Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. The country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israels economy and technology center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, in 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, next year, the Jewish Agency declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel. Israel has since fought several wars with neighboring Arab states, in the course of which it has occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and it extended its laws to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israels occupation of the Palestinian territories is the worlds longest military occupation in modern times, efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in peace. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have successfully been signed, the population of Israel, as defined by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, was estimated in 2017 to be 8,671,100 people. It is the worlds only Jewish-majority state, with 74. 8% being designated as Jewish, the countrys second largest group of citizens are Arabs, at 20. 8%. The great majority of Israeli Arabs are Sunni Muslims, including significant numbers of semi-settled Negev Bedouins, other minorities include Arameans, Armenians, Assyrians, Black Hebrew Israelites, Circassians, Maronites and Samaritans. Israel also hosts a significant population of foreign workers and asylum seekers from Africa and Asia, including illegal migrants from Sudan, Eritrea. In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish, Israel is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation and universal suffrage. The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature, Israel is a developed country and an OECD member, with the 35th-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2016. The country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentage of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. The country has the highest standard of living in the Middle East and the third highest in Asia, in the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term Israeli to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have historically used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel. The name Israel in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, jacobs twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. The earliest known artifact to mention the word Israel as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity, Islam
Hammer and sickle
The hammer and sickle or sickle and hammer is a Communist symbol that was conceived during the Russian Revolution. At the time of creation, the hammer stood for industrial laborers, after World War I and the Russian Civil War, the hammer and sickle became more widely used as a symbol for peaceful labor within the Soviet Union and for international proletarian unity. It was taken up by many Communist movements around the world, farm and worker instruments and tools have long been used as symbols for proletarian struggle. A popular ancestor to the hammer and sickle was a hammer on a plough, in Ireland, the symbol of the plough remains in use. The Starry Plough banner was used by the Irish Citizen Army. James Connolly, co-founder of the Irish Citizen Army with Jack White, a sword is forged into the plough to symbolise the end of war with the establishment of a Socialist International. This was unveiled in 1914 and flown by the Irish Citizen Army during the 1916 Easter Rising, in 1917, Vladimir Lenin and Anatoly Lunacharsky held a competition to create a Soviet emblem. ” in six languages. It originally featured a sword, but Lenin strongly objected, disliking the violent connotations, the winning designer was Yevgeny Ivanovich Kamzolkin. On 6 July 1923 the 2nd session of the Central Executive Committee adopted this emblem, serp i Molot is the name of the Moscow Metallurgical Plant. Serp i Molot is also the name of a stop on the railway line from Kurski railway station in Moscow to Gorky, featured in Venedikt Yerofeyevs novel. In the Soviet Union the hammer and sickle came to take on a meaning, with the sickle coming to be associated with women. In addition, the Russian city of Oryol also uses the hammer, the former Soviet national airline, Aeroflot, continues to use the hammer and sickle in its symbol. The flag can also appear without the hammer and sickle in some circumstances, all of these use the yellow-on-red colour scheme. In Laos and Vietnam, the hammer and sickle flags party flags can often be seen flying side-by-side with their national flags. The Communist Party of Sweden, the Portuguese Communist Party and the Mexican Communist Party use the hammer, the hammer and sickle accompanied by the yellow star is used by the Communist Refoundation Party, the main Communist party in Italy. Many symbols having similar structures and messages to the original have been designed, for example, the Angolan flag shows a segment of a cog, crossed by a machete and crowned with a socialist star, while the flag of Mozambique features an AK-47 crossed by a hoe. In the logo of the Communist Party USA, a circle is formed by a half cog, a hammer is laid directly over the sickles handle with the hammers head at the logos center. The logo of the Communist Party of Turkey consists of half a cog wheel crossed by a hammer, movement, the pickaxe and rifle used in communist Albania, and the hammer and compasses of the emblem of the East German flag
