Mecca spelled Makkah, is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, is the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located 70 km inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of 277 m above sea level, 340 kilometres south of Medina, its resident population in 2012 was 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah. As the birthplace of Muḥammad, the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran, Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities, it was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925.
In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj; as a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world, although non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city. "Mecca" is the familiar form of the English transliteration for the Arabic name of the city, although the official transliteration used by the Saudi government is Makkah, closer to the Arabic pronunciation. The word "Mecca" in English has come to be used to refer to any place that draws large numbers of people, because of this some English speaking Muslims have come to regard the use of this spelling for the city as offensive.
The Saudi government adopted Makkah as the official spelling in the 1980s, but is not universally known or used worldwide. The full official name is Makkah al-Mukarramah or Makkatu l-Mukarramah, which means "Mecca the Honored", but is loosely translated as "The Holy City of Mecca"; the ancient or early name for the site of Mecca is Bakkah. An Arabic language word, its etymology, like that of Mecca, is obscure. Believed to be a synonym for Mecca, it is said to be more the early name for the valley located therein, while Muslim scholars use it to refer to the sacred area of the city that surrounds and includes the Ka‘bah; this form is used for the name Mecca in the Quran in 3:96, while the form Mecca is used in 48:24. In South Arabic, the language in use in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of Muhammad, the b and m were interchangeable. Other references to Mecca in the Quran call it Umm al-Qurā, meaning "Mother of All Settlements"/"mother of villages". Another name of Mecca is Ṫihāmah.
Another name for Mecca, or the wilderness and mountains surrounding it, according to Arab and Islamic tradition, is Faran or Pharan, referring to the Desert of Paran mentioned in the Old Testament at Genesis 21:21. Arab and Islamic tradition holds that the wilderness of Paran, broadly speaking, is the Tihamah and the site where Ishmael settled was Mecca. Yaqut al-Hamawi, the 12th century Syrian geographer, wrote that Fārān was "an arabized Hebrew word, one of the names of Mecca mentioned in the Torah." Mecca is governed by the Municipality of Mecca, a municipal council of fourteen locally elected members headed by a mayor appointed by the Saudi government. As of May 2015, the mayor of the city was Dr. Osama bin Fadhel Al-Bar. Mecca is the capital of the Makkah Region; the provincial governor was prince Abdul Majeed bin Abdulaziz Al Saud from 2000 until his death in 2007. On 16 May 2007, prince Khalid bin Faisal Al Saud was appointed as the new governor; the early history of Mecca is still disputed, as there are no unambiguous references to it in ancient literature prior to the rise of Islam.
The Roman Empire took control of part of the Hejaz in 106 CE, ruling cities such as Hegra, located to the north of Mecca. Though detailed descriptions were established of Western Arabia by Rome, such as by Procopius, there are no references of a pilgrimage and trading outpost such as Mecca; the first direct mention of Mecca in external literature occurs in 741 CE, in the Byzantine-Arab Chronicle, though here the author places it in Mesopotamia rather than the Hejaz. Given the inhospitable environment and lack of historical references in Roman and Indian sources, historians including Patricia Crone and Tom Holland have cast doubt on the claim that Mecca was a major historical trading outpost; the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus writes about Arabia in his work Bibliotheca historica, describing a holy shrine: "And a temple has been set up there, holy and exceedingly revered by all Arabians". Claims have been made. However, the geographic location Diodorus describes is located in northwest Arabia, around the area of Leuke Kome, closer to Petra and within the form
Bakkah, according to Muslim scholars, is an ancient name for Mecca, the most holy city of Islam. Most people believe they are synonyms, but to Muslim scholars there is a distinction: Bakkah refers to the Kaaba and the sacred site surrounding it, while Mecca is the name of the city in which they are both located. According to Lisan Al Arab of Ibn Manzor, the site of Kaaba and its surroundings was named Bakkah due to crowding and congestion of people in the area; the Arabic verb bakka, with double "k", means to crowd like in a bazaar. This is not to be confused with another unrelated Arabic verb baka, the past participle of yabki, to cry. Bakkah is mentioned in sura 3, ayah 96 of the Qur'an,Translation: " Verily the first House set apart unto mankind was that at Bakka, a guidance unto the worlds.". Bakkah is the ancient name for the site of Mecca. An Arabic language word, its etymology, like that of Mecca, is obscure. One meaning ascribed to it is "narrow", seen as descriptive of the area in which the valley of the holy places and the city of Mecca are located, pressed in upon as they are by mountains.
Believed to be a synonym for Mecca, it is said to be more the early name for the valley located therein, while Muslim scholars use it to refer to the sacred area of the city that surrounds and includes the Kaaba. The form Bakkah is used for the name Mecca in the Quran in 3:96, while the form Mecca is used in 48:24. In South Arabic, the language in use in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of Muhammad, the b and m were interchangeable; the Quranic passage using the form Bakkah says: "The first sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah, a blessed place, a guidance for the peoples." Other references to Mecca in the Quran call it Umm al-Qura, meaning "mother of all settlements". In Islamic tradition, Bakkah is where Hagar and Ishmael settled after being taken by Abraham to the wilderness, a story parallel to the Bible's Book of Genesis. Genesis tells of how after Ishmael ran out of water to drink. In Arab tradition, Hagar runs back and forth between two elevated points seven times to search for help before sitting down in despair, at which point the angel speaks as recorded in Genesis 21:17-19: God heard the cry of the boy, an angel of God called to Hagar from heaven and said to her,'What troubles you, Hagar?
Fear not, for God has heeded the cry of the boy where he is. Come, lift up the boy and hold him by the hand, for I will make a great nation of him.' God opened her eyes and she saw a well of water. She let the boy drink. Here, the tradition holds that a spring gushed forth from the spot where Hagar had laid Ishmael, this spring came to be known as the Well of Zamzam; when Muslims on hajj run between the hills of Safa and Marwah seven times, it is to commemorate Hagar's search for help and the resulting revelation of the well of Zamzam. In addition to the Islamic tradition that Hagar and Ishmael settled in Bakkah, the Quran relates that Abraham came to Mecca to help his son Ishmael build the Kaaba adjacent to the well of Zamzam. However, in the Bible and ancient Jewish and pre-Islamic tradition, Abraham is never mentioned as traveling far south into Arabia. Ishmael is mentioned in Genesis at Abraham's funeral. Ibn Ishaq, the 8th-century Arab Muslim historian, relates that during the renovation of Kaaba undertaken by the Quraysh before Islam, found an inscription in one of the corners of the foundation of the building that mentions Bakkah.
Composed in Syriac, it was incomprehensible to the Quraysh until a Jew translated it for them as follows: "I am Allah, the Lord of Bakka. I created it on the day I created heaven and earth and formed the sun and the moon, I surrounded it with seven pious angels, it will stand while its two mountains stand, a blessing to its people with milk and water."The name Bakkah is woven into the kiswa, the cloth covering the Kaaba, replaced each year before the Hajj. Valley of Baca is mentioned in the Book of Psalms Chapter 84, in the following passage: How amiable are thy tabernacles, O Lord of hosts! My soul longeth, yea fainteth for the courts of the Lord: my heart and my flesh crieth out for the living God. Yea, the sparrow hath found an house, the swallow a nest for herself, where she may lay her young thine altars, O Lord of hosts, my King, my God. Blessed are they that dwell in thy house: they will be still praising thee. Selah. Blessed is the man. Who passing through the valley of Baca make it a well.
The original Hebrew-language phrase for the Valley of Baca is emeq ha-Baka עמק הבכא. A literal translation of the Hebrew name is "valley of the Baka,", although the ancient Greek translation assumed a similar-sounding word בכה "crying" and translated ἐν τῇ κοιλάδι τοῦ κλαυθμῶνος "valley of mourning"; the same Hebrew word בכא is associated with a famous battle in 2 Samuel 5:23-24 in the Valley of Rephaim, about 4-7 kilometers southwest of the present day Old City of Jerusalem. David is advised to engage the Philistines in battle when he hears the sound of marching in the Baka trees. Mecca & Baca Islamic site
Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief. This annual observance is regarded as one of the Five Pillars of Islam; the month lasts 29–30 days based on the visual sightings of the crescent moon, according to numerous biographical accounts compiled in the hadiths. The word Ramadan comes from the Arabic root ramiḍa or ar-ramaḍ, which means scorching heat or dryness. Fasting is fard for adult Muslims, except those who are suffering from an illness, are elderly, breastfeeding, chronically ill or menstruating. Fasting the month of Ramadan was made obligatory during the month of Sha'ban, in the second year after the Muslims migrated from Mecca to Medina. Fatwas have been issued declaring that Muslims who live in regions with a natural phenomenon such as the midnight sun or polar night should follow the timetable of Mecca, but the more accepted opinion is that Muslims in those areas should follow the timetable of the closest country to them in which night can be distinguished from day.
While fasting from dawn until sunset, Muslims refrain from consuming food, drinking liquids and engaging in sexual relations. Muslims are instructed to refrain from sinful behavior that may negate the reward of fasting, such as false speech and fighting except in self-defense. Pre-fast meals before dawn are referred to as Suhoor, while the post-fast breaking feasts after sunset are called Iftar. Spiritual rewards for fasting are believed to be multiplied within the month of Ramadan. Fasting for Muslims during Ramadan includes the increased offering of salat, recitation of the Quran and an increase of doing good deeds and charity. Chapter 2, Verse 185, of the Quran states: The month of Ramadan is that in, revealed the Quran, and whosoever of you is present, let him fast the month, whosoever of you is sick or on a journey, a number of other days. Allah desires for you ease, it is believed that the Quran was first revealed to Muhammad during the month of Ramadan, referred to as the "best of times".
The first revelation was sent down on Laylat al-Qadr, one of the five odd nights of the last ten days of Ramadan. According to hadith, all holy scriptures were sent down during Ramadan, it is further believed that the tablets of Ibrahim, the Torah, the Psalms, the Gospel and the Quran were sent down on 1st, 6th, 12th, 13th and 24th Ramadan, respectively. According to the Quran, fasting was obligatory for prior nations, is a way to attain taqwa, fear of God. God proclaimed to Muhammad that fasting for His sake was not a new innovation in monotheism, but rather an obligation practiced by those devoted to the oneness of God; the pagans of Mecca fasted, but only on tenth day of Muharram to expiate sins and avoid droughts. The ruling to observe fasting during Ramadan was sent down 18 months after Hijra, during the month of Sha'ban in the second year of Hijra in 624 CE. Abu Zanad, an Arabic writer from Iraq who lived after the founding of Islam, in around 747 CE, wrote that at least one Mandaean community located in al-Jazira observed Ramadan before converting to Islam.
According to historian Philip Jenkins, Ramadan comes "from the strict Lenten discipline of the Syrian Churches", a postulation corroborated by other scholars, such as the theologian Paul-Gordon Chandler. This suggestion is based on the idea that the Quran itself has Syriac Christian origins, a claim to which some Muslim academics such as M. Al-Azami, object. With professional athletes sharing their experiences of fasting during this religious period, Ramadan is more in the public eye than before - and while tradition and religion remain at the forefront and more Muslims are finding ways to fit their lifestyle around their faith; the beginning and end of Ramadan are determined by the lunar Islamic calendar. Hilāl is a day after the astronomical new moon. Since the new moon marks the beginning of the new month, Muslims can safely estimate the beginning of Ramadan. However, to many Muslims, this is not in accordance with authenticated Hadiths stating that visual confirmation per region is recommended.
The consistent variations of a day have existed since the time of Muhammad. The Arabic Laylat al-Qadr, translated to English is "the night of power" or "the night of decree", is considered the holiest night of the year; this is the night in which Muslims believe the first revelation of the Quran was sent down to Muhammad stating that this night was "better than one thousand months ", as stated in Chapter 97:3 of the Qu'ran. Laylat al-Qadr is believed to have occurred on an odd-numbered night during the last ten days of Ramadan, i.e. the night of the 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th or 29th. The Dawoodi Bohra Community believe; the holiday of Eid al-Fitr marks the end of Ramadan and the beginning of the next lunar month, Shawwal. This first day of the following month is declared after another crescent new moon has been sighted or the completion of 30 days of fasting if no visual sighting is possible due to weather conditi
Names of God in Islam
According to a hadith, there are at least 99 Attributes of Allah, known as the ʾasmāʾu llāhi l-ḥusnā. The names are called 99 Attributes of Allah. According to Sahih Bukhari Hadith: Abu Hurairah reported that Allah has ninety-nine Names, i.e. one hundred minus one, whoever believes in their meanings and acts accordingly, will enter Paradise. There's another Sahih Muslim Hadith:Allah's Messenger said, "Allah has ninety-nine Names, one-hundred less one. To count something means to know it by heart; the Qur'an refers to God's Most Beautiful Names in several Surahs. Gerhard Böwering refers to Surah 17 as the locus classicus to which explicit lists of 99 names used to be attached in tafsir. A cluster of more than a dozen Divine epithets which are included in such lists is found in Surah 59. Mystic philosopher Ibn Arabi surmised that the 99 names are "outward signs of the universe's inner mysteries". There is no universal agreement among Muslims as to what counts as a name of God, what does not. Additionally, while some names are only in the Quran, others are only in the hadith, there are some names which appear in both.
