Clive Jay Davis is an American record producer, A&R executive and music industry executive. He is a member of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a non-performer. From 1967 to 1973, Davis was the president of Columbia Records, he was the president of Arista Records from 1975 through 2000 until founding J Records. From 2002 until April 2008, Davis was the chairman and CEO of the RCA Music Group, chairman and CEO of J Records, chairman and CEO of BMG North America. Davis is credited with hiring a young recording artist, Tony Orlando, for Columbia in 1967, as well as signing many artists that achieved superstar status, such as Janis Joplin, Laura Nyro, Bruce Springsteen, Billy Joel, Sweat & Tears, Loggins & Messina, Ace Of Base, Pink Floyd, Westlife. Davis is credited with bringing Whitney Houston and Barry Manilow to prominence. Davis is the chief creative officer of Sony Music Entertainment, he plays a part in the careers of Barry Manilow, TLC, Rod Stewart, Air Supply, Alicia Keys, Christina Aguilera, Carlos Santana, Kelly Clarkson, Leona Lewis and Jennifer Hudson.
Davis was born in New York, to a Jewish family, the son of Herman and Florence Davis. His father was an salesman. Davis was raised in the middle-class neighborhood of Brooklyn, his mother died at age 47, his father died the following year when Davis was only a teenager, leaving him an orphan with no money. He moved in with his married sister in Bayside, New York City, New York, he received a full scholarship to New York University College of Arts and Science, where he graduated magna cum laude, with a degree in Political science and Phi Beta Kappa in 1953. He received a full scholarship to Harvard Law School, where he was a member of the Board of Student Advisers and graduated in 1956. Davis practiced law in a small firm in New York moved on to the firm of Rosenman, Kaye and Freund two years where partner Ralph Colin had CBS as a client. Davis was subsequently hired by a former colleague at the firm, Harvey Schein, to become assistant counsel of CBS subsidiary Columbia Records at age 28, general counsel the following year.
As part of a reorganization of Columbia Records Group, group president Goddard Lieberson appointed Davis as administrative vice president and general manager in 1965. In 1966, CBS formed the Columbia-CBS Group which reorganized CBS's recorded music operations into CBS Records with Davis heading the new unit; the next year, Davis was appointed president and became interested in the newest generation of folk rock and rock and roll. One of his earliest pop signings was the British folk-rock musician Donovan, who enjoyed a string of successful hit singles and albums released in the U. S. on the Epic Records label. That same year, Davis hired 23 year old recording artist Tony Orlando as general manager of Columbia publishing subsidiary April-Blackwood Music, who went on to become vice-president of Columbia/CBS Music and sign Barry Manilow in 1969. In June 1967, at the urging of his friend and business associate Lou Adler, Davis attended the Monterey Pop Festival, he signed Janis Joplin with Big Brother and the Holding Company, Columbia went on to sign Laura Nyro, The Electric Flag, The Chambers Brothers, Bruce Springsteen, Billy Joel, Sweat & Tears, Loggins & Messina and Pink Floyd.
The company, which had avoided rock music, doubled its market share in three years. One of the most commercially successful recordings released during Davis' tenure at Columbia was Lynn Anderson's "Rose Garden," in late 1970, it was Davis. The song reached No.1 in 16 countries around the world and remained the biggest selling album by a female country artist for 27 years. In 1972, Davis signed Wind & Fire to Columbia Records. One of his most recognized accomplishments was signing the Boston group Aerosmith to Columbia Records in the early 1970s at New York City's Max's Kansas City; the accomplishment was mentioned in the 1979 Aerosmith song "No Surprize", where Steven Tyler sings, "Old Clive Davis said he's gonna make you a star, just the way you are." Starting on December 30, 1978, Bob Weir of The Grateful Dead changed the lyrics of the Dead standard "Jack Straw" in concert from "we used to play for silver, now we play for life," to "we used to play for acid, now we play for Clive." One of the last bands Davis tried to sign to Columbia Records was the proto-punk band Death.
According to their documentary he was the only person, interested in a black band doing rock music, but he asked them to change their name. They refused; the contract dissolved, the band released their album on another label 35 years later. After Davis was fired from CBS Records for using company funds to bankroll his son's bar mitzvah, Columbia Pictures hired him to be a consultant for the company's record and music operations. After taking time out to write his memoirs, he founded the company Arista Records. At Arista, Davis signed Barry Manilow, