Geb was the Egyptian god of the Earth and a member of the Ennead of Heliopolis. He had a viper around his head and was thus considered the father of snakes, it was believed in ancient Egypt that Geb's laughter created earthquakes and that he allowed crops to grow. The name was pronounced as such from the Greek period onward and was read as Seb or some guess as Keb; the original Egyptian was "Seb"/"Keb". It was spelled with - k-point; the latter initial root consonant occurs once in the Middle Kingdom Coffin Texts, more in 21st Dynasty mythological papyri as well as in a text from the Ptolemaic tomb of Petosiris at Tuna El-Gebel or was written with initial hard -k-, as e.g. in a 30th Dynasty papyrus text in the Brooklyn Museum dealing with descriptions of and remedies against snakes. The oldest representation in a fragmentary relief of the god, was as an anthropomorphic bearded being accompanied by his name, dating from king Djoser's reign, 3rd Dynasty, was found in Heliopolis. In times he could be depicted as a ram, a bull or a crocodile.
Geb was feared as father of snakes. In a Coffin Texts spell Geb was described as father of the snake Nehebkau. In mythology, Geb often occurs as a primeval divine king of Egypt from whom his son Osiris and his grandson Horus inherited the land after many contendings with the disruptive god Set and killer of Osiris. Geb could be regarded as personified fertile earth and barren desert, the latter containing the dead or setting them free from their tombs, metaphorically described as "Geb opening his jaws", or imprisoning those there not worthy to go to the fertile North-Eastern heavenly Field of Reeds. In the latter case, one of his otherworldly attributes was an ominous jackal-headed stave rising from the ground onto which enemies could be bound. In the Heliopolitan Ennead, Geb is the husband of Nut, the sky or visible daytime and nightly firmament, the son of the earlier primordial elements Tefnut and Shu, the father to the four lesser gods of the system – Osiris, Seth and Nephthys. In this context, Geb was believed to have been engaged with Nut and had to be separated from her by Shu, god of the air.
In mythological depictions, Geb was shown as a man reclining, sometimes with his phallus still pointed towards Nut. Geb and Nut together formed the permanent boundary between the primeval waters and the newly created world; as time progressed, the deity became more associated with the habitable land of Egypt and as one of its early rulers. As a chthonic deity he became associated with the underworld, fresh waters and with vegetation – barley being said to grow upon his ribs – and was depicted with plants and other green patches on his body, his association with vegetation and sometimes with the underworld and royalty brought Geb the occasional interpretation that he was the husband of Renenutet, a minor goddess of the harvest and mythological caretaker of the young king in the shape of a cobra, who herself could be regarded as the mother of Nehebkau, a primeval snake god associated with the underworld. He is equated by classical authors as the Greek Titan Cronus. Ptah and Ra, creator deities begin the list of divine ancestors.
There is speculation between Shu and Geb and, the first god-king of Egypt. The story of how Shu and Nut were separated in order to create the cosmos is now being interpreted in more human terms. Between the father son jealously and Shu rebelling against the divine order, Geb challenges Shu’s leadership. Geb takes Tefnut, as his chief queen, separating Shu from his sister-wife. Just as Shu had done to him. In the book of the Heavenly Cow, it is implied. After Geb passed on the throne to Osiris, his youngest son, he took on a role of a judge in the Divine Tribunal of the gods; some Egyptologists have stated that Geb was associated with a mythological divine creator goose who had laid a world egg from which the sun and/or the world had sprung. This theory is assumed to be incorrect and to be a result of confusing the divine name "Geb" with that of a Whitefronted Goose called gb: "lame one, stumbler"; this bird-sign is used only as a phonogram. An alternative ancient name for this goose species was trp meaning similarly'walk like a drunk','stumbler'.