Different sources give different lists of the 99 names. The following list is based on the one found in the Jamiʿ at-Tirmidhi. Other hadith, such as those of al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Ibn Majah, al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi or Ibn ʿAsākir, have variant lists. All attribute the original compilation of the list of names to Abu Hurairah.al-Tirmidhi comments on his list: "This hadith is gharib. Various early Muslim exegetes, including Jaʿfar al-Sadiq, Sufyan ibn `Uyaynah, Ibn Hazm, al-Qurtubi, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, have given their own versions of lists of 99 names.ٱ = The waṣla denoting of ٱلْ is "ʾal/ ʾul/ ʾil" depending on the last vowel of the previous word/sentence structure: e.g. سُوْرَةُ ٱلْرَّحْمَـٰنُ Suratu r-Raḥmān. Please note the written Arabic spelling of the names written in Arabic in the table are in the vowelled Classical/ Quranic form with the square bracketed "" variant of the written Arabic forms given in common or modern texts - in media, some long vowels and punctuations are omitted for the easier typing and reading.
There is a tradition in Sufism to the effect the 99 names of God point to a mystical "Most Supreme and Superior Name" (ismu l-ʾAʿẓam. This "Greatest Name of God" is said to be "the one which if He is called by it, He will answer."According to a hadith narrated by Abdullah ibn Masud, some of the names of God have been hidden from mankind. More than 1000 names of God are listed in the Jawshan Kabir invocations; the Arabic names of God are used to form theophoric given names used in Muslim cultures throughout the world, including non-Arabic speaking societies. Because the names of God themselves are reserved to God and their use as a person's given name is considered religiously inappropriate, theophoric names are formed by prefixing the term ˁabd to the name in the case of male names; this distinction is established out of respect for the sanctity of Divine names, which denote attributes that are believed to be possessed in a full and absolute sense only by God, while human beings, being limited creatures, are viewed by Muslims as being endowed with the Divine attributes only in a limited and relative capacity.
The prefixing of the definite article would indicate that the bearer possesses the corresponding attribute in an exclusive sense, a trait reserved to God. Quranic verse 3:26 is cited as evidence against the validity of using Divine names for persons, with the example of Mālik ul-Mulk: "Say: "O God! Lord of Power, You give power to whom You please, You strip off power from whom You please. You endue with honour whom You please, You bring low whom You please. In Your hand is all Good." Verily, over all things You have power." The two parts of the name starting with ˁabd may be written separately or combined as one in the transliterated form. Examples of Muslim theophoric names include: Rahmān, such as Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais - Imam of the Grand Mosque of Makkah, KSA Salām, such as Salam Fayyad - Palestinian politician Jabbār, such as Kareem Abdul-Jabbar - American basketball player Hakīm, such as Sherman "Abdul Hakim" Jackson - American Islamic Studies scholar Ra'ūf, such as Ra'ouf Mus'ad - Egyptian-Sudanese novelist Mālik, such as Mālik bin ʼAnas - classical Sunni Muslim scholars after whom the Maliki school of fiqh was named Abdul Muqtedar as in Muhammad Abdul Muqtedar Khan - Indian-American
Classic of Poetry
The Classic of Poetry Shijing or Shih-ching, translated variously as the Book of Songs, Book of Odes, or known as the Odes or Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC. It is one of the "Five Classics" traditionally said to have been compiled by Confucius, has been studied and memorized by scholars in China and neighboring countries over two millennia, it is a rich source of chengyu that are still a part of learned discourse and everyday language in modern Chinese. Since the Qing dynasty, its rhyme patterns have been analysed in the study of Old Chinese phonology. Early references refer to the anthology as the 300 Poems; the Odes first became known as a jīng, or a "classic book", in the canonical sense, as part of the Han Dynasty official adoption of Confucianism as the guiding principles of Chinese society. The same word shi became a generic term for poetry. In English, lacking an exact equivalent for the Chinese, the translation of the word shi in this regard is as "poem", "song", or "ode".
