Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. Auckland is the largest urban area in the country, with an urban population of around 1,628,900, it is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. A diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world; the Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki-makau-rau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions. The Auckland urban area ranges to Waiwera in the north, Kumeu in the north-west, Runciman in the south. Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulf of the Pacific Ocean to the east, the low Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, the Waitakere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west; the surrounding hills are covered in rainforest and the landscape is dotted with dozens of dormant volcanic cones.
The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitematā Harbour on the Pacific Ocean. Auckland is one of the few cities in the world to have a harbour on each of two separate major bodies of water; the isthmus on which Auckland resides was first settled around 1350 and was valued for its rich and fertile land. The Māori population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. After a British colony was established in 1840, William Hobson Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, chose the area as his new capital, he named the area for Earl of Auckland, British First Lord of the Admiralty. It was replaced as the capital in 1865 by Wellington, but immigration to Auckland stayed strong, it has remained the country's most populous city. Today, Auckland's central business district is the major financial centre of New Zealand. Auckland is classified as a Beta + World City because of its importance in commerce, the arts, education.
The University of Auckland, established in 1883, is the largest university in New Zealand. Landmarks such as the Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, the Harbour Bridge, the Sky Tower, many museums, parks and theatres are among the city's significant tourist attractions. Auckland Airport handles around one million international passengers a month. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, Auckland is ranked third on the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey, making it one of the most liveable cities; the isthmus was settled by Māori circa 1350, was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many pā were created on the volcanic peaks; the Māori population in the area is estimated to have been about 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. The introduction of firearms at the end of the eighteenth century, which began in Northland, upset the balance of power and led to devastating intertribal warfare beginning in 1807, causing iwi who lacked the new weapons to seek refuge in areas less exposed to coastal raids.
As a result, the region had low numbers of Māori when European settlement of New Zealand began. On 27 January 1832, Joseph Brooks Weller, eldest of the Weller brothers of Otago and Sydney, bought land including the site of the modern city of Auckland, the North Shore, part of Rodney District for "one large cask of powder" from "Cohi Rangatira". After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in February 1840, the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson, chose the area as his new capital and named it for George Eden, Earl of Auckland Viceroy of India; the land that Auckland was established on was given to the Governor by a local iwi, Ngāti Whātua, as a sign of goodwill and in the hope that the building of a city would attract commercial and political opportunities for iwi. Auckland was declared New Zealand's capital in 1841, the transfer of the administration from Russell in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842; however in 1840 Port Nicholson was seen as a better choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Island, Wellington became the capital in 1865.
After losing its status as capital, Auckland remained the principal city of the Auckland Province until the provincial system was abolished in 1876. In response to the ongoing rebellion by Hone Heke in the mid-1840s, the government encouraged retired but fit British soldiers and their families to migrate to Auckland to form a defence line around the port settlement as garrison soldiers. By the time the first Fencibles arrived in 1848, the rebels in the north had been defeated. Outlying defensive towns were constructed to the south, stretching in a line from the port village of Onehunga in the west to Howick in the east; each of the four settlements had about 800 settlers. In the early 1860s, Auckland became a base against the Māori King Movement, the 12,000 Imperial soldiers stationed there led to a strong boost to local commerce. This, continued road building towards the south into the Waikato, enabled Pākehā influence to spread from Auckland; the city's population grew rapidly, from 1,500 in 1841 to 3,635 in 1845 to 12,423 by 1864.
The growth occurred to other mercantile-dominated cities around the port and with problems of overcrowding and pollution. Auckland's population of ex-soldiers was far greater than that of other settlements: about 50 percent of the popula
Māori protest movement
The Māori protest movement is a broad indigenous-rights movement in Aotearoa New Zealand. While this movement has existed since Europeans first colonised New Zealand, its modern form emerged in the early 1970s and has focused on issues such as the Treaty of Waitangi, Māori land rights, the Māori language and culture, racism, it has been allied with the left wing although it differs from the mainstream left in a number of ways. Most members of the movement have been Māori but it has attracted some support from pākehā New Zealanders and internationally from other indigenous peoples. Notable successes of the movement include establishment of the Waitangi Tribunal, the return of some Māori land, the Māori language being made an official language of New Zealand; the movement is part of a broader Māori Renaissance. There is a long history of Māori resistance to pākehā. Many Māori embraced most aspects of European culture while retaining many aspects of their own culture. From about 1500 Māori developed an increasing warlike culture, believed to have its origins in climate cooling and other natural disasters which led to increasing fighting.