The Whitefronted Goose is never found as a cultic symbol or holy bird of Geb. The mythological creator'goose' referred to above, was called Ngg wr "Great Honker" and always depicted as a Nilegoose/Foxgoose who ornithologically belongs to a separate genus and whose Egyptian name was smn, Coptic smon. A coloured vignet irrefutably depicts a Nile Goose with an opened beak in a context of solar creation on a mythological papyrus dating from the 21st Dynasty. Similar images of this divine bird are to be found on temple walls, showing a scene of the king standing on a papyrus raft and ritually plucking papyrus for the Theban god Amun-Re-Kamutef; the latter Theban creator god could never in a Whitefronted Goose. In Underworld Books a diacri
Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul
The ancient Egyptians believed that a soul was made up of many parts. In addition to these components of the soul, there was the human body. According to ancient Egyptian creation myths, the god Atum created the world out of chaos, utilizing his own magic; because the earth was created with magic, Egyptians believed that the world was imbued with magic and so was every living thing upon it. When humans were created, that magic took the form of the soul, an eternal force which resided in and with every human being; the concept of the soul and the parts which encompass it has varied from the Old Kingdom to the New Kingdom, at times changing from one dynasty to another, from five parts to more. Most ancient Egyptian funerary texts reference numerous parts of the soul: the ẖt "physical body", the sꜥḥ "spiritual body", the rn "name, identity", the bꜣ "personality", the kꜣ "double", the jb "heart", the šwt "shadow", the sḫm "power, form", the ꜣḫ. Rosalie David, an Egyptologist at the University of Manchester, explains the many facets of the soul as follows: The Egyptians believed that the human personality had many facets - a concept, developed early in the Old Kingdom.
In life, the person was a complete entity, but if he had led a virtuous life, he could have access to a multiplicity of forms that could be used in the next world. In some instances, these forms could be employed to help those whom the deceased wished to support or, alternately, to take revenge on his enemies; the ẖt, or physical form, had to exist for the soul to have intelligence or the chance to be judged by the guardians of the underworld. Therefore, it was necessary for the body to be preserved as efficiently and as possible and for the burial chamber to be as personalized as it could be, with paintings and statuary showing scenes and triumphs from the deceased's life. In the Old Kingdom, only the pharaoh was granted mummification and, thus, a chance at an eternal and fulfilling afterlife. However, by the Middle Kingdom, all dead were afforded the opportunity. Herodotus, an ancient Greek scholar, observed that grieving families were given a choice as to the type and or quality of the mummification they preferred: "The best and most expensive kind is said to represent, the next best is somewhat inferior and cheaper, while the third is cheapest of all."Because the state of the body was tied so with the quality of the afterlife, by the time of the Middle Kingdom, not only were the burial chambers painted with depictions of favourite pastimes and great accomplishments of the dead, but there were small figurines of servants and guards included in the tombs, to serve the deceased in the afterlife.
However, an eternal existence in the afterlife was, by no means, assured. Before a person could be judged by the gods, they had to be "awakened" through a series of funerary rites designed to reanimate their mummified remains in the afterlife; the main ceremony, the opening of the mouth ceremony, is best depicted within Pharaoh Sety I's tomb. All along the walls and statuary inside the tomb are reliefs and paintings of priests performing the sacred rituals and, below the painted images, the text of the liturgy for opening of the mouth can be found; this ritual which would have been performed during internment, was meant to reanimate each section of the body: brain, limbs, etc. so that the spiritual body would be able to move in the afterlife. If all the rites and preservation rituals for the ẖt were observed and the deceased was found worthy of passing through into the afterlife, the sꜥḥ forms; this spiritual body was able to interact with the many entities extant in the afterlife. As a part of the larger construct, the ꜣḫ, the sꜥḥ was sometimes seen as an avenging spirit which would return from the underworld to seek revenge on those who had wronged the spirit in life.
A well-known example was found in a tomb from the Middle Kingdom in which a man leaves a letter to his late wife who, it can be supposed, is haunting him: What wicked thing have I done to thee that I should have come to this evil pass? What have I done to thee? But what thou hast done to me is to have laid hands on me although I had nothing wicked to thee. From the time I lived with thee as thy husband down to today, what have I done to thee that I need hide? When thou didst sicken of the illness which thou hadst, I caused a master-physician to be fetched…I spent eight months without eating and drinking like a man. I wept exceedingly together with my household in front of my street-quarter. I left no benefit undone that had to be performed for thee, and now, behold, I have spent three years alone without entering into a house, though it is not right that one like me should have to do it. This have I done for thy sake. But, thou dost not know good from bad. An important part of the Egyptian soul was thought to be heart.
The heart was believed to be formed from one drop of blood from the heart of the child's mother, taken at conception. To ancient Egyptians, the heart was the seat of emotion, thought and intention, evidenced by the many expressions in the Egyptian language which incorporate the word jb. Unlike in English, when ancient Egyptians referenced the jb they meant the physical heart as oppos
Ancient Egyptian funerary practices
The ancient Egyptians had an elaborate set of funerary practices that they believed were necessary to ensure their immortality after death. These rituals and protocols included mummifying the body, casting magic spells, burial with specific grave goods thought to be needed in the Egyptian afterlife; the ancient Egyptian burial process evolved over time as old customs were discarded and new ones adopted, but several important elements of the process persisted. Although specific details changed over time, the preparation of the body, the magic rituals, grave goods were all essential parts of a proper Egyptian funeral. There were many different gods; the ancient Egyptians believed that each god would separately judge the deceased before he could enter the afterlife. Although no writing survives from Predynastic Egypt, scholars believe the importance of the physical body and its preservation originated there; this would explain why people of that time did not follow the common practice of cremation, but rather buried the dead.
Some believe they may have feared the bodies would rise again if mistreated after death. Early bodies were buried with a few burial goods. Sometimes multiple people and animals were placed in the same grave. Over time, graves became more complex, with the body placed in a wicker basket later in wooden or terracotta coffins; the latest tombs Egyptians made were sarcophagi. These graves contained burial goods like jewelry, food and sharpened splint; this demonstrates that this ancient period had a sense of the afterlife, though archaeological evidence may show the average person had little chance of getting into it. This may be; the pharaoh was allowed in because of his role in life, others needed to have some role there. Human sacrifices found in early royal tombs reinforce this view; these people were meant to serve the pharaoh during his eternal life. Figurines and wall paintings begin to replace human victims; some of these figurines may have been created to resemble certain people, so they could follow the pharaoh after their lives ended.
Note that not only the lower classes had to rely on the pharaoh's favor, but the noble classes. They believed that when he died, the pharaoh became a type of god, who could bestow upon certain individuals the ability to have an afterlife; this belief existed from the predynastic period through the Old Kingdom. Although many spells from the predeceasing texts were carried over, the new coffin texts had additional new spells added, along with slight changes made to make this new funerary text more relatable to the nobility. In the First Intermediate Period, the importance of the pharaoh declined. Funerary texts restricted to royal use, became more available; the pharaoh was no longer a god-king in the sense that only he was allowed in the next life due to his status here, now he was the ruler of the population who upon his death would be leveled down towards the plane of the mortals. The first funerals in Egypt are known from the villages of Maadi in the north; the people of these villages buried their dead in round graves with one pot.
The body was neither treated nor arranged in a regular way as would be the case in the historical period. Without any written evidence, there is little to provide information about contemporary beliefs concerning the afterlife except for the regular inclusion of a single pot in the grave. In view of customs, the pot was intended to hold food for the deceased. Funerary customs developed during the Predynastic period from those of the Prehistoric Period. At first people excavated round graves with one pot in the Badarian Period, continuing the tradition of Omari and Maadi cultures. By the end of the Predynastic period, there were increasing numbers of objects deposited with the body in rectangular graves, there is growing evidence of rituals practiced by Egyptians of the Naquada II Period. At this point, bodies were arranged in a crouched or fetal position with the face toward either the east the rising sun or the west. Artists painted jars with funeral processions and ritual dancing. Figures of bare breasted women with birdlike faces and their legs concealed under skirts appeared in some graves.
Some graves were much richer in goods than others, demonstrating the beginnings of social stratification. Gender differences in burial emerged with the inclusion of weapons in men's graves and cosmetics palettes in women's graves. By the First Dynasty, some Egyptians were wealthy enough to build tombs over their burials rather than placing their bodies in simple pit graves dug into the sand; the rectangular, mud-brick tomb with an underground burial chamber, called a mastaba, developed in this period. These tombs had niched walls, a style of building called the palace-façade motif because the walls imitated those surrounding the palace of the king. Since commoners as well as kings, had such tombs, the architecture suggests that in death, some wealthy people did achieve an elevated status. In the historical period, it is certain that the deceased was associated with the god of the dead, Osiris. Grave goods expanded to include furniture and games as well as the weapons, cosmetic palettes, food supplies in decorated jars known earlier, in the Predynastic period.
Now, however, in the richest tombs, grave goods numbered in the thousands. Only the newly invented coffins for the body were made for the tomb. There is some inconclusive evidence for mummification. Other objects in
Aswan is a city in the south of Egypt, is the capital of the Aswan Governorate. Aswan is a busy market and tourist centre located just north of the Aswan Dams on the east bank of the Nile at the first cataract; the modern city has expanded and includes the separate community on the island of Elephantine. The city is part of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network in the category of folk art. Aswan was spelled Assuan or Assouan. Spellings in other languages include Egyptian Arabic: translit. Aswān. Souan. Suēnē. Aswan is the ancient city of Swenett known as Syene, which in antiquity was the frontier town of Ancient Egypt facing the south. Swenett is supposed to have derived its name from an Egyptian goddess with the same name; this goddess was identified as Eileithyia by the Greeks and Lucina by the Romans during their occupation of Ancient Egypt because of the similar association of their goddesses with childbirth, of which the import is "the opener". The ancient name of the city is said to be derived from the Egyptian symbol for "trade", or "market".