Before its elevation as a canonical classic, the Classic of Poetry was known as the Three Hundred Songs or the Songs. The Classic of Poetry contains; the majority of the Odes date to the Western Zhou period. A final section of 5 "Eulogies of Shang" purports to be ritual songs of the Shang dynasty as handed down by their descendents in the state of Song, but is considered quite late in date. According to the Eastern Han scholar Zheng Xuan, the latest material in the Shijing was the song "Tree-stump Grove" in the "Odes of Chen", dated to the middle of the Spring and Autumn period; the content of the Poetry can be divided into two main sections: the "Airs of the States", the eulogies and hymns. The "Airs of the States" are shorter lyrics in simple language that are ancient folk songs which record the voice of the common people, they speak of love and courtship, longing for an absent lover, soldiers on campaign and housework, political satire and protest. On the other hand, songs in the two "Hymns" sections and the "Eulogies" section tend to be longer ritual or sacrificial songs in the forms of courtly panegyrics and dynastic hymns which praise the founders of the Zhou dynasty.
They include hymns used in sacrificial rites and songs used by the aristocracy in their sacrificial ceremonies or at banquets."Court Hymns", contains "Lesser Court Hymns" and "Major Court Hymns". Most of the poems were used by the aristocracies to pray for good harvests each year, worship gods, venerate their ancestors; the author of "Major Court Hymns" are nobilities. Therefore, they wrote poems not only related to the feast and epic but to reflect the public feelings. Whatever the origin of the various Shijing poems as folk songs or not, they "all seem to have passed through the hands of men of letters at the royal Zhou court". In other words, they show an overall literary polish together with some general stylistic consistency. About 95% of lines in the Poetry are written in a four-syllable meter, with a slight caesura between the second and third syllables. Lines tend to occur in syntactically related couplets, with occasional parallelism, longer poems are divided into structured stanzas.
All but six of the "Eulogies" consist of a single stanza, the "Court Hymns" exhibit wide variation in the number of stanzas and their lengths. All of the "Airs", consist of three stanzas, with four-line stanzas being most common. Although a few rhyming couplets occur, the standard pattern in such four-line stanzas required a rhyme between the second and fourth lines; the first or third lines would rhyme with these, or with each other. This style became known as the "shi" style for much of Chinese history. One of the characteristics of the poems in the Classic of Poetry is that they tend to possess "elements of repetition and variation"; this results in an "alteration of similarities and differences in the formal structure: in successive stanzas, some lines and phrases are repeated verbatim, while others vary from stanza to stanza". Characteristically, the parallel or syntactically matched lines within a specific poem share the same, identical words to a large degree, as opposed to confining the parallelism between lines to using grammatical category matching of the words in one line with the other word in the same position in the corresponding line.
Disallowing verbal repetition within a poem would by the time of Tang poetry be one of the rules to distinguish the old style poetry from the new, regulated style. The works in the Classic of Poetry vary in their lyrical qualities, which relates to the musical accompaniment with which they were in their early days performed; the songs from the "Hymns" and "Eulogies", which are the oldest material in the Poetry, were performed to slow, heavy accompaniment from bells and stone chimes. However and the actual musical scores or choreography which accompanied the Shijing poems have been lost. Nearly all of the songs in the Poetry are rhyming, with end rhyme, as well as frequent internal rhyming. While some of these verses still rhyme in modern varieties of Chinese, others had ceased to rhyme by the Middle Chinese period. For example, the eighth song has a constrained structure implying rhymes between the penultimate words of each pair of lines: The second and third stanzas still rhyme in Standard Mandarin Chinese
Ginger is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or ginger, is used as a spice and a folk medicine. It is a herbaceous perennial which grows annual pseudostems about a meter tall bearing narrow leaf blades; the inflorescences bear pale yellow with purple flowers and arise directly from the rhizome on separate shoots. Ginger is in the family Zingiberaceae, to which belong turmeric and galangal. Ginger originated in Island Southeast Asia and was domesticated first by the Austronesian peoples, it was transported with them throughout the Indo-Pacific during the Austronesian expansion, reaching as far as Hawaii. Ginger was one of the first spices exported from the Orient, ginger arrived in Europe during the spice trade, was used by ancient Greeks and Romans; the distantly related dicots in the genus Asarum are called wild ginger because of their similar taste. The English origin of the word, "ginger", is from the mid-14th century, from Old English gingifer, from Medieval Latin gingiber, from Greek zingiberis, from Prakrit singabera, from Sanskrit srngaveram, from srngam "horn" and vera- "body", from the shape of its root.