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people wearing protective gloves throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring. Amateur boxing is both an Olympic and Commonwealth Games sport and is a fixture in most international games—it also has its own World Championships. Boxing is supervised by a referee over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds, in the event that both fighters gain equal scores from the judges, the fight is considered a draw. In Olympic boxing, due to the fact that a winner must be declared, in the case of a draw - the judges use technical criteria to choose the most deserving winner of the bout. While people have fought in combat since before the dawn of history. The earliest evidence for fist fighting with any kind of gloves can be found on Minoan Crete, in Ancient Greece boxing was a well developed sport and enjoyed consistent popularity. In Olympic terms, it was first introduced in the 23rd Olympiad,688 B. C, the boxers would wind leather thongs around their hands in order to protect them. There were no rounds and boxers fought until one of them acknowledged defeat or could not continue, weight categories were not used, which meant heavyweights had a tendency to dominate. It was the head of the opponent which was primarily targeted, Boxing was a popular spectator sport in Ancient Rome. In order for the fighters to protect themselves against their opponents they wrapped leather thongs around their fists, eventually harder leather was used and the thong soon became a weapon. The Romans even introduced metal studs to the thongs to make the cestus which then led to a more sinister weapon called the myrmex, Fighting events were held at Roman Amphitheatres. The Roman form of boxing was often a fight until death to please the spectators who gathered at such events, however, especially in later times, purchased slaves and trained combat performers were valuable commodities, and their lives were not given up without due consideration. Often slaves were used against one another in a circle marked on the floor and this is where the term ring came from. In AD393, during the Roman gladiator period, boxing was abolished due to excessive brutality and it was not until the late 17th century that boxing re-surfaced in London. Records of Classical boxing activity disappeared after the fall of the Western Roman Empire when the wearing of weapons became common once again, however, there are detailed records of various fist-fighting sports that were maintained in different cities and provinces of Italy between the 12th and 17th centuries. There was also a sport in ancient Rus called Kulachniy Boy or Fist Fighting, as the wearing of swords became less common, there was renewed interest in fencing with the fists. The sport would later resurface in England during the early 16th century in the form of bare-knuckle boxing sometimes referred to as prizefighting. The first documented account of a fight in England appeared in 1681 in the London Protestant Mercury
Hapoel Jerusalem B.C.
Hapoel has won several titles, including the ULEB Cup in 2004, and the Israeli League championship in 2015. In 2013, a new group headed by Ori Allon, took over. The team began playing in the Jerusalem Arena in 2014, Hapoel Jerusalem Basketball Club was founded in 1935 and incorporated in 1943 in Jerusalem. It had its first appearance in the Premier League in 1955, Hapoel played in the first division most of the 1950s and 1960s, with notable players, such as David Kaminsky and Amir Berlinsky. The following two decades had ups and downs, as Hapoel toggled between the first and second divisions, in 1986, led by coach Simi Riger the team advanced to the Premier League, after five consecutive years in the second division. Since then, Hapoel has remained in the Premier league and became an important factor in the Israeli Basketball, in 1996 and 1997, Hapoel won the State Cup, defeating Maccabi Tel Aviv in the finals, at the Yad Eliyahu Arena. The team was led by Adi Gordon, widely considered the teams symbol, in 2004, Hapoel Jerusalem won its first European title, the ULEB Cup, defeating Real Madrid in the final in Charleroi, Belgium. In 2005, Israeli-Russian billionaire Arcadi Gaydamak purchased a stake in the club. As a result, the team got stronger and signed four American players with an NBA record – Tamar Slay, Horace Jenkins, Roger Mason, the team also signed Israeli star Meir Tapiro. In 2007, Hapoel won its third Israel State Cup, defeating Bnei HaSharon 103–85 at Nokia Arena, in early 2008 Hapoel came back from being 22 points down, in the 4th quarter to win its fourth State Cup, beating Maccabi Tel Aviv 93–89. In late 2008 Hapoel won its first Israeli Basketball League Cup, in September 2009, oil tycoon Guma Aguiar joined Hapoel Jerusalem as the teams sponsor and helped clear the debts left by Mr. Gaydamak. This ensured Hapoel would be able to yet again at the highest levels. On October 8,2009 Hapoel beat Maccabi Tel Aviv in the Winner Cup finals 86–80, one year after the mysterious disappearance of Guma Aguiar, a new ownership group headed by entrepreneur Ori Allon took over, and Guy Harel succeeded Dani Klein as general manager. Once he decided to retire from the NBA in July 2016, on June 20,2014 the club signed coach Danny Franco who led Maccabi Haifa to the 2014 finals against current EuroLeague title-holder Maccabi Tel Aviv. That same day, the club also signed season MVP Donta Smith, on June 25,2014, the Executive Board of Euroleague Commercial Assets unanimously agreed to hand Hapoel a wild-card to compete for a spot in the EuroLeague qualifications. The move came in light of Hapoel positioning herself as a club with a new ownership group with great stability. On June 25,2015, Hapoel won the Israeli Championship for the first time in their history, 90% – An ownership group, headed by majority owner Ori Allon, including Eyal Chomsky, Shalom Menora, David Kleinhandler and Howard Wietschner. In Malha Arena, the Brigade was located behind the south side basket, at the Jerusalem Arena, the Brigade is located in stands #1 and #12
Hapoel Be'er Sheva F.C.
Hapoel Beer Sheva Football Club is an Israeli football club from the city of Beersheba, that competes in the Israeli Premier League. The club was founded in 1949, and businesswoman Alona Barkat has run it since 2007, the club also includes youth groups, teens and children, and football schools. The home uniform colors of the club are red and white, until 1959, the club played its home games at a stadium that was located in the old city of Beersheba. In 1960, the moved to Vasermil Stadium. Starting from the 2015–16 season, the ground of the team is Turner Stadium. The club won its first league title in 1975, over the years, the team has won three league titles, three Toto Cups, three Super Cups and one Lilian Cup. Hapoel Beer Sheva were formed in 1949 by Zalman Casspi, casspis ambition was to build a successful team full of talented young players. The clubs first game was against a team from Mefalsim, a kibbutz in Southern Israel, the Mefalsim team was mostly made up of immigrants from South America. The game was played in a stadium in Beer Shevas Old City, at this time Hapoel played in a league with only four other clubs. Hapoel drew their games against Hapoel Rishon LeZion, Hapoel Kfar Saba, in their other game against Hapoel Ramat Gan Beer Sheva lost 4–3. In 1952, the disbanded, but were re-established 3 years later and were granted entry into the Liga Gimel. In the 1956/57 season, the team finished at the top of the league under new manager Yosef Azran, in their final game of the season, they played against Jaffa, winning 5–0, a win which gained them promotion to Liga Bet. Following the clubs promotion to Liga Bet, they appointed Lonia Dvorin as their new manager and he was replaced by Jack Gibbons, who had previously managed Hapoel Petah Tikva to five national titles as well as being the head coach of the Israel National team. In the first game under Gibbons, they played against ZVI Single, however, Hapoel felt that ZVI had played illegally and reported them to the league, which resulted in Hapoel winning the points. In the second game against Maccabi Shaarayim Hapoel won 2–0, the final game against Hapoel Natanya, a 2–1 win for Beer Sheva, granted them promotion to Liga Alef. In 1958/59 Jack Gibbons left the club and was replaced by Yehiel Moore, in 1959/60 the team moved to a new stadium and invited Cypriot side Anorthosis Famagusta to officially open the stadium, the Cypriot side won the game 2–1. At the beginning of the 1960s the team did not try to promote to a higher league, but in 1961–62 the club decided to bring in a foreign coach, Rober Eryol. Eryol was the only Jewish player who played at the time in the Turkey national team
Sport in Israel
Sports in Israel are an important part of the national culture. Sports in Israel are pursued both competitively and for leisure, Israelis engage in a wide range of athletic activities, with association football being the most popular sport. Israel has won eight medals in the Olympic Games, in judo, canoeing and windsurfing, Israel also has a tradition of tennis. Another major achievement by an Israeli athlete was in pole vaulting, Football is the most popular sport in Israel. The sport is under the jurisdiction of the Israel Football Association and it joined the Asian Football Confederation in 1954, but was expelled in 1974 due to political pressure from Arab and Muslim members in the context of the Arab–Israeli conflict. It was admitted to UEFA as a member in 1992 and as a full member in 1994. The matches that draw the largest crowds are those of the Israeli Premier League, in 1967, Hapoel Tel Aviv became the first club to win the Asian Club Championships. In the 2001–02 UEFA Cup Hapoel reached the quarter-finals after knocking out Chelsea, Lokomotiv Moscow, the Israel national football team hosted and won the 1964 AFC Asian Cup and qualified for the 1970 FIFA World Cup, which was held in Mexico. Mordechai Spiegler scored in a 1-1 draw against Sweden, Israels Olympic football team qualified for the 1968 Summer Olympics and the 1976 Summer Olympics both times reaching the quarter finals. Israels highest FIFA ranking was 15th in November 2008, successful Israeli players who also played outside Israel include Eli Ohana, Giora Spiegel, Ronny Rosenthal, Avi Cohen, Eyal Berkovich, Haim Revivo, Dudu Aouate and Yossi Benayoun. Maccabi Tel Aviv has won the European championship 6 times, in 1977,1981,2001,2004,2005 and 2014, Hapoel Jerusalem won the Eurocup in 2004. The Israel national basketball team has participated 23 times in the European Championship and their best achievements were a silver medal in Eurobasket 1979, and 