Because the Ancient Egyptians oriented themselves toward the origin of the life-giving waters of the Nile in the south, as Swenett was the southernmost town in the country, Egypt always was conceived to "open" or begin at Swenett. The city stood upon a peninsula on the right bank of the Nile below the first cataract of the flowing waters, which extend to it from Philae. Navigation to the delta was possible from this location without encountering a barrier; the stone quarries of ancient Egypt located here were celebrated for their stone, for the granitic rock called Syenite. They furnished the colossal statues and monolithal shrines that are found throughout Egypt, including the pyramids, they lie on either bank of the Nile, a road, 6.5 km in length, was cut beside them from Syene to Philae. Swenett was important as a military station as a place of traffic. Under every dynasty it was a garrison town. Around 330, the legion stationed here received a bishop from Alexandria; the city is mentioned by numerous ancient writers, including Herodotus, Stephanus of Byzantium, Pliny the Elder, it appears on the Antonine Itinerary.
It is mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel and the Book of Isaiah. The latitude of the city that would become Aswan – located at 24° 5′ 23″ – was an object of great interest to the ancient geographers, they believed that it was seated under the tropic, that on the day of the summer solstice, a vertical staff cast no shadow. They noted; this statement is only correct. However, Eratosthenes used this information together with measurements of the shadow length on the solstice at Alexandria to perform the first known calculation of the circumference of the Earth; the Nile is nearly 650 m wide above Aswan. From this frontier town to the northern extremity of Egypt, the river flows for more than 1,200 km without bar or cataract; the voyage from Aswan to Alexandria took 21 to 28 days in favourable weather. Aswan has a hot desert climate like the rest of Egypt. Aswan and Luxor have the hottest summer days of any city in Egypt. Aswan is one of the hottest and driest cities in the world. Average high temperatures are above 40 °C during summer while average low temperatures remain above 25 °C.
Summers are long and hot. Average high temperatures remain above 23 °C during the coldest month of the year while average low temperatures remain above 8 °C. Winters are short and warm. Wintertime is pleasant and enjoyable while summertime is unbearably hot with blazing sunshine although desert heat is dry; the climate of Aswan is dry year-round, with less than 1 mm of average annual precipitation. The desert city is one of the driest ones in the world, rainfall doesn't occur every year, as of early 2001, the last rain there was seven years earlier. Aswan is one of the least humid cities on the planet, with an average relative humidity of only 26%, with a maximum mean of 42% during winter and a minimum mean of 16% during summer; the weather of Aswan is clear and sunny year-round, in all seasons, with a low seasonal variation, with 4,000 hours of annual sunshine close to the maximum theoretical sunshine duration. Aswan is one of the sunniest places on Earth; the highest record temperature was 51 °C on July 4, 1918, the lowest record temperature was −2.4 °C on January 6, 1989.
In 1999, South Valley University was inaugurated and it has three branches. The university grew and now it is established as a major institution of higher education in Upper Egypt. Aswan branch of Assiut University began in 1973 with the Faculty of Education and in 1975 the Faculty of Science was opened. Aswan branch has five faculties namely; the Faculty o
Ancient Egyptian afterlife beliefs
Ancient Egyptian afterlife beliefs were centered around a variety of complex rituals, that were influenced by many aspects of Egyptian culture. Religion was a major contributor, since it was an important social practice that bound all Egyptians together. For instance, many of the Egyptian gods played roles in guiding the souls of the dead through the afterlife. With the evolution of writing, religious ideals were recorded and spread throughout the Egyptian community; the solidification and commencement of these doctrines were formed in the creation of afterlife texts which illustrated and explained what the dead would need to know in order to complete the journey safely. Egyptian religious doctrines included three basic afterlife ideologies; the underworld known as the Duat had only one entrance that could be reached by travelling through the tomb of the deceased. The initial image a soul would be presented with upon entering this realm was a corridor lined with an array of fascinating statues, including a variation of the famous hawk-headed god, Horus.
