his body was never recovered. His name is inscribed in the Chapel Passage, West Wall, at Balliol College, together with those other Balliol College's alumni lost during World War I. After Siordet's death, his sister, Vera Siordet asked painter Glyn Philpot to help her to publish a volume of her brother poetry and drawings

Arthur Francis Turner

Admiral Sir Francis Turner was a British naval officer. He was the son of his wife Mrs AM Turner, he entered the navy in 1931, completing a four-year course at the Royal Naval Engineering College at Keyham. During the Second World War Turner travelled to Halifax, Nova Scotia, to commission and bring back HMS Newark to the United Kingdom. Indomitable was the carrier squadron flagship in the British Pacific Fleet and Turner's department maintained a high aircraft serviceability rate for the fleet's strikes. Turner was twice mentioned in despatches, having taken part in air strikes against Okinawa, Japan in 1945. After the Second World War, Turner planned the Royal Australian Navy's Fleet Air Arm. From 1954 Turner served in the Engineer in Chief's department at Bath, laying the foundation for the Navy's planned maintenance organisation, his other positions included: Captain Superintendent of the Royal Naval Aircraft Yard at Donibristle, Director of Aircraft Maintenance and Planning in London, Chief Staff Officer on the Central Staff, Mediterranean Fleet, Director-General of Aircraft at the Ministry of Defence and Chief of Fleet Support at the Ministry of Defence.

Turner was promoted to Vice-Admiral in June 1968. In 1970, Turner made naval history by becoming the first officer of a non-executive branch to reach the rank of full Admiral, he was one of the Navy's first specialists in naval aeronautical engineering and pioneered the introduction of planned maintenance to improve the reliability of the fleet's machinery. He retired in 1971. In 1963 Turner married Elizabeth Clare de Trafford, daughter of Captain Edmund Hubert de Trafford and his wife Hon. Cecilia Strickland, they raised two sons: Michael. The family settled at Effingham, Surrey where Lady Turner lived in retirement until her death on 30 November 2011, aged 79

Ethiopian manuscript collections

Ethiopian manuscripts are known to have reached Europe as early as the fifteenth century even earlier, through Egypt, Ethiopian pilgrims to the Holy Land and through members of the Ethiopian monastery of St Stephen of the Abyssinians in Rome. Subsequently, missionaries, military personnel and scholars contributed to the development of collections outside Ethiopia. In Europe, the three biggest collections of Ethiopian manuscripts are in Rome, in Paris and in London; these three organisations together hold about 2,700 manuscripts. Oriental collections of nearly all significant European libraries have Ethiopian material, with some still pursuing a policy of acquisition. Monasteries and modern institutions in Ethiopia have, maintained extensive collections and in some cases are still centres of manuscript production. Parchment was used for Ethiopian manuscripts from the time of the Four Gospels books of Abbā Garimā. Apart from Islamic manuscripts, paper only came into general use twentieth century.

There are eighty eight languages in Ethiopia according to Ethnologue, but not all support manuscript cultures. The majority of manuscripts are in the ancient liturgical language of Ethiopia. Catalogues of individual collections were written in the nineteenth century, with a key work for the disposition of Ethiopian MSS more prepared in 1995 and published by Robert Beylot and Maxime Rodinson. Since that time, an online inventory has been developed that documents items labelled as “Ethiopian manuscripts’’ in libraries all over the world; this "Inventory of Libraries and Catalogues of Ethiopian Manuscripts" was created in 2008 and is maintained since by A. Wion, C. Bosc-Tiessé and M.-L. Derat from CNRS; the list of institutions below is a partial selection of the most prominent and best known collections, giving special attention to the individual researchers involving in forming the collections and those scholars who wrote the catalogues. The early collections in the Bodleian Library at Oxford came from James Bruce, consisted of 25 Ethiopic manuscripts purchased by the library in 1843.

The collection soon grew to 33 manuscripts and these were catalogued and published in 1848 by August Dillmann. Since the mid-nineteenth century the collection has expanded to 130 items. A notable addition in 2002 was an illustrated seventeenth-century manuscript of a Marian text, Arganona Weddase; the uncatalogued manuscripts were revisited in 2007 by Steve Delamarter and Damaqa Berhāna Tafarā. The founding Ethiopic collections in the British Library—74 manuscripts—came from the Church Mission Society and the materials, assembled by Karl Wilhelm Isenberg and Johann Ludwig Krapf and linguists who travelled to the country between 1839 and 1842. However, some of the collection has an earlier provenance, for example, Extracts from the Chronicle of Axum, written on paper in about 1810 with the book plate of George Annesley, 2nd Earl of Mountnorris. In 1847 the Trustees of the British Museum published a catalogue of the Ethiopian manuscripts that were under their care; this catalogue included 88 items.