5th place in 1953 and 1977. The national team played in two World Championships and once in the Summer Olympic Games. Israeli basketball is known for its national team, winning silver medals twice, in 2000 FIBA Europe Under-20 Championship and 2004, and finishing 4th twice, 5th. Israel U-20 also took place in the U-21 World Championship, finishing twice in 7th place, Israeli player Omri Casspi currently plays for the Sacramento Kings in the NBA. Gal Mekel, previously played in the NBA and Shay Doron previously played in the WNBA. C, florida Gators, Israel national basketball team Israel Swimming Association is the major swimming federation in Israel. Swimming is popular in Israels many beaches along the Mediterranean coast, famous Israeli swimmers include Eithan Urbach, Michael Halika, Gal Nevo, Yoav Gath, Yoav Bruck, Vered Borochovski, Amit Ivry, and Anna Gostomelsky. At the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Israels team qualified to the final of the prestigious Mens 4 x 100 metre medley relay
British Mandate for Palestine (legal instrument)
The Mandate of Palestine was superseded with UN Charter, Chapter XII, Article 80 UN Trusteeship Agreement, UNGA181 of November 29,1947. The Palestine Mandate was administrated by the United Kingdom from September 29,1922 to November 29,1947, Government of the State of Israel was proclaimed over parts of this territory on 14 May,1948. The approximate northern border with the French Mandate was agreed upon in the Paulet–Newcombe Agreement of 23 December 1920, Transjordan had been a no mans land following the July 1920 Battle of Maysalun. The Trans-Jordan Memorandum provided the detail to support Article 25 of the Mandate and it also established a separate Administration of Trans-Jordan for the application of the Mandate, under the general supervision of Great Britain. Transjordan became largely autonomous under British tutelage according to an agreement of February 20,1928, the League of Nations welcomed the end of the mandate in Transjordan on 18 April 1946. The conquest of Palestine became part of British strategies aimed at establishing a bridge between the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf. This would enable rapid deployment of troops to the Gulf, then the line of defence for British interests in India. A land bridge was also an alternative to the Suez Canal, the committee considered various scenarios and provided guidelines for negotiations with France, Italy, and Russia regarding the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. The Committee recommended in favour of the creation of a decentralised, at the same time, the British and French also opened overseas fronts with the Gallipoli and Mesopotamian campaigns. In Gallipoli, the Turks successfully repelled the British, French and Australian, from 1915, Zionist leader and anglophile Zeev Jabotinsky was pressing the British to agree to the formation of a Zionist volunteer corps that would serve under the aegis of the British army. The British eventually agreed to set up the Zion Mule Corps, after Lloyd George was made prime minister during the war, the British waged the Sinai and Palestine Campaign under General Allenby. This time the British agreed to a Jewish Legion, which participated in the invasion, russian Jews regarded the German army as a liberator and the creation of the Legion was designed to encourage them to participate in the war on Britains side. At the same time, British intelligence officer T. E. Lawrence was encouraging an Arab Revolt led by the Sharif of Mecca. The British defeated Ottoman Turkish forces in 1917 and occupied Ottoman Syria, the land remained under British military administration for the remainder of the war, and beyond. The Ottoman Empire capitulated on 30 October 1918, and on 23 November 1918, the Middle East was divided into three OETAs. Occupied Enemy Territory Administration South extended from the Egyptian border of Sinai into Palestine and Lebanon as far north as Acre and Nablus, a temporary British military governor Major General Sir Arthur Wigram Money would administer this sector. In October 1919, British forces in Syria and the last British soldiers stationed east of the Jordan were withdrawn and the region came under exclusive control of Faisal bin Hussein from Damascus. In 1916, Britain and France concluded the Sykes–Picot Agreement, which proposed to divide the Middle East between them into spheres of influence, with Palestine as an international enclave, the British made two potentially conflicting promises regarding the territory it was expecting to acquire
Hapoel Tel Aviv F.C.