It must be noted that the path taken to the underworld may have varied between kings and common people. After entry, spirits were presented to Osiris. Osiris would determine the virtue of the deceased's soul and grant those deemed deserving a peaceful afterlife; the Egyptian concept of'eternal life' was seen as being reborn indefinitely. Therefore, the souls who had were guided to Osiris to be born again. In order to achieve the ideal afterlife, many practices must be performed during one's life; this may have included following the beliefs of Egyptian creed. Additionally, the Egyptians stressed. In other words, it was the responsibility of the living to carry out the final traditions required so the dead could promptly meet their final fate. Maintaining high religious morals by both the living and the dead, as well as complying to a variety of traditions guaranteed the deceased a smoother transition into the underworld. There were many challenges the dead had to face before they were able to enter into the final stages of the afterlife.
However, through the support of the living, the dead had access to the protection and knowledge they would need to be reborn in the netherworld. The design and scale of Egyptian burial tombs varied from period to period though their function remained the same. While most tombs were built during the lifetime of the person it was meant for, Egyptian tombs were constructed to house the body of the dead, but functioned to transmit the soul to the underworld. Most of the what was found in a tomb depended on the status of the person buried within it. However, in order to assist the dead, most tombs were decorated with afterlife texts meant to help guide the deceased's soul to the afterlife, something, attainable to all. Throughout the centuries, the Egyptian people decorated their tombs and coffins with religious spells and texts hoping to help the dead in the afterlife; as Egyptian culture developed these texts, evolved, becoming more complex and extensive in nature. The Pyramid Texts were the first religious spells to be carved into the walls of royal ancient Egyptian pyramids.
Beginning in the Old Kingdom period, these texts were used by the Egyptian pharaohs to decorate the walls of their tombs. However, Egyptian Queens and high-ranking government officials soon began to use Pyramid Texts in their burial tombs as well; the purpose of these texts were to help the pharaoh complete his journey through the afterlife, by conveying knowledge to the deceased about the paths he should take and the dangers he might face along the way. In the Middle Kingdom period the Pyramid texts were replaced by the Coffin Texts; the Coffin Texts were spells. They were meant to protect the deceased in the afterlife and provide them with the transformation magic they would need along their journey; these Coffin Texts were more attainable, providing the common people of Egypt the opportunity to attain a proper afterlife. It is important to note that the collection of Coffin Texts known as The Book of Two Ways functioned as the earliest manual to the afterlife; the Book of the Dead was an extensive collection of spells that included material from both the Pyramid Texts and the Coffin Texts.
In the New Kingdom period, papyrus was what the Book of the Dead was recorded on. However, it could be found on the tomb walls and the wrappings of mummies. Like the Coffin Texts, the spells illustrated within the Book of the Dead were used by everyone; these spells offered advice and knowledge to the dead as they journeyed through the netherworld. The Books of the Netherworld contained multiple texts that provided the deceased with a description of the underworld and served as a guide to help the dead during their final journey. Since the deceased were seen replicating the rebirth cycle of Ra as they travelled through the afterlife, these texts focused on the second half of the sun god's journey, which took him through the underworld at night; the earlier Books of the Netherworld, which include the Amduat and the Book of Gates, divided their narratives into twelve parts, symbolizing the twelve hours the sun god spent in the underworld. Books such as the Book of Caverns and the Book of the Earth used a more sectionalized approach when presenting their narratives.
All of these books contained complex illustrations of the netherworld, which could be seen etched into coffins and the walls of burial tombs. The Books of Sky consisted of three afte
Hapi (Son of Horus)
This article is about the funerary deity. Hapi can refer to Hapi, a Nile god, or Hapi-ankh, bull deity of Memphis. Hapi, sometimes transliterated as Hapy, is one of the Four sons of Horus in ancient Egyptian religion, depicted in funerary literature as protecting the throne of Osiris in the Underworld. Hapi was the son of Isis or Serqet, he is not to be confused with another god of the same name. He is depicted with the head of a hamadryas baboon, is tasked with protecting the lungs of the deceased, hence the common depiction of a hamadryas baboon head sculpted as the lid of the canopic jar that held the lungs. Hapi is in turn protected by the goddess Nephthys; when his image appears on the side of a coffin, he is aligned with the side intended to face north. When embalming practices changed during the Third Intermediate Period and the mummified organs were placed back inside the body, an amulet of Hapi would be included in the body cavity. Since drowning was the form of death associated with the lungs, the deity gained the name geese, in reference to floating on water.
