Maccabi World Union
Maccabi World Union is an international Jewish sports organisation spanning five continents and more than 50 countries, with some 400,000 members. The Maccabi World Union organises the Maccabiah Games, a prominent international Jewish athletics event; the organisation comprises six confederations: Maccabi Israel, European Maccabi confederation, confederation Maccabi North America, confederation Maccabi Latin America, Maccabi South Africa, Maccabi Australia. The movement is named after the Maccabees who were a Jewish national liberation movement that fought for and won independence from Antiochus IV Epiphanes. At the time the Maccabees were staunchly opposed to athletic competitions, part of the Hellenizing cultural tendencies which they opposed. Athletic competitions held in Jerusalem under the Seleucid rule were terminated once the Maccabees took over the city. However, the modern Zionists who took up the name were interested in the Maccabees as militant Jewish heroes whose example Zionism sought to emulate.
As early as the 19th century, Jewish sports clubs were founded in Central Europe. The first club was the Israelite Gymnastic Association Constantinople founded in 1895 in Constantinople, Turkey by Jews of German and Austrian extraction, rejected from participating in other social sport clubs. Two years haGibor was formed in Philipopolis, 1898 saw the founding of Bar Kochba Berlin along with Vivó és Athletikai Club in Budapest, Hungary. Other clubs that followed were named after “Bar Kochba” or Hebrew names such as “Hakoah” or “Hagibor” that symbolized strength and heroism. One of the basic premises behind the founding of these clubs was Jewish Nationalism, "Muscular Judaism"; the concept was that Jews were not only a religious entity, but one based on a common historical and social background, having special cultural and psychological concepts that have been preserved to this day, resulting in a strong recognition of collective belonging. At Krakow, Poland there was during the interwar period a deep animosity between the locally-based Makkabi Kraków club and the rival Jewish club Jutrzenka Krakow, associated with the Bund political party.
While both clubs shared in the above aspiration to demonstrate a Jewish physical strength, they had divergent political programs - the one sharing in the Zionist aspiration of creating a Jewish state in Palestine, while the other was oriented to the Bundist program of Jewish cultural autonomy in Europe. This political opposition exacerbated their athletic rivalry between fans and players, to the point that matches between the two teams were referred to as a "Holy War". In 1906, the first Jewish gymnastics club was formed in Palestine. Clubs would spring up in other cities. By 1912, all of them joined the Maccabi Federation of Israel; that same year, the first relations were established between them and their European counterparts, when a decision was taken at the Maccabi Conference in Berlin to begin group trips to Palestine. Maccabi GB is a member of the English National Council for Voluntary Youth Services because of its work promoting the personal and social development of young people; the Maccabi World Union was created at the 12th World Jewish Congress in Karlovy Vary, Czechoslovakia in 1921.
It was decided by the secretariat of Jewish sport leaders to form one umbrella organization for all Jewish sports associations. Its aims were defined as working "foster physical education, belief in Jewish heritage and the Jewish nation, to work for the rebuilding of our own country and for the preservation of our people". In 1960, the International Olympic Committee recognized the Maccabi World Union as an "Organization of Olympic Standing". Maccabiah Games Hapoel European Maccabi Games 2015 Sports in Israel Belda, Maciej Władysław; the Maccabees of Sport: Jewish Sport in Kraków. Kraków: Historical Museum of Krakow & Stara Synagoga, 2012. ISBN 8375771201. Official website The Maccabi Business Forum website The National Council for Voluntary Youth Services European Maccabi Confederation Events Calendar U. S. Maccabi Canada Maccabi European Maccabi Confederation Maccabi Hungary Maccabi Australia Maccabi Italia Maccabi GB Makkabi Germany Maccabi France Maccabi Warsaw
Israeli Athletic Association
The Israeli Athletic Association, located at 10 Shitrit Street, Tel Aviv, Israel, is the governing body of athletics in Israel. Doron Kofman is its President, Jack Cohen is its General Secretary, it was founded as the Federation for Amateur Sports in Palestine. The State of Israel was formed in 1948, Israel first participated in the Olympics in 1952. In September 1989, Primo Nebiolo announced that the International Amateur Athletics Federation congress voted unanimously to make Israel a "temporary" member of the European Athletic Association. Israel's first track and field global medal was won by Aleksandr Averbukh, who won a silver medal in the pole vault at the 2001 World Championships in Athletics; the IAA named Ethiopian-born distance runner Zohar Zimro its 2011 Athlete of the Year. Israel's kit are supplied by Nike. Sport in Israel Official website
Histadrut or the General Organization of Workers in Israel is Israel's National trade union center, representing the majority of trade unionists in the State of Israel. Established in December 1920 in Mandatory Palestine, it soon become one of the most powerful institutions in the Yishuv; the Histadrut was founded in December 1920 in Haifa to look out for the interests of Jewish workers. Until 1920, Ahdut HaAvoda and Hapoel Hatzair had been unable to set up a unified workers organisation. In 1920, Third Aliyah immigrants founded Gdud HaAvoda and demanded a unified organization for all Jewish workers, which led to the establishment of the Histadrut. At the end of 1921 David Ben-Gurion was elected as Secretary. Membership grew from 4,400 in 1920 and to 8,394 members in 1922. By 1927, the Histadrut had 25,000 members, accounting for 75% of the Jewish workforce in Mandatory Palestine; the Histadrut became one of the most powerful institutions in the state of Israel, a mainstay of the Labour Zionist movement and, aside from being a trade union, its state-building role made it the owner of a number of businesses and factories and, for a time, the largest employer in the country.