Hapoel Tel-Aviv Football Club is an Israeli football club based in Tel Aviv. The club currently competes in the Israeli Premier League and plays its matches at the Bloomfield Stadium. To date, the club has won thirteen championships and sixteen State Cups, in 1967 Hapoel Tel Aviv became the first club to win the Asian Club Championships. It is also one of only 3 Israeli teams to have qualified for the UEFA Champions League group stage, the club name, Hapoel, translates to The Worker, and combined with its red Hammer and sickle crest represents the club ties to Socialism and working class. For seven decades, the club was owned by Israeli largest trade union, Hapoel Tel Aviv F. C. was originally established in 1923, but was disbanded soon after. The club was re-formed in 1925, and then for a time in May 1926. In 1927 the club merged with Allenby F. C. giving the club its modern form and it is part of the Hapoel sports association which was affiliated with the Histadrut trade union, and supporters of the club were often referred to as communists. In 1928 the club reached the Palestine Cup final, although they beat Maccabi Hasmonean Jerusalem 2–0, Hapoel fielded an ineligible player, resulting in the cup being shared. The 1934–35 season saw Hapoel led the table, but the championship was abandoned. The 1937–38 season ended the way, with Hapoel top of the league. In the meantime, the won the cup again in 1937,1938 and 1939. In 1939–40 they won their second championship, the following season no national championships were held, but the club won the tournament for Hapoel-affiliated clubs. Following Israeli independence, Hapoel joined the new Israeli League and they won the title in 1956–57 and the State Cup in 1961, beating Hapoel Petah Tikva 2–1. In the 1965–66 season Hapoel won the title, and qualified for the first Asian Club Championships, in the tournament Hapoel were given byes all the way to the final, where they beat Selangor 2–1 to become Asias first club champions. The club also reached the State Cup final that year, Hapoel won the title again in 1968–69, and again qualified for the Asian Club championships. Although they reached the final, they lost 2–1 to Iranian side Taj Club, the following season they reached the cup final again, but lost 1–0 to Hapoel Yehud. A hat-trick of cup final defeats was avoided when they beat Maccabi Tel Aviv 3–2 in the 1982 final, another title was won in 1985–86, and another in 1987–88. However, the following season Hapoel finished bottom of the league and were relegated to the second tier for the first time in their history
Hapoel Holon, for sponsorship reasons Hapoel Unet Holon, is a basketball club based in Holon, Israel. Holon plays in the Ligat HaAl, the top division of Israeli basketball, the club won their first Israeli championship in 2008, after beating perennial champions Maccabi Tel Aviv in the Final Four. The club was founded in 1947 and was one of the clubs of the top division in 1954 when established. They reached the Playoff Final, where they defeated Maccabi Tel Aviv 73–72 to claim their first championship, PJ Tucker won the MVP title. It was the first time Maccabi Tel Aviv had failed to win the championship in 14 years, on January 16,2010, the club celebrated its 1000th game in the Ligat HaAl. In the 2009–10 season, the club was under scrutiny after failing to pay the balance of last years staff and players throughout the end of the season. Holons best homegrown player was Ofer Eshed who played for the club between 1957 and 1972 and he is the points leader in the team, with 7,495 points. Israel Elimelech is considered to be the clubs biggest symbol, played in holon during two decades – and led the team to many successful seasons in the premier league. Played in the home grown team of holon in the 1980s, with Niv Boogin, Avi Maor, and the Israeli-American player Micheal Carter. Other notable players were, Tzahi Peled, Danny Hadar, Rami Zeig and from early days. The teams 2 titles were won by 2 winning baskets, scored by the 2007–08 PG Malik Dixon, Dixon scored a two-pointer 2 seconds to the end of the championship match against Maccabi Tel-Aviv, leaving Maccabi a 2-second possession which they failed to score in. Tolbert scored a three-point buzzer beater in the cup final, after he got the ball from a pass by Deron Washington. Over the years the club has signed several former NBA players, including P. J. Tucker, Ken Bannister, Clarence Kea, Richard Dumas and Dominic McGuire. John Thomas, who has played in 2009–10 season, is also a former NBA player, with a history in five teams, such as New Jersey Nets, Atlanta Hawks, before that, the team played in red and white uniforms, Like almost every Hapoel Team. For many years Holons mascot was a tiger and it appeared on the teams logo for many years and in the 1990s the teams logo read Hapoel Tigers Holon. After the team won the 2006/2007 National League championship, and upgraded to the first division, the old symbol was changed and redesigned, keeping Holons symbol, Official website Holoniafans – The Official fansite Fansite – The Kometz From Gate 3