The spelling of his name includes a hieroglyph, thought to be connected with steering a boat, although its exact nature is not known. For this reason he was sometimes connected with navigation, although early references call him the great runner, as below from Spell 521 of the Coffin Texts. You are the great runner; as one of the four pillars of Shu and one of the four rudders of heaven he was associated with the North, is referenced as such in Spell 148 in the Book of the Dead. Four Sons of Horus – in-depth treatment of the Four Sons and their interrelationships
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring. As a measure, fertility rate is the number of offspring born per mating pair, individual or population. Fertility differs from fecundity, defined as the potential for reproduction. A lack of fertility is infertility. Human fertility depends on factors of nutrition, sexual behavior, culture, endocrinology, economics, way of life, emotions. In demographic contexts, fertility refers to the actual production of offspring, rather than the physical capability to produce, termed fecundity. While fertility can be measured, fecundity cannot be. Demographers measure the fertility rate in a variety of ways, which can be broadly broken into "period" measures and "cohort" measures. "Period" measures refer to a cross-section of the population in one year. "Cohort" data on the other hand, follows the same people over a period of decades. Both period and cohort measures are used. Crude birth rate - the number of live births in a given year per 1,000 people alive at the middle of that year.
One disadvantage of this indicator is. General fertility rate - the number of births in a year divided by the number of women aged 15–44, times 1000, it focuses on the potential mothers only, takes the age distribution into account. Child-Woman Ratio - the ratio of the number of children under 5 to the number of women 15–49, times 1000, it is useful in historical data as it does not require counting births. This measure is a hybrid, because it involves deaths as well as births. Coale's Index of Fertility - a special device used in historical research Total fertility rate - the total number of children a woman would bear during her lifetime if she were to experience the prevailing age-specific fertility rates of women. TFR equals the sum for all age groups of 5 times each ASFR rate. Gross Reproduction Rate - the number of girl babies a synthetic cohort will have, it assumes that all of the baby girls will grow up and live to at least age 50. Net Reproduction Rate - the NRR starts with the GRR and adds the realistic assumption that some of the women will die before age 49.
NRR is always lower than GRR, but in countries where mortality is low all the baby girls grow up to be potential mothers, the NRR is the same as GRR. In countries with high mortality, NRR can be as low as 70% of GRR; when NRR = 1.0, each generation of 1000 baby girls grows up and gives birth to 1000 girls. When NRR is less than one, each generation is smaller than the previous one; when NRR is greater than 1 each generation is larger than the one before. NRR is a measure of the long-term future potential for growth, but it is different from the current population growth rate. A parent's number of children correlates with the number of children that each person in the next generation will have. Factors associated with increased fertility include religiosity, intention to have children, maternal support. Factors associated with decreased fertility include wealth, female labor participation, urban residence, increased female age and increased male age; the "Three-step Analysis" of the fertility process was introduced by Kingsley Davis and Judith Blake in 1956 and makes use of three proximate determinants: The economic analysis of fertility is part of household economics, a field that has grown out of the New Home Economics.
Influential economic analyses of fertility include Becker and Easterlin. The latter developed. Bongaarts proposed a model where the total fertility rate of a population can be calculated from four proximate determinants and the total fecundity; the index of marriage, the index of contraception, the index of induced abortion and the index of postpartum infecundability. These indices range from 0 to 1; the higher the index, the higher it will make the TFR, for example a population where there are no induced abortions would have a Ca of 1, but a country where everybody used infallible contraception would have a Cc of 0. TFR = TF × Cm × Ci × Ca × Cc These four indices can be used to calculate the total marital fertility and the total natural fertility. TFR = TMFR × Cm TMFR = TN × Cc × Ca TN = TF × Ci Intercourse The first step is sexual intercourse, an examination of the average age at first intercourse, the average frequency outside marriage, the average frequency inside. Conception Certain physical conditions may make it impossible for a woman to conceive.
This is called "involuntary infecundity." If the woman has a condition making it possible, but unlikely to conceive, this is termed "subfecundity." Venereal diseases are common causes. Nutrition is a factor as well: women with less than 20% body fat may be subfecund, a factor of concern for athletes and people susceptible to anorexia. Demographer Ruth Frisch has argued that "It takes 50,000 calories to make a baby". There is subfecundity in the weeks following childbirth, this can be prolonged for a year or more through breastfeeding. A furious political debate raged in the 1980s over the ethics of baby food companies marketing infant f