The culmination of this was the enormous pre musket battle of Hingakaka near Te Awamutu about 1800 when 16,000 warriors took part and about 1600 died according to the Tainui historian Pei Te Hurinui-Jones. From 1805 to 1843, Māori tribes continued to fight amongst themselves during the musket wars. From the 1840s to the 1870s, various Māori chiefs and parts of iwi fought against pākehā settlers and soldiers, in the 1863-4 New Zealand Land Wars, they used petitions, court cases, deputations to the British monarch and New Zealand and British governments, passive resistance and boycotts to try to achieve their goal of a separate Maori political system. Some of this resistance came from religious cults such as Pai Ringatu. Prophets such as Te Kooti, Rua Kenana and Te Whiti are sometimes seen as early Māori activists; the Māori King movement was an important focus of resistance in the Taranaki and Waikato regions,although the Taranaki support for the king movement was limited with Wiremu Kingi, the dominant Taranaki chief returning to Taranaki when government gunboats appeared in the Waikato River at Rangiriri.
Some Māori worked within pākehā systems such as the New Zealand Parliament in order to resist land loss and cultural imperialism. Ngata was one of the most important and influential Māori MP's who tried to combine the benefits of both cultures for Māori, he was forced to resign when he became involved in one of the biggest cases of mismanagement and maladministration which amounted to half a million pounds seen in New Zealand. From World War II, but from the 1950s, Māori moved from rural to urban areas in large numbers. Most pākehā believed that New Zealand had ideal race relations and, although relations were good compared to many other countries, the harmony existed because the urban pākehā and rural Māori came into contact. Māori urbanisation brought the differences between the cultures and the economic gaps between Māori and pākehā into the open. In addition, many Māori had difficulty coping with modern urban society away from the stabilizing influence of their whānau and hapū; some turned to alcohol or crime, many felt lost and alone.
Several new groups, most prominently the Māori Women's Welfare League and the New Zealand Māori Council emerged to help urban Māori and provide a unified voice for Māori. These groups were conservative by standards but did criticise the government on numerous occasions; the first significant Māori involvement in conventional protest came during controversy over the exclusion of Māori players from the 1960 All Blacks rugby tour of South Africa. However the protests tended to be organised and led by pākehā. In the mid-1960s the National government proposed to make Maori land more ‘economic’ by encouraging its transfer to a pākehā system of land ownership; the Maori Affairs Amendment Act 1967, as it became allowed greater interference in Māori landholding, was seen amongst Māori as a pākehā "land grab". Under the Māori Affairs Act of 1957, land owners who had shares less than $50 were forced to sell their shares which became a problematic type of land alienation; this was intensified under the 1967 Act.
The plans were opposed by every Maori group and organisation as the Act blatantly ignored the importance of Māori land being turangawaewae. Despite this, the Act was passed with only minor modifications; the Act is seen as the catalyst for the Māori protest movement, the evidence points to this. However the movement can be seen as part of a wider civil rights movement which emerged across the world in the 1960s; the Act was abolished under the Māori Affairs Amendment Act of 1974, led by minister of Māori Affairs, Matiu Rata New Zealand has a long history of sporting contact with South Africa through rugby union. Until the 1970s this resulted in discrimination against Māori players, since the apartheid political system in South Africa for most of the twentieth century did not allow people of different races to play sport together, therefore South African officials requested that Māori players not be included in sides which toured their country. Despite some of New Zealand's best players being Māori, this was agreed to, Māori were excluded from tours of South Africa.
Some Māori always objected to this, but it did not become a major issue until 1960, when there were several public protests at Māori exclusion from that year's tour. The protest group Halt All Racist Tours was formed in 1969. Although this was an issue in which Mā
Māori politics is the politics of the Māori people, who were the original inhabitants of New Zealand and who are now the country's largest minority. Modern Māori politics can be seen as a subset of New Zealand politics in general, but has a number of distinguishing features. Before the arrival of Pākehā in New Zealand, Māori society was based around communal units. A common misconception is that pre-colonial Māori governance was structured into the "rigid and static structural models" proposed by early ethnologists, such as Elsdon Best: The tribal organisation of the Maori included three different groups – the tribe, the clan, the family group.... The clan or sub-tribe was composed of a number of family groups, the sum of the clans formed the tribe. Twentieth century research "modified this model of tribal organisation, emphasising the role of the hapū... as the largest effective corporate group which defended a territory or worked together in peaceful enterprises". Therefore, it is now understood that hapū were responsible for administering resources and important community buildings, were responsible for warfare.