HaHistadrut HaKlalit shel HaOvdim BEretz Yisrael, known as the Histadrut, is Israels organization of trade unions. Established in December 1920 during the British Mandate for Palestine, it one of the most powerful institutions of Israel. Histadrut enterprises include, Koor Industries Ltd, solel Boneh, and Kupat Holim Clalit. The Histadrut was founded in December 1920 in Haifa to look out for the interests of Jewish workers, until 1920, Ahdut HaAvoda and Hapoel Hatzair had been unable to set up a unified workers organisation. In 1920, Third Aliyah immigrants founded Gdud HaAvoda and demanded a unified organization for all Jewish workers, at the end of 1921 David Ben-Gurion was elected as Secretary. Membership grew from 4,400 in 1920 and to 8,394 members in 1922, by 1927, the Histadrut had 25,000 members, accounting for 75% of the Jewish workforce in Mandatory Palestine. Until Israel began moving away from a socialist economy, the Histadrut, along with the government, the Israeli services sector was completely dominated by the Histadrut and government, and the Histadrut also largely dominated public transport, agriculture, and insurance industries. In addition, it owned Clalit Health Services, Israels largest Health Maintenance Organization, membership in 1983 was 1,600,000, accounting for more than one-third of the total population of Israel and about 85% of all wage earners. About 170,000 Histadrut members were Arabs, in 1989, the Histadrut was the employer of approximately 280,000 workers. With the increasing liberalization and deregulation of the Israeli economy since the 1980s, the most severe blow came in 1995, when Israels National Health Insurance Law came into effect, creating Israels modern universal health care system. As a result, many no longer depended on the Histadrut for their health insurance. Membership almost instantly plunged from 1.8 million to about 200,000, the Histadrut managed to recover from its low point in membership and gradually grow in membership. In 2005, it had about 650,000 members, to this day, the Histadrut still remains a powerful force in Israeli society and the economy. A settlement was announced on Sunday, February 12, which provided for some gains by the subcontractors, the Histadrut took over economic firms operated by the parties, which operated by subcontracting, and their Office of Information, which was expanded into a Labor Exchange. Already after a few months the Histadrut became the single largest employer in the Yishuv, the Histadrut succeeded in improving workers rights as e. g. the right to strike was recognised, employers had to motivate dismissal and workers got a place to turn to with their complaints. In the first year of its existence the Histadrut lacked central leadership and this changed after David Ben-Gurion became appointed in the General Secretariat. Ben-Gurion wanted to transform the Histadrut into an instrument for the realisation of Zionism. According to Zeev Sternhell Ben-Gurions exclusive commitment to this goal is illustrated by a December 1922 quote, and not adapting our lives to this or that doctrine
Hapoel Haifa F.C.
Hapoel Haifa Football Club is an Israeli football club located in Haifa. The club won one championship and 3 Israeli cups, the Team is also known as The Sharks. The clubs home since the early 1990s is the Kiryat Eliezer Stadium in Haifa, in which they have played since their departure from Kiryat Haim Stadium, the colours of the teams home kit are red throughout. The away colours are white shirts, and black shorts and socks, the beginning of the club was in a local organization founded in Haifa in 1924. This organization included several related to sports, in addition to branches related to worker movements. Their goal was to found the first ever football club in Palestine. The meeting was led by Yehoshua Sherpstein and Yair Aharony, on May 1,1924, Labor Day, was the first match, in which Hapoel Haifa beat 3–1 the train workers of Haifa. In the first years of the club it played friendly matches against different teams from Palestine, Europe. At the beginning Hapoel Haifa was included under the Maccabi union, two years later the club decided to leave Maccabi, and was among the founders of the new union, Hapoel. In 1928 the Israel Football Association was founded, and formal matches were scheduled, In the first 4 years only cup matches, during these years Hapoel Haifa did not win many trophies, yet it was still one of the leading teams in the country. In 1932 the team qualified to its first cup final, against the British Police, the referee was British, and some of the decisions he made were very controversial. During the match, when the score was 1–0 to Hapoel Haifa, after some decisions that the players of Haifa found very odd and unfair, as a result, Hapoel Haifa was disqualified. That year 5 of Haifas players made it to the Palestine squad, in 1950, after the War of Independence, the Israeli League returned to action, and Haifa finished in the 3rd place, after Maccabi and Hapoel Tel-Aviv. Two years later the cup matches were renewed and these years were direct continuation to the seasons before the state of Israel was established, when the team was one of the leaders, yet did not manage to win any trophies. Hapoel was very weak in the early sixties, the team finished 1962–63 one before last, and was supposed to relegate to the second division. But, due to suspicions about improper matches, the relegations were canceled, at this turning point, many talented young players promoted from the youth team, causing a significant improvement that started the clubs best period. In the same season, 1962–63, the won the Israel State Cup. In all of the seasons the team finished in the top third of the league