Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Gil Cohen (sailor)
Gil Cohen is an Israeli Olympic sports sailor. She competed in sailing in the Women's 470 with Vered Buskila in the 2012 Summer Olympics, in the same event with Nina Amir in the 2016 Summer Olympics. Cohen is Jewish, was born and raised in Haifa, Israel, she studied there at the Hebrew Reali School. Cohen's sailing club is Hapoel Tel Aviv, her coach since 2008 has been Ilan Tashtach. Cohen started sailing at a young age, was the Israeli national champion on the Optimist in 2005 and 2006, as well as in the 420 discipline in 2007 and 2008. In the 2008 Sailing World Championships she won a silver medal in the 420 discipline. After changing to the 470 discipline, she won a silver medal a year with Dana Mamriev at the 470 Junior World Championships in Thessaloniki, Greece. In 2010 the duo won a bronze medal at the ISAF Sailing World Cup Semaine Olympique Francaise in Hyères, France. In 2010, Vered Buskila and Cohen became a team following Buskila's return to competitive sailing, Nike Kornecki's continued retirement.
In April 2011, the duo won a bronze medal at the ISAF Sailing World Cup Trofeo Princesa Sofia in Palma de Majorca and qualified for the 2012 Summer Olympics after finishing 7th at the pre-Olympic tournament. At the 2011 ISAF Sailing World Championships in Perth, Australia, in December 2011, they finished in 4th place. In August 2012, Cohen and Buskila finished in 15th place in the Women's 470 at the 2012 Summer Olympics. Cohen was hit by a car while riding her bicycle and was injured in October 2014, she underwent surgery, a long period of rehabilitation. She was not able to compete again until May 2015. In March 2016 Cohen began to compete along with Israeli teenager Nina Amir, they placed 9th in the 2016 Princess Sofia Trophy Regatta in Palma de Spain. Cohen and Amir thereby secured a place in sailing in the 470 event as part of the Israeli 2016 Olympics Team. In April 2016 they placed 18th in the 470 European Championships, they sailed in the 470 event as part of the Israeli 2016 Olympics Team in Rio in August 2016, with Cohen at the helm and Amir as the crew.
They finished in 18th place in the Women's 470. BBC Olympic bio Rio bio
Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
Vered "Vardush" Buskila is an Israeli Olympic sailor, competes in the 470 Class double-handed monohull planing dinghy with a centerboard, Bermuda rig, center sheeting. She won a world championship in the women's 420 at the age of 15, a bronze medal in the world championships in the 470 six years later. Buskila is Jewish, was born in Bat Yam, Israel, she studied law and political science at Herzliya, in Israel. She learned to sail with the Maccabi Zevelun Club in Bat Yam, she sails now for Hapoel Tel Aviv. In 1998, at the age of 15, she partnered with Limor Kliger, 16, won the women's world 420 yachting championship in the Gulf of Corinth in Greece, they defeated 47 other teams, from 16 countries. In 2000, she partnered with Nike Kornecki, in 2001 they won a bronze medal at the European Championships in Ireland. In 2004, they won bronze medals in both the European Championship in Germany and the 470 World Championship in Zadar, Croatia. Buskila competed on behalf of Israel at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece, in the Women's 470 Class Two-Person Dinghy with Kornecki, came in 18th.
They won a silver medal in the 2005 European Championship. She competed on behalf of Israel at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China, in the Women's 470 Class Two-Person Dinghy with Kornecki, came in fourth. Buskila returned to sailing with a new partner, Gil Cohen, in 2010. On December 24, 2012, Vered Buskila announced her retirement, telling the First Channel TV News: "It would be painful for me to see the opening ceremony of the next Olympic Games, in which I will not be taking part - but one must know when to stop", she disclosed that, having studied Law concurrently with her sailing activity, she intends to have a new career as a lawyer. Sports-reference bio Sailing.org bio "What, its over already?", by Vered Buskila, IDC Herzliya Magazine, August 31, 2008
Yehoshua "Shiye" Feigenbaum is a former Israeli football player and the manager of Hapoel Kfar Saba. As a striker, he holds many records with Israel national football team. Israeli Premier League: 1965–66, 1968–69 Israel State Cup: 1972 Asian Club Championship: 1967 Second Division: 1985–86 Toto Cup: 1994–95 Yehoshua Feigenbaum's International Career RSSSF
Hapoel is an Israeli sport association established in 1926 by the Histadrut Labor Federation. During the British Mandate of Palestine period Hapoel had a bitter rivalry with Maccabi and organized its own competitions, with the exception of football, the only sport in which all the organizations played each other. At the time, Hapoel took no part in the Eretz Israel Olympic Committee, controlled by Maccabi, instead sought for international ties with similar workers sports organizations of socialist parties. Therefore, Hapoel became a member of SASI in 1927 and was a member of CSIT. After the State of Israel was established, the rival sport organizations reached a 1951 agreement that allowed joint sports associations and competitions open for all Israeli residents. Hapoel Jerusalem Hapoel Tel Aviv Hapoel Holon Hapoel Haifa Hapoel Rishon LeZion, Hapoel Rishon LeZion F. C. and others in Rishon LeZion Sports in Israel Official website
Hapoel Tel Aviv F.C.
