The Alaska Senate is the upper house in the Alaska Legislature, the state legislature of the U. S. state of Alaska. It convenes in the Alaska State Capitol in Juneau, Alaska and is responsible for making laws and confirming or rejecting gubernatorial appointments to the state cabinet and boards. With just twenty members, the Alaska Senate is the smallest state upper house legislative chamber in the United States, its members serve four-year terms and each represent an equal number of districts with populations of 35,512 people, per 2010 Census figures. They are not subject to term limits; the Alaska Senate shares the responsibility for making laws in the state of Alaska. Bills are developed by staff from information from the bill's sponsor. Bills undergo four readings during the legislative process. After the first reading, they are assigned to committee. Committees can hold legislation and prevent it from reaching the Senate floor. Once a committee has weighed in on a piece of legislation, the bill returns to the floor for second hearing and a third hearing, which happens just before the floor vote on it.
Once passed by the Senate, a bill is sent to the opposite legislative house for consideration. If approved, without amendment, it is sent to the governor. If there is amendment, the Senate may either reconsider the bill with amendments or ask for the establishment of a conference committee to work out differences in the versions of the bill passed by each chamber. Once a piece of legislation approved by both houses is forwarded to the governor, it may either be signed or vetoed. If it is signed, it takes effect on the effective date of the legislation. If it is vetoed, lawmakers in a joint session may override the veto with a two-thirds majority vote; the Alaska Senate has the sole responsibility in the state's legislative branch for confirming gubernatorial appointees to positions that require confirmation. Current committees include: Past partisan compositions can be found on Political party strength in Alaska. Senators must be a qualified voter and resident of Alaska for no less than three years, a resident of the district from which elected for one year preceding filing for office.
A senator must be at least 25 years old at the time. Senators may expel a member with the concurrence of two-thirds of the membership of the body; this has happened only once in Senate history. On February 5, 1982, the Senate of the 12th Legislature expelled Bethel senator George Hohman from the body. Hohman was convicted of bribery in conjunction with his legislative duties on December 24, 1981, had defiantly refused to resign from his seat. Expulsion was not a consideration during the 2003–2010 Alaska political corruption probe, as Ben Stevens and John Cowdery were the only Senators who were subjects of the probe and neither sought reelection in 2008. Legislative terms begin on the second Monday in January following a presidential election year and on the third Tuesday in January following a gubernatorial election; the term of senators is four years and half of the senators are up for election every two years. The President of the Senate presides over the body, appointing members to all of the Senate's committees and joint committees, may create other committees and subcommittees if desired.
Unlike many other states, the Lieutenant Governor of Alaska does not preside over the Senate. Instead, the Lieutenant Governor oversees the Alaska Division of Elections, fulfilling the role of Secretary of State. Only two other states and Utah, have similar constitutional arrangements for their lieutenant governors; the other partisan Senate leadership positions, such as the Majority and Minority leaders, are elected by their respective party caucuses to head their parties in the chamber. ↑: Senator was appointed^a: Caucuses with the Republican-led majority Alaska House of Representatives Alaska State Capitol List of Alaska State Legislatures Alaska State Senate official government website Project Vote Smart – State Senate of Alaska
Nikolaevsk is a census-designated place in Kenai Peninsula Borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population of the CDP is 318, down from 345 in 2000. Nikolaevsk School serves school-age children from the area; the town was settled by a group of Old Believers of the Russian Orthodox Old-Rite Church around 1968, remains a ethnic Russian town to this day. The travels of the group from Russia, as well as the story of the founding of Nikolaevsk, is told in a 1972 article in National Geographic, a 2013 episode on the NatGeo channel called "Red Alaska", a 2013 article in The Atlantic magazine. Nikolaevsk is located on the western side of the Kenai Peninsula at 59°48′47″N 151°40′6″W, it is bordered to the south and west by the Anchor Point CDP and to the north by the Happy Valley CDP. Road access is via the North Fork Road, which junctions with the Sterling Highway 9 miles to the west in Anchor Point. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 34.8 square miles, all of it recorded as land.
The North Fork of the Anchor River forms the southern border of the community, the Chakok River forms the western border. Nikolaevsk first reported on the 1990 U. S. Census as a census-designated place; as of the census of 2000, there were 345 people, 96 households, 72 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 9.5 people per square mile. There were 122 housing units at an average density of 3.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 81.74% Russian, 1.74% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 1.16% Pacific Islander, 2.03% from other races, 13.04% from two or more races. 0.29% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Out of the 96 households, 57.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.6% were married couples living together, 5.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.0% were non-families. 18.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.59 and the average family size was 4.33.