Until Israel began moving away from a socialist economy, the Histadrut, along with the government, owned most of the economy. Through its economic arm, Hevrat HaOvdim, the Histadrut owned and operated a number of enterprises, including the country's largest industrial conglomerates as well as the country's largest bank, Bank Hapoalim; the Israeli services sector was dominated by the Histadrut and government, the Histadrut largely dominated public transport and insurance industries. In addition, it owned Clalit Health Services, Israel's largest Kupat Holim, or health insurance company. Clalit was the only health insurance company to accept people without discrimination based on age or medical situation, membership in the Histadrut was a precondition for membership with Clalit, meaning that many Israelis were dependent on Histadrut membership for their health insurance. Membership in 1983 was 1,600,000, accounting for more than one-third of the total population of Israel and about 85% of all wage earners.
About 170,000 Histadrut members were Arabs. In 1989, the Histadrut was the employer of 280,000 workers. With the increasing liberalization and deregulation of the Israeli economy since the 1980s, the role and size of Histadrut declined. A major shift in power took place in 1994, when the Labor Party lost its leadership and governing role in the Histadrut, a new party named RAM, composed of individuals who had left the Labor Party due to internal power struggles, took charge and began to sell off or eliminate its non union-related assets and activities, proclaiming that from on, it would function as a trade union; the most severe blow came in 1995, when Israel's National Health Insurance Law came into effect, creating Israel's modern universal health care system. Under the law, Israelis were given a choice in membership between Clalit and three other health insurance funds, which were now prohibited from discriminating against applicants for age and medical reasons, Clalit's tie to the Histadrut was severed.
As a result, many people no longer depended on the Histadrut for their health insurance, one of the largest declines in union membership in history occurred. Membership instantly plunged from 1.8 million to about 200,000. The loss of revenue generated from Clalit's health insurance premiums and union dues caused an enormous decline in the Histadrut's resources, it was forced to sell off valuable real estate assets to survive; the Histadrut managed to recover from its low point in membership and grow in membership. In 2005, it had about 650,000 members. To this day, the Histadrut still remains a powerful force in the economy. Following its support of the 2011 Israeli social justice protests, on February 8, 2012, Histadrut called a general strike in support of lower paid subcontracted, unorganized workers, negotiating with both the government and private employers on their behalf, demanding that the subcontracted workers be hired directly and be offered the pay and benefits granted to regular employees.
A settlement was announced on Sunday, February 12, which provided for some gains by the subcontractors, but for a 3-year moratorium on further strikes over subcontractor issues. The initial aim of the Histadrut was to take responsibility for all spheres of activity of the workers movement: settlement, trade unions, housing construction, banking, cooperative ventures and culture; the Histadrut took over economic firms operated by the parties, which operated by subcontracting, their Office of Information, expanded into a Labor Exchange. After a few months the Histadrut became the single largest employer in the Yishuv; the Histadrut succeeded in improving worker's rights as e.g. the right to strike was recognised, employers had to motivate dismissal and workers got a place to turn to with their complaints. In the first year of its existence the Histadrut lacked central leadership, many initiatives were taken at the local level; this changed. Ben-Gurion wanted to transform the Histadrut into a national instrument for the realisation of Zionism.