The British Library collections grew in 1868 when 349 manuscripts came after the British Expedition to Abyssinia against emperor Tewodros II. A catalogue of the enlarged collection was prepared by William Wright and published in 1877. Nine decades Stefan Strelcyn reviewed the manuscripts that had come to the British Library after 1877 and published a catalogue of them; the catalogue lists 108 items and covers the general range of Ethiopian literature from Biblical texts to magical and divinatory writings. The transfer of the India Office collection to the British Library in 1982 brought 6 further manuscripts to the collection, first acquired in 1842 by the India Museum in East India House. A further collection of 39 manuscripts came to the British Library from Roger Wenman Cowley. Cowley spent 15 years in Ethiopia as an Anglican missionary and teacher, during which time he assembled a collection of Biblical commentaries in Amharic, his MSS consist of copies on paper commissioned by Cowley and executed during the years 1967-77.

Cowley used this material in his book Ethiopian Biblical Interpretation, published in 1988. The British Library is in the process of digitizing and providing its Ethiopian manuscripts online in its Digitzed Manuscripts area; the Ethiopic collections at the Cambridge University Library were catalogued by Edward Ullendorff. The individual colleges at Cambridge hold Ethiopic manuscripts and have given digital access to some of them; the uncatalogued manuscripts were revisited in 2007 by Steve Delamarter and Damaqa Berhāna Tafarā. The Chester Beatty collection of 58 Ethiopian manuscripts includes illustrated gospel books and devotional works. Chester Beatty purchased some of the collection at auction in London in the 1930s and bought the rest in the 1950s and later; the manuscripts were studied and published by Cerulli in 1965. The Edinburgh University Library has a small collection of Ethiopic manuscripts acquired from a variety of sources; these are as follows: Or. MS 461-462 Acts of St. George according to Theodotus of Ancyra, with 20 illustrations, between boards.

MS 477, Or. MS 644, Or. MS 649, Or. MS 651, Or. MS 654, Or. MS 655 Psalms, Or. MS 656, Psalms, Or. MS 673 Gospels, scroll format; the John Rylands Library owns 45 items on parchment and paper, dating from the 1600s and later


MT-Energie GmbH is a biogas technology company operating in the field of renewable energies. The company's headquarters are in Zeven The UK branch office is located in Shropshire. MT-Energie develops and distributes both turnkey biogas powerplants and special bioprocess engineering components. Furthermore, it offers biological services for biogas plants; the company’s subsidiary MT-Biomethan GmbH, founded as part of the MT Group in 2008, offers technologies for biogas upgrading based on the process of pressureless amine scrubbing and a membrane-based gas permeation. The company was founded by Christoph Martens in 1995 and operated as engineering consultants; the early years of the company’s activities focused on the development of special biogas components. In 1997, Martens invented the so-called air-supported membrane cover for biogas plants; this technology is now used by various manufacturers of biogas plants. With the foundation of MT-Energie GmbH & Co. KG in 2001, the company focused on the construction of turnkey biogas plants.

By the end of 2013, about 600 biogas projects with a total installed power of 350 MW had been completed. In 2007 the company opened its first site abroad in Italy. Today MT-Energie operates throughout Europe and distributes its products and services in many countries worldwide. MT-Energie was founded in the German town of Rockstedt in the district of Rotenburg. In November 2008 the company moved its premises to the small town of Zeven in Lower Saxony. There, on the premises of 62,300 square metres, the new headquarters including offices, logistics area and manufacturing buildings for gas processing plants were constructed; when MT-Energie released preliminary results for the 2012 financial year on 25 April 2013, they talked of a collapse of demand in the German market and the high costs of internationalisation in Italy and the United States. MT-Energie has reduced the number of full-time employees in Italy from 40 to 15 and has pulled out of the US market. A company press release from earlier in the month denied rumours of liquidity problems and imminent insolvency.

The 2013 preliminary financial results were released on 30 June 2014 and they stated an expected loss of 23.3 million euros for the entire company. This loss is more than 25% of the expected company turnover of 87.7 million euros in the same period. MT-Energie has closed down the Australian, Canadian and US offices and pulled out of the North American and Australian markets completely; the company's only future involvement in North America will be completion of the already-begun projects in the USA. Due to the financial situation, all of the experienced country sales and project management directors were sacked or left the company, which leaves MT-Energie's foreign sales departments with inexperienced managers. MT-Energie had a covenant breach on their 2012-issued company bond due to owner's equity falling to 4.1%. In order to avoid defaulting on their bonds, a deal was made with the bond holders; this low level of owner's equity means that the banks offering credit can cancel their credit agreements with MT-Energie.

The banks and MT-Energie are now negotiating to find a solution. In winter 2010/11, MT-Energie offered the national archery team of the German Disabled Sports Association its Zeven storage and logistics centre for their preparations for the summer season; the team members included double Olympic medallist Mario Oehme as well as the incumbent runner-up world champions Michael Arenz and Michael Müller of the “compound team”. Official US website Official Canadian website Official UK website