The word was readopted in Middle English from Old French gingibre. Ginger originated from Island Southeast Asia, it does not exist in its wild state. The most ancient evidence of its domestication is among the Austronesian peoples where it was among several species of ginger cultivated and exploited since ancient times; the other notable gingers they cultivated included turmeric, white turmeric, bitter ginger, among others. The rhizomes and the leaves were eaten directly; the leaves were used to weave mats. Aside from these uses, ginger had religious significance among Austronesians, being used in rituals for healing and for asking protection from spirits, they were used in the blessing of Austronesian ships. Ginger was carried with them in their voyages as canoe plants during the Austronesian expansion, starting from around 5,000 BP, they introduced them to the Pacific Islands in prehistory, long before any contact with other civilizations. Reflexes of the Proto-Malayo-Polynesian word *laqia is still found in Austronesian languages all the way to Hawaii.
They presumably introduced it to India along with other Southeast Asian food plants and Austronesian sailing technologies, during early contact by Austronesian sailors with the Dravidian-speaking peoples of Sri Lanka and South India at around 3,500 BP. It was carried by Austronesian voyagers into Madagascar and the Comoros in the 1st millennium CE. From India, it was carried by traders into the Middle East and the Mediterranean by around the 1st century CE, they were grown in southern India and the Greater Sunda Islands during the spice trade, along with peppers and numerous other spices. Ginger produces clusters of pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers; because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates, it is used as landscaping around subtropical homes. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems, about a meter tall. Traditionally, the rhizome is gathered; the fragrant perisperm of the Zingiberaceae is used as sweetmeats by Bantu, as a condiment and sialagogue.
In 2016, global production of ginger was 3.3 million tonnes, led by India with 34% of the world total. Nigeria and Indonesia had substantial production. Ginger produces a fragrant kitchen spice. Young ginger rhizomes are fleshy with a mild taste, they are pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. They can be steeped in boiling water to make ginger herb tea. Ginger can be made into ginger wine. Mature ginger rhizomes are nearly dry; the juice from ginger roots is used as a seasoning in Indian recipes and is a common ingredient of Chinese, Japanese and many South Asian cuisines for flavoring dishes such as seafood and vegetarian dishes. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of six to one, although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. Powdered dry ginger root is used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread, cookies and cakes, ginger ale, ginger beer. Candied ginger or crystallized ginger, known in the U. K. as "stem ginger", is the root cooked in sugar until soft, is a type of confectionery.
Fresh ginger may be peeled before eating. For longer-term storage, the ginger can be refrigerated or frozen. In Indian cuisine, ginger is a key ingredient in thicker gravies, as well as in many other dishes, both vegetarian and meat-based. Ginger has a role in traditional Ayurvedic medicine, it is an ingredient in traditional Indian drinks, both hot, including spiced masala chai. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. Fresh ginger together with peeled garlic cloves ground to form ginger garlic masala. Fresh, as well as dried, ginger is used to spice tea and coffee in winter. In south India, "sambharam" is a summer yogurt drink made with ginger as a key ingredient, along with green chillies and curry leaves. Ginger powder is used in food preparations intended for pregnant or nursing women, the most popular
Moby-Dick. The book is sailor Ishmael's narrative of the obsessive quest of Ahab, captain of the whaling ship Pequod, for revenge on Moby Dick, the white whale that on the ship's previous voyage bit off Ahab's leg at the knee. A contribution to the literature of the American Renaissance, the work's genre classifications range from late Romantic to early Symbolist. Moby-Dick was published to mixed reviews, was a commercial failure, was out of print at the time of the author's death in 1891, its reputation as a "Great American Novel" was established only in the 20th century, after the centennial of its author's birth. William Faulkner confessed he wished he had written the book himself, D. H. Lawrence called it "one of the strangest and most wonderful books in the world" and "the greatest book of the sea written", its opening sentence, is among world literature's most famous. Melville began writing Moby-Dick in February 1850, would take 18 months to write the book, a full year more than he had first anticipated.
Writing was interrupted by his making the acquaintance of Nathaniel Hawthorne in August 1850, by the creation of the "Mosses from an Old Manse" essay as a first result of that friendship. The book is dedicated to Hawthorne, "in token of my admiration for his genius"; the basis for the work is Melville's 1841 whaling voyage aboard the Acushnet. The novel draws on whaling literature, on literary inspirations such as Shakespeare and the Bible; the white whale is modeled on the notoriously hard-to-catch albino whale Mocha Dick, the book's ending is based on the sinking of the whaleship Essex in 1820. The detailed and realistic descriptions of whale hunting and of extracting whale oil, as well as life aboard ship among a culturally diverse crew, are mixed with exploration of class and social status and evil, the existence of God. In addition to narrative prose, Melville uses styles and literary devices ranging from songs and catalogs to Shakespearean stage directions and asides. In October 1851, the chapter "The Town Ho's Story" was published in Harper's New Monthly Magazine.
The same month, the whole book was first published as The Whale in London, under its definitive title in a single-volume edition in New York in November. There are hundreds of differences between the two editions, most slight but some important and illuminating; the London publisher, Richard Bentley, censored or changed sensitive passages. The whale, appears in the text of both editions as "Moby Dick", without the hyphen. One factor that led British reviewers to scorn the book was that it seemed to be told by a narrator who perished with the ship: the British edition lacked the Epilogue, which recounts Ishmael's survival. About 3,200 copies were sold during the author's life. Ishmael travels in December from Manhattan Island to New Bedford, Massachusetts with plans to sign up for a whaling voyage; the inn where he arrives is overcrowded, so he must share a bed with the tattooed cannibal Polynesian Queequeg, a harpooneer whose father was king of the fictional island of Rokovoko. The next morning and Queequeg attend Father Mapple's sermon on Jonah head for Nantucket.
Ishmael signs up with the Quaker ship-owners Peleg for a voyage on their whaler Pequod. Peleg describes Captain Ahab: "He's a grand, god-like man" who "has his humanities", they hire Queequeg the following morning. A man named Elijah prophesies a dire fate should Queequeg join Ahab. While provisions are loaded, shadowy figures board the ship. On a cold Christmas Day, the Pequod leaves the harbor. Ishmael discusses cetology, describes the crew members; the chief mate is 30-year-old Starbuck, a Nantucket Quaker with a realist mentality, whose harpooneer is Queequeg. When Ahab appears on the quarterdeck, he announces he is out for revenge on the white whale which took one leg from the knee down and left him with a prosthesis fashioned from a whale's jawbone. Ahab will give the first man to sight Moby Dick a gold coin, which he nails to the mast. Starbuck objects that he has not come for vengeance but for profit. Ahab's purpose exercises a mysterious spell on Ishmael: "Ahab's quenchless feud seemed mine".
Instead of rounding Cape Horn, Ahab heads for the equatorial Pacific Ocean via southern Africa. One afternoon, as Ishmael and Queequeg are weaving a mat — "its warp seemed necessity, his hand free will, Queequeg's sword chance" — Tashtego sights a sperm whale. Five unknown men appear on deck and are revealed to be a special crew selected by Ahab and explain the shadowy figures seen boarding the ship, their leader, Fedallah, a Parsee, is Ahab's harpooneer. The pursuit is unsuccessful. Southeast of the Cape of Good Hope, the Pequod makes the first of nine sea-encounters, or "gams", with other ships: Ahab hails the Goney to ask whether they have seen the White Whale, but the trumpet through which her captain tries to speak falls into the sea before he can answer. Ishmael explains that because of Ahab's absorption with Moby Dick, he sails on without the customary "gam", which defines as a "social meeting of two Whale-ships", in which the two captains remain on one ship and the chief mates on the other.