The iwi functioned more as a federation than as an administrative structure. Political leadership or governance in Māori society has traditionally come from two different groups of people – the Ariki and the Rangatira; the Ariki are "persons of the highest rank and seniority". Ariki did not operate in simple hierarchical orgranisations. Many positions overlap with Ariki holding multiple roles, including "head of an iwi, the rangatira of a hapu and the kaumatua of a whanau"; the Rangatira are the hereditary Māori leaders of hapū described by Europeans as chieftains. They are typified by their "humility, diplomacy, generosity and honesty"; the Treaty of Waitangi, signed between various Māori iwi and the British crown, had the practical effect of transferring sovereignty to the United Kingdom. It is debated as to whether this was the intent of the Māori, whether this was what the treaty said. Māori were granted all the rights of British subjects; as settlement increased, the colonists became vocal in their call for self-government.
In 1852, the British government passed the New Zealand Constitution Act, establishing an elected New Zealand Parliament. Responsible government, where this Parliament had the authority to appoint Cabinet, was achieved a few years later. At first, Māori had little interest in the new Parliament, seeing it as a Pākehā institution with no real relevance to them. However, there was an increasing desire by Māori to participate in Parliament – the New Zealand Land Wars of the 1860s, coupled with ongoing land seizures, convinced many Māori that the "settler Parliament" now had a major impact on them, that their voices needed to be heard in it. In theory, there was never any law barring Māori from election to Parliament, nor barring them from voting. In practice, other laws made it impossible; the major stumbling block was the property qualification, which required voters to own a certain amount of land. While Māori owned a large portion of New Zealand, most of this was held in common, not under individual title.
As such, few individual Māori met the property requirement – if they were part-owners of vast amounts of land, they did not have any land which they owned and so did not qualify to vote. In 1867, Parliament passed the Māori Representation Act, which created four special electorates for Māori; these seats did not have a property qualification. The creation of the seats was controversial, being opposed by those Pākehā who saw Māori as uncivilised, it was opposed by a small group which felt that by creating separate Māori electorates, Māori would be sidelined, as Pākehā politicians would not have to consult Māori opinion as they would if Māori voted in general electorates. There was debate about the number of seats – if Māori had been given a number of seats equivalent to their population, they would have had around fifteen seats, not four. One of the more radical MPs in Parliament, James FitzGerald called for Māori to be given a third of the seats in Parliament, but this was seen as excessive.
In the end, the seats were approved based on a desire to improve relations with Māori and reduce military conflict. The first Māori MPs took their seats in 1868, it was intended that these seats would be abolished as Māori abandoned traditional land ownership traditions. In the end, the seats were retained, still exist today. There have, over the years, been a number of attempts to abolish them, with a number of different reasons being given – some said that reserving seats was unfair, while others said that keeping Māori electorates separate meant that Māori were marginalised and ignored by mainstream politicians. Many Māori politicians defended the electorates, saying that they were necessary to ensure Māori representation in Parliament. Other Māori leaders, said that the seats were not required – there have been Māori politicians who have gained election in non-Māori seats; when Māori MPs were first elected to Parliament, there were no formal political parties in New Zealand. After the Liberal Party was founded, however, it gained the support of a number of prominent Māori figures.
The most prominent Māori to serve as a Liberal MP was Āpirana Ngata, who rose high within the Liberal Party's hierarchy. Ngata is sai
Whakatōhea is a Māori iwi located in the eastern Bay of Plenty region of New Zealand. The iwi comprises six hapu: Ngāi Tamahaua, Ngāti Ira, Ngāti Ngahere, Ngāti Patumoana, Ngāti Ruatākena and Ūpokorehe. In the 2006 Census, 12,072 people claimed an affiliation with Whakatōhea; the iwi is traditionally centred in the area around the town of Opotiki. The traditional territorial lands extend eastwards from Ohiwa Harbour to Opape along the coastline, inland to Matawai; these lands have long held an abundance of food resources seafood. Most of the marae of the iwi are located near the coast to defend its marine resources. Whakatōhea can trace their history to the arrival of Māori settlers on the Nukutere and Mataatua canoes. Whakatōhea are the descendants of the eldest daughter of Wekanui and Irākewa. Wekanui and Irākewa had three children, they had a half brother, Tāneatua. It is, according to Whakatōhea legend that Muriwai spoke the famous words "kia tū whakatāne au i ahau" translated to "make me stand like a man".