Hapoel Tel-Aviv Football Club is an Israeli football club based in Tel Aviv, that competes in the Ligat Ha'al. The club's traditional home ground is Bloomfield Stadium in Jaffa, but due to renovation the team temporarily plays at HaMoshava Stadium. To date, the club has won sixteen State Cups. In 1967 Hapoel Tel Aviv became the first club to win the Asian Club Championships. Since 1995 the club has competed in European club competitions, has the highest rank among all Israeli clubs, with some outstanding achievements, such as wins against Chelsea, Hamburg, Paris Saint-Germain, Benfica and Celtic, it is one of only 3 Israeli teams to have qualified for the UEFA Champions League group stage, one of the two which are ordinary members of the European Club Association. The club name, "Hapoel", translates to "The Worker", combined with its red Hammer and sickle badge represents the club ties to Marxism and the working class. For seven decades, the club was owned by Israel's national trade union center.
Hapoel Tel Aviv F. C. was established in 1923, but was disbanded soon after. The club was re-formed in 1925, for a third time in May 1926. In 1927 the club merged with Allenby F. C. giving the club its modern form. It is part of the Hapoel sports association, affiliated with the Histadrut, supporters of the club were referred to as communists. In 1928 the club reached the Palestine Cup final. Although they beat Maccabi Hasmonean Jerusalem 2–0, Hapoel fielded an ineligible player, resulting in the cup being shared; the 1933–34 saw the club win the double, finishing as champions of the Palestine League, winning every match, the only Israeli club to have achieved such a feat, winners of the cup, beating local rivals Maccabi Tel Aviv 3–2 in the final. The 1934–35 season saw Hapoel led the league table, but the championship was abandoned and they were not declared champions; the 1937–38 season ended the same way, with Hapoel top of the league, but the season abandoned. In the meantime, the club won the cup again in 1937, 1938 and 1939, remain the only club to have won the trophy in three successive seasons.
In 1939–40 they won their second championship. The following season no national championships were held, but the club won the tournament for Hapoel-affiliated clubs, they won a third championship in the 1943–44 season, in the following year won the northern region league, as well as what became known as the "War Cup", boycotted by Beitar-affiliated clubs. In the cup final Hapoel were leading Hapoel Petah Tikva 1–0, but the match was abandoned on 89 minutes when a Petah Tikva player refused to leave the pitch after being sent off for insulting the referee. Following Israeli independence, Hapoel joined the new Israeli League, they won the title in 1956–57 and the State Cup in 1961, beating Hapoel Petah Tikva 2–1. In the 1965–66 season Hapoel won the title, qualified for the first Asian Club Championships. In the tournament Hapoel were given byes all the way to the final, where they beat Selangor 2–1 to become Asia's first club champions; the club reached the State Cup final that year, but lost 2–1 to Maccabi Tel Aviv.
Hapoel won the title again in 1968–69, again qualified for the Asian Club championships. Although they reached the final, they lost 2–1 to Iranian side Taj Club, they won the State Cup again in 1972, beating Hapoel Jerusalem 1–0 in the final, but did not win the title again until 1980–81, when they missed out on the double after losing the cup final 4–3 on penalties to Bnei Yehuda. The following season they lost 1 -- 0 to Hapoel Yehud. A hat-trick of cup final defeats was avoided. Another title was won in 1985–86, another in 1987–88. However, the following season Hapoel finished bottom of the league and were relegated to the second tier for the first time in their history; the club made an immediate return to the top division as Liga Artzit runners-up, though they only beat Maccabi Yavne to the second promotion slot on goal difference. In 1997–98 Hapoel finished second, qualified for Europe for the second time. In the 1998 -- 99 UEFA Cup Hapoel knocked before losing on penalties to Strømsgodset.
In the same season they won the State Cup, beating Beitar Jerusalem 3–1 on penalties after a 1–1 draw. The 1999–2000 season saw Hapoel win the double, claiming their first title in over a decade and winning the State Cup. However, they failed to reach the group stages of the Champions League after being beaten 5–1 on aggregate by Sturm Graz, they finished second in the league in 2000–01 and 2001–02 and third in 2002–03, qualifying for the UEFA Cup on each occasion. In the 2001–02 UEFA Cup Hapoel reached the quarter-finals after knocking out Chelsea, Lokomotiv Moscow and Parma. Although they beat A. C. Milan 1–0 in the home leg, Hapoel lost the away leg 2–0. In 2002 the club won its first Toto Cup, they won the State Cup in 2006, beating Bnei Yehuda 1–0 in the final, won it the following season, when they defeated second division Hapoel Ashkelon on penalties. They reached the final again in 2007–08, but lost 5–4 on penalties to Beitar Jerusalem after a 0–0 draw