In the CDP, the population was spread out with 45.2% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 17.1% from 45 to 64, 3.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 21 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 119.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $37,500, the median income for a family was $39,375. Males had a median income of $26,250 versus $25,833 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $10,390. About 15.8% of families and 19.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.9% of those under age 18 and 16.7% of those age 65 or over
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Anchor Point, Alaska
Anchor Point is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Kenai Peninsula Borough, in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census the population was 1,930, up from 1,845 in 2000; the community is located along the Sterling Highway, part of Alaska State Route 1. Anchor Point is the westernmost point in the North American highway system; the name "Anchor Point" comes from a legend that when Captain James Cook discovered the area, he lost an anchor. Settlers came beginning in the early 1900s. Anchor Point is located at 59°46′39″N 151°46′13″W on the eastern shore of Cook Inlet, it is bordered to the north by Happy Valley, to the northeast by Nikolaevsk, to the south by Diamond Ridge. The Anchor River runs through the southern part of the CDP, entering Cook Inlet just west of the town center; the town is the furthest west on the U. S. highway system. Alaska Route 1 runs southeast from Anchor Bay northeast 59 miles to Soldotna. Anchorage is 206 miles to the northeast via Route 1. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Anchor Bay CDP has a total area of 92.0 square miles, of which 91.8 square miles are land and 0.2 square miles, or 0.23%, are water.
A large portion of the Anchor Point economy relies on the Anchor River. Tourists come to fish the river during salmon runs in the summer; the river is a source of coal. Along the coast, there are good spots for clam-digging. Anchor Point is in the Kenai Peninsula Borough School District; the Chapman School is a pre-kindergarten through eighth grade school off the main highway. Older students attend Homer High School; the Anchor Point Public Library has one employee, its collection includes 12,000 items. Anchor Point first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census as the Tinneh village of Laida, it was listed as the Anchor Point Mining Camp on the 1890 census, but along with Laida, was combined with the population of nearby Ninilchik, which had 81 residents in total. It did not report again until the 1940 U. S. Census as Anchor Point Settlement. From 1950-onwards, it has reported as Anchor Point, it became a census-designated place in 1980. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,845 people, 711 households, 467 families residing in the CDP.
The population density was 20.3 people per square mile. There were 979 housing units at an average density of 10.8/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 91.82% White, 3.36% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.11% Black or African American, 0.60% from other races, 3.79% from two or more races. 1.73% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 711 households out of which 35.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.3% were married couples living together, 6.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.3% were non-families. 25.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.19. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 29.3% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 25.4% from 25 to 44, 31.3% from 45 to 64, 7.0[% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 115.3 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 113.2 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $41,094, the median income for a family was $49,821. Males had a median income of $39,688 versus $26,731 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $18,668. About 8.2% of families and 11.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.9% of those under age 18 and 1.5% of those age 65 or over. There are two Alaska State Parks units in the area around Anchor Point. Anchor River State Recreation Area stretches along the banks of the river and down to the beach. Five miles north of Anchor Point is the Stariski State Recreation Site, a small park with a campground on a bluff overlooking Cook Inlet. Anchor Point at the Community Database Online from the Alaska Division of Community and Regional Affairs Maps from the Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development: 2000, 2010
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Kachemak, locally known as Kachemak City, is a small city in the southern portion of the Kenai Peninsula Borough, United States. The city consists of several subdivisions and other miscellaneous properties along an 2-mile stretch of East End Road, adjoining the northeast corner of the much larger city of Homer; the population was 431 at the 2000 census and 472 as of the 2010 census. Kachemak is located at 59°40′24″N 151°25′59″W; the city lies just east of Homer on the north side of Kachemak Bay in south central Alaska. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.6 square miles, all of it land. Kachemak first appeared on the 1970 U. S. Census as an incorporated city, it formally incorporated in 1961. As of the census of 2000, there were 431 people, 169 households, 107 families residing in the city; the population density was 268.0 people per square mile. There were 219 housing units at an average density of 136.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 87.47% White, 5.80% Native American, 0.93% Asian, 0.23% from other races, 5.57% from two or more races.
1.62% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 169 households out of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.0% were married couples living together, 6.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.1% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.06. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 23.9% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 21.6% from 25 to 44, 33.9% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 113.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $43,068, the median income for a family was $44,432. Males had a median income of $31,667 versus $26,908 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,030.
About 1.8% of families and 5.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 6.9% of those age 65 or over. Note that in the 2010 Census Kachemak city FIPS Place Code should be 36540.
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c