According to Zeev Sternhell Ben-Gurion's exclusive commitment to this goal is illustrated by a Dec
Mandate for Palestine
The Mandate for Palestine was a "Class A" League of Nations mandate for British rule over the territories of Palestine and Transjordan, both of, conceded by the Ottoman Empire following World War I. The Balfour Declaration's "national home for the Jewish people" was to be established in Palestine, a separate Arab Emirate had been established in Transjordan; the mandate was formally in force between 29 September 1923 and 15 May 1948. The document was based on the principles contained in Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations of 28 June 1919 and of the Supreme Council of the Principal Allied Powers' San Remo Resolution of 25 April 1920; the objective of the system of Class A mandates was to administer parts of the defunct Ottoman Empire, in control of the Middle East since the 16th century, "until such time as they are able to stand alone". The approximate northern border with the French Mandate was agreed upon in the Paulet–Newcombe Agreement of 23 December 1920. Transjordan was added to the mandate following a March 1921 conference at which it was agreed that Abdullah bin Hussein would administer the territory under the auspices of the Palestine Mandate.
After the war it had been administered from Damascus by a joint Arab-British military administration, headed by Abdullah's younger brother Faisal, subsequently proclaimed King. Transjordan became a no man's land after the French removed Faisal in the July 1920 Battle of Maysalun; this was given legal form on 21 March 1921 when the British introduced Article 25 into the Palestine Mandate, which included Transjordan within the scope and allowed the Mandatory there "to postpone or withhold application of such provisions of this mandate as he may consider inapplicable to the existing local conditions." On 16 September 1922, Article 25 was implemented via the Trans-Jordan memorandum, which established a separate "Administration of Trans-Jordan" for the application of the Mandate, under the general supervision of Great Britain. Transjordan became autonomous under British tutelage according to an agreement of 20 February 1928, independent under a treaty with Britain of 22 March 1946. On 29 November 1947, the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was passed, envisaging the creation of separate Jewish and Arab states operating under economic union with Jerusalem being transferred to UN trusteeship.
Two weeks Colonial Secretary Arthur Creech Jones announced that the British Mandate would terminate on 15 May 1948. On the last day of the Mandate, the creation of the State of Israel was proclaimed, the 1948 Arab–Israeli War began. Following their declaration of war on the Ottoman Empire in November 1914, the British War Cabinet began to consider the future of Palestine, at the time an Ottoman region with a small minority Jewish population. By late 1917, in the lead up to the Balfour Declaration, the wider war had reached a stalemate, with two of Britain's allies not engaged: the United States had yet to suffer a casualty, the Russians were in the midst of a revolution. A stalemate in southern Palestine was broken by the Battle of Beersheba on 31 October 1917; the release of the Balfour Declaration was authorised by 31 October. On 2 November 1917, during World War I, the British government issued the Declaration, a public statement announcing support for the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine.
The opening words of the declaration represented the first public expression of support for Zionism by a major political power. The term "national home" had no precedent in international law, was intentionally vague as to whether a Jewish state was contemplated; the intended boundaries of Palestine were not specified, the British government confirmed that the words "in Palestine" meant that the Jewish national home was not intended to cover all of Palestine. The second half of the declaration was added to satisfy opponents of the policy, who had claimed that it would otherwise prejudice the position of the local population of Palestine and encourage antisemitism worldwide by "stamping the Jews as strangers in their native lands"; the declaration called for safeguarding the civil and religious rights for the Palestinian Arabs, who composed the vast majority of the local population, the rights of the Jewish communities in other countries outside of Palestine. Controversy remains over a number of areas, such as whether the declaration contradicted earlier promises the British made to the Sharif of Mecca in the McMahon–Hussein correspondence, as well as the Sykes-Picot Agreement.
The mandate system was established under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, entered into on 28 June 1919 as the first twenty-six articles of the Treaty of Versailles. The mandates were to act as legal instruments containing the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering certain post-World War I territories on behalf of the League of Nations; these were of the nature of both a treaty and a constitution, which contained minority rights clauses that provided for the rights of petition and adjudication by the International Court. Article 22 was written two months before the signing of the peace treaty, before it was known what communities, peoples, or territories were related to sub-paragraphs 4, 5, 6; the treaty was signed, the peace conference had been adjourned, before a formal decision was made. Two governing principles formed the core of the Mandate System, bei
Hapoel Bnei Tamra F.C.