When Mātaatua was being swept back out to sea with no man to pull the waka back in. It was these famous words, it was from these words that Whakatane gets its name. Tūtāmure was a descendant of the Nukutere settlers, was the leader of the Panenehu tribe. Hine-i-kauia was a descendant of the Mataatua settlers, who arrived in New Zealand nine generations after the Nukutere settlers. Tūtāmure and Hine-i-kauia were married, their descendants would form the Ngāti Ruatākena hapu; the ancestral house at Omarumutu marae is named the dining room is named Hine-i-kauia. For centuries, Whakatōhea fought many battles with their neighbours, including Ngāi Tai in the east, Ngāti Awa and Ngāi Tūhoe in the west; the iwi had good relations with European settlers and Christian missionaries. However, in 1865, following the murder of German missionary Carl Völkner, with increasing demands from European settlers for more land, Crown soldiers invaded Te Whakatōhea land. 600 km² of Whakatōhea land was confiscated by the Crown under the New Zealand Settlements Act of 1863.
During the twentieth century there was increasing recognition that Whakatōhea had suffered grievances at the hands of the Crown. In 1996, the New Zealand government signed a Deed of Settlement and apologising for the invasion and confiscation of Whakatōhea lands, the subsequent economic and developmental devastation suffered by the iwi. Whakatōhea are presently preparing to negotiate a full settlement with the New Zealand government. Te Ūpokorehe is one of the hapū of Whakatōhea, it has three marae and wharenui: Kutarere marae and Te Poho o Tamaterangi wharenui at Kutarere Maromahue marae and Te Poho o Kahungunu wharenu at Waiotahe Roimata marae and Te Ao Marama wharenui at Kutarere In addition to Te Ūpokorehe, there are five other hapū in Whakatōhea. Each has their own marae and wharenui. Ngāi Tamahaua, based at Opape marae and Muriwai wharenui at Opape Ngāti Irapuaia, based at Ōpeke / Opekerau / Waioeka marae and Irapuaia wharenui at Waioweka Ngāti Ngahere, based at Te Rere marae and Te Iringa wharenui at Ōpōtiki Ngāti Patumoana, based at Waiaua marae and Ruamoko wharenui at Waiaua Ngāti Ruatākena, based at Ōmarumutu marae and Tūtāmure wharenui at Ōmarumutu The Whakatōhea Māori Trust Board was established in 1952 to administer the assets of the iwi, provides members with education, health services and training in various commercial fields.
It is a charitable trust governed by two representatives from each of the six hapū, based in Ōpōtiki. The trust represents the tribe's fisheries interest under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004, its aquaculture interests under the Māori Commercial Aquaculture Claims Settlement Act 2004, it represents the tribe during consultation on resource consent applications under the Resource Management Act 1991, through a recognised Te Upokorehe Iwi Resource Management Team. The Whakatōhea Pre-Settlement Claims Trust represents the tribe during Treaty of Waitangi settlement negotiations; the New Zealand Government recognised the trust's mandate to represent the iwi with an Agreement in Principle signed with the Crown on 18 August 2017. The trust is governed by one trustee elected from each of six hapū, one trustee appointed from each of eight marae, an additional trustee appointed by Whakatōhea Māori Trust Board; the trust is administered by the same staff in the same offices in Ōpōtiki. The tribal area of Whakatōhea is located within the territory of Ōpōtiki District Council.
It is within the boundaries of Bay of Plenty Regional Council. Pan-tribal iwi station Sea 92FM broadcasts to members of Whakatōhea, Ngāti Tai and Te Whānau-ā-Apanui in the Opotiki area, it is operated by pan-tribal service provider Whakaatu Whanaunga Trust, is available on 92.0 FM. It operates the low-power Opotiki 88.1 FM, geared towards a young demographic. Tuakana Aporotanga, tribal leader and ringatu tohunga Henare Te Raumoa Huatahi Balneavis and administrator Whirimako Black and actress Pāora Kīngi Delamere and boat-builder Matiu Dickson and politician George Gage, Ringatū minister Wira Gardiner, civil servant and writer Akenehi Hei and midwife Kayla Imrie, canoeist Paratene Matchitt and painter Gareeb Stephen Shalfoon, musician Charles Shelford, soldier Frank Shelford, rugby union player Matiu Te Auripo Te Hau and community leader Hira Te Popo, tribal leader Michael Walker, academic List of Māori iwi Opotiki Information Centre
Wellington is the capital city and second most populous urban area of New Zealand, with 418,500 residents. It is located at the south-western tip of the North Island, between Cook Strait and the Remutaka Range. Wellington is the major population centre of the southern North Island, is the administrative centre of the Wellington Region, which includes the Kapiti Coast and Wairarapa, its latitude is 41°17′S, making it the world's southernmost capital of a sovereign state. Wellington features a temperate maritime climate, is the world's windiest city by average wind speed; the Wellington urban area comprises four local authorities: Wellington City, on the peninsula between Cook Strait and Wellington Harbour, contains the central business district and about half the population. As the nation's capital since 1865, the New Zealand Government and Parliament, Supreme Court and most of the public service are based in the city. Architectural sights include the Government Building—one of the largest wooden buildings in the world—as well as the iconic Beehive.
Wellington is home to several of the largest and oldest cultural institutions in the nation such the National Archives, the National Library, the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, numerous theatres. It plays host to many artistic and cultural organisations, including the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra and Royal New Zealand Ballet. One of the world's most liveable cities, the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranked Wellington 12th in the world. Wellington's economy is service-based, with an emphasis on finance, business services, government, it is the centre of New Zealand's film and special effects industries, a hub for information technology and innovation, with two public research universities. Wellington is one of New Zealand's chief seaports and serves both domestic and international shipping; the city is served by the third busiest airport in the country. Wellington's transport network includes train and bus lines which reach as far as the Kapiti Coast and Wairarapa, ferries connect the city to the South Island.
Wellington takes its name from Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo: his title comes from the town of Wellington in the English county of Somerset. It was named in November 1840 by the original settlers of the New Zealand Company on the suggestion of the directors of the same, in recognition of the Duke's strong support for the company's principles of colonisation and his "strenuous and successful defence against its enemies of the measure for colonising South Australia". One of the founders of the settlement, Edward Jerningham Wakefield, reported that the settlers "took up the views of the directors with great cordiality and the new name was at once adopted". In the Māori language, Wellington has three names. Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara refers to Wellington Harbour and means "the great harbour of Tara". In New Zealand Sign Language, the name is signed by raising the index and ring fingers of one hand, palm forward, to form a "W", shaking it from side to side twice.
The city's location close to the mouth of the narrow Cook Strait leads to its vulnerability to strong gales, leading to the city's nickname of "Windy Wellington". Legends recount that Kupe explored the district in about the 10th century; the earliest date with hard evidence for Maori living in New Zealand is about 1280. Situated near the geographic centre of the country, Wellington was well placed for trade. In 1839 it was chosen as the first major planned settlement for British immigrants coming to New Zealand; the settlement was named in honour of Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo. European settlement began with the arrival of an advance party of the New Zealand Company on the ship Tory on 20 September 1839, followed by 150 settlers on the Aurora on 22 January 1840. Food processing plants, engineering industries, vehicle assembly and oil refineries were located in the NE which caused the main industrial growth in Hutt valley; the settlers constructed their first homes at Petone on the flat area at the mouth of the Hutt River.
When that proved swampy and flood-prone they transplanted the plans, drawn without regard for the hilly terrain. In 1865, Wellington became the capital city in place of Auckland, which William Hobson had made the capital in 1841; the New Zealand Parliament had first met in Wellington on 7 July 1862, on a temporary basis. There had been some concerns that the more populous South Island would choose to form a separate colony in the British Empire. Several Commissioners invited from Australia, chosen for their neutral status, declared that Wellington was a suitable location because of
Flax in New Zealand
New Zealand flax describes the common New Zealand perennial plants Phormium tenax and Phormium colensoi, known by the Māori names harakeke and wharariki respectively. Although given the common name'flax' they are quite distinct from the Northern Hemisphere plant known as flax P. tenax occurs in New Zealand and Norfolk Island, while P. colensoi is endemic to New Zealand. They have played an important part in the cultural and economic history of New Zealand for both the Māori people and the European settlers. Both species and their cultivars have now been distributed to temperate regions of the world as ornamental garden plants - and to lesser extent for fibre production. Although the Māori made textiles from a number of other plants, including tī kōuka, tōī, kiekie and the paper mulberry, the use of harakeke and wharariki was predominant; as Captain Cook wrote: “Of the leaves of these plants, with little preparation, they make all their common apparel. They made baskets and fishing nets from the undressed flax.
The Māori practised advanced weft twining in phormium fibre cloaks. Plaiting and weaving the flax fibres into baskets were but only two of the great variety of uses made of flax by Māori who recognised nearly 60 varieties, who propagated their own flax nurseries and plantations throughout the land. Leaves were cut near the base of the plant using a sharp mussel shell or specially shaped rocks, more than not greenstone; the green fleshy substance of the leaf was stripped off, again using a mussel shell, right through to the fibre which went through several processes of washing, fixing, softening and drying. The flax fibre, called muka, is laboriously washed and hand wrung to make soft for the skin; the cords form the base cloth for intricate cloaks or garments such as the prized traditional feather cloak. Different type of cloaks, such as kahu kiwi and kahu kākā, were produced by adorning them with colourful feathers from different native birds, such as kiwi, kākā, tui and kererū. Fibres of various strengths were used to fashion eel traps large fishing nets and lines, bird snares, cordage for ropes, bags, clothing, buckets, food baskets, cooking utensils etc.
The handmade flax cording and ropes had such great tensile strength that they were used to bind together sections of hollowed out logs to create huge ocean-going canoes. With the help of wakas, pre-European Māori deployed seine nets which could be over one thousand metres long; the nets were woven from green flax, with stone weights and light wood or gourd floats, could require hundreds of men to haul. It was used to make rigging and lengthy anchor warps, roofs for housing. Frayed ends of flax leaves were fashioned into lights for use at night; the dried flower stalks, which are light, were bound together with flax twine to make river rafts called mokihi. For centuries, Māori have used nectar from the flowers for medicinal purposes and as a general sweetener. Boiled and crushed harakeke roots were applied externally as a poultice for boils and abscesses, as well as to varicose ulcers. Juice from pounded roots was used as a disinfectant, taken internally to relieve constipation or expel worms; the pulp of pounded leaves was applied as dressings to bayonet or other wounds.
The gum-like sap produced by harakeke contains enzymes that give it blood clotting and antiseptic qualities to help healing processes. It is a mild anaesthetic, Māori traditionally applied the sap to boils and various wounds, to aching teeth, to rheumatic and associated pains and various skin irritations, scalds and burns. Splints were fashioned from korari and leaves, fine cords of muka fibre utilise the styptic properties of the gel before being used to stitch wounds. Harakeke can secure broken bones much as plaster is used today. Chemical analysis shows the antifungal, anti-inflammatory drug and laxative anthraquinones are in common and mountain flaxes. During the early Musket Wars and New Zealand wars, Māori used large, thickly woven flax mats to cover entrances and lookout holes in their "gunfighter's pā" fortifications; some warriors wore coats of plaited Phormium tenax, which gave defense characteristics similar to a medieval gambeson, slowing musket balls to be wounding rather than deadly.
In winter 1823 Captain John Rodolphus Kent went to Foveaux Strait, filled 14 large casks with flax, bought 1,100 lb of dressed flax, took 25 flax plants. That trip was by way of an experiment to confirm the value of flax, but he continued trading until 1836 and several other traders followed his example. Thus, by the early 19th century, the quality of rope materials made from New Zealand flax was known internationally, as was the quality of New Zealand trees which were used for spars and masts; the Royal Navy was one of the largest customers. The flax trade burgeoned after male Māori recognised the advantages of trade and adapted to helping in the harvesting and dressing of flax, done by females. "Whole tribes sometimes relocated to swamps where flax grew in abundance but where it was decidedly unhealthy to live. The taking of slaves increased - slaves who could be put to work dressing flax...". A burgeoning flax industry developed with the fibres being used for rope, matting, carpet under felt, wool packs.
Wild stands of flax were h
Bay of Plenty
The Bay of Plenty is a bight in the northern coast of New Zealand's North Island. It stretches 260 km from the Coromandel Peninsula in the west to Cape Runaway in the east; the Bay of Plenty Region is situated around this body of water incorporating several large islands in the bay. The bay was named by James Cook after he noticed the abundant food supplies at several Māori villages there, in stark contrast to the earlier observations he had made in Poverty Bay. According to local Māori traditions, the Bay of Plenty was the landing point of several migration canoes that brought Māori settlers to New Zealand; these include the Mataatua, Nukutere, Tākitimu and Tainui canoes. Many of the descendent iwi maintain their traditional homelands in the region, including Te Whānau-ā-Apanui, Te Whakatōhea, Ngāi Tai, Ngāi Tūhoe, Ngāti Awa, Ngāti Tūwharetoa ki Kawerau, Te Arawa, Ngāi Te Rangi, Ngāti Ranginui and Ngāti Pūkenga. Early Māori settlement gave rise to many of the city names used today; the first recorded European contact came when James Cook sailed through the Bay of Plenty in 1769.