Hapoel Bnei Tamra Football Club was an Israeli football club based in Tamra. A successor club, F. C. Tzeirei Tamra was established in 2013; the club was founded in the 1965. In 1985–86, the club won Liga Bet North A division and was promoted to Liga Alef, but were relegated to Liga Bet in 1988. In the following season, they dropped into Liga Gimel. In 1995, they were promoted back to Liga Bet but were relegated again in 1997. In 2003, the club returned to Liga Bet. In 2004–05, they won the North B division of Liga Bet, were promoted to Liga Alef; the following season the club won the North Division of Liga Alef, was promoted to Liga Artzit. In the 2008–09 season, they were relegated back to Liga Alef; the club finished 14th in one place above the relegation zone. However, shortly after the end of the season, the IFA demoted the club to Liga Bet due to involvement in match-fixing; the club did not enter Liga Bet in the following season, folded
Israel Basketball Association
The Israel Basketball Association is the official organization of professional basketball in Israel. The organization oversees the regulation of the sport and player registration, rules of the game, various official certification, the National team, it is responsible for sanctioning official leagues at various levels, issuing league schedules, certifying match results. The IBA handles associating with international bodies such as FIBA and Euroleague Basketball. Israeli Basketball Premier League Liga Leumit Liga Artzit Israeli Basketball State Cup Basketball in Israel Safsal - The Israeli Basketball Portal Eurobasket Israel Report International Basketball - Israel Resources Maccabi Haifa Heat and Maccabi Tel Aviv broadcasts for North America Official Site
Hapoel Afula F.C.
Hapoel Afula is an Israeli football club based in Afula. The club is in Liga Leumit and plays at the Afula Illit Stadium, their main rivals are Hapoel Asi Gilboa. The club was founded in 1924 in Beit Jann, near Yavne'el, by Russian Jews affiliated with Hashomer Hatzair movement. Due to unemployment in Beit Gan, the club relocated to Afula. During its early days, Hapoel Afula played in friendlies against the likes of Hapoel Haifa and in regional leagues, comprising clubs from the Northern and Haifa regions. After the Israeli Declaration of Independence, the club was re-established in 1951. At the summer of 1954, the club merged with neighboring football club, Hapoel Balfouria, which played at the time at the top flight of Israeli football, played home matches in Afula. Since the 1957–58 season, while playing in Liga Alef, the second tier of Israeli football at the time, the club was known under its current name, although they were mentioned by the press in both Hapoel Afula and Hapoel Balfouria names.
The club continued to play as Hapoel Afula, the name of Balfouria was dropped. In the 1958–59 season the club finished bottom in Liga Alef, went to play in the relegation play-offs. In spite the club finished the relegation play-offs in a perfect record against Hapoel Be'er Sheva, Hapoel Netanya and Maccabi Sha'arayim, they were disqualified and demoted to Liga Bet for fielding ineligible player; the club played for 17 successive seasons in Liga Bet, until they were relegated to Liga Gimel at the end of the 1976–77 season. The club made an immediate return to Liga Bet, where they played up until the 1983–84 season, in which the club folded during the season; the club reformed in 2001, reached Liga Bet in the 2002–03 season, where they finished runners-up in the North B division. In the following season, the club were promoted to Liga Alef. After 9 seasons in Liga Alef, the club managed to win promotion to Liga Leumit, when they won the 2012–13 season in Liga Alef North, by a margin of ten points, made a return to the second tier of Israeli football after 54 years.
In The 2013–14 season, the club reached the top play-off in Liga Leumit, finished in the 6th place, an achievement, bettered in the following season, after the club finished in the 4th place. In the 2014–15 Israel State Cup, the club eliminated top flight club, Maccabi Petah Tikva, in the Quarter-finals by away goals, reached the Semi-finals for the first time in their history. However, in the Semi-finals, Hapoel Afula were hammered 0–7 by Hapoel Be'er Sheva in Teddy Stadium, Jerusalem. On 6 December 2017, the club won its first major trophy, after beating Hapoel Ramat Gan in the Toto Cup Leumit final; as of 21 January 2019 Ben Binyamin Meir Cohen Guy Dayan Eliran Danin Darío Fernández Haim Silvas Hapoel Afula Israel Football Association