Cook noted the abundance of food supplies, in comparison to Poverty Bay further back along the eastern coast of the North Island. Further reports of European contact are scarce prior to the arrival of missionary Samuel Marsden to the Tauranga area in 1820. During the 1820s and 1830s, northern iwi including Ngā Puhi invaded the Bay of Plenty during their campaign throughout the North Island, fighting local Māori tribes in what became known as the Musket Wars. However, the 1830s and 1840s saw increased contact between Bay of Plenty Māori and Europeans through trade, although few Europeans settled in the region. Missionary activity in the region increased during this time. In 1853, New Zealand was subdivided into provinces, with the Bay of Plenty incorporated into Auckland Province. Conflict returned to the Bay of Plenty during the 1860s with the New Zealand Land Wars; this stemmed from Tauranga iwi supporting the Waikato iwi in their conflict with the government. In retaliation, British Crown and government-allied Māori forces attacked the Tauranga iwi, including at the famous Battle of Gate Pā in 1864.
Further conflict with the government arose in 1865 when German missionary Carl Völkner and interpreter James Fulloon were killed by local Māori at Opotiki and Whakatane, respectively. The ensuing conflict resulted in the confiscation of considerable land from several Bay of Plenty iwi by the government. Confiscation of Māori land deprived local iwi of economic resources, provided land for expanding European settlement; the government established fortified positions, including at Tauranga and Opotiki. European settlers arrived throughout the latter half of the 19th century, establishing settlements in Katikati, Te Puke and the Rangitaiki area. In 1876, settlements were incorporated into counties following the nationwide dissolution of the provincial system. Initial settlements in the region struggled: the climate was ill-suited to sheep farming and the geography was inaccessible, further hindered by a lack of infrastructure. By the end of the century the population had started to dwindle, but after experimenting with different crops, settlers found success with dairy production.
Dairy factories sprang up across the Bay of Plenty in the 1900s, with butter and cheese feeding economic prosperity throughout the early 20th century. Timber became a major export in the 1950s, as kiwifruit did later; the present Bay of Plenty region was formed in 1989 after a nationwide review and shakeup of top-level local government in New Zealand. The new region incorporated the former counties of Tauranga, Rotorua and Opotiki. On 5 October 2011, the MV Rena ran aground on the Astrolabe Reef in the bay causing a large oil spill, described as New Zealand's worst environmental disaster; the region is subdivided into territorial authorities, which include the Western Bay of Plenty District, Tauranga City, Whakatane District, Kawerau District and Opotiki District, as well as parts of Rotorua District and the town of Rangitaiki in Taupo District. The Bay of Plenty Regional Council, which used the brand name Environment Bay of Plenty for a number of years, is the administrative body responsible for overseeing regional land use, environmental management and civil defence in the region.
It oversees local-tier governing councils for each of the territorial authorities. In 1989, Whakatane was selected as the seat for the regional council, as a compromise between the two dominant cities of Tauranga and Rotorua. Public health in New Zealand is broken into regions; the Bay of Plenty and Lakes district health boards have public health provided by Toi Te Ora - Public Health. The Bay of Plenty region covers 9,500 km ² of coastal marine area, it extends along the eastern coast of the North Island, from the base of the Coromandel Peninsula in the west to Cape Runaway in the east. The region extends 12 nautical miles from the mainland coastline, extends from the coastlines of several islands in the bay, notably Mayor Island/Tuhua, Motiti Island, Whale Island and the active volcano of Whakaari/White Island, it extends inland to the sparsely populated forest lands around Murupara. The geographical bay is defined by 259 km of open coastline used for economic and cultural purposes; the coastline from Waihi Beach in the west to Opape is defined as sandy coast, while the coast from Opape to Cape Runaway is rocky shore.
Sizeable harbours are located at Tauranga and Ohiwa. Major estuaries include Maketu, Little Waihi, Whakatane and Waioeka/Otara. Eight major rivers empty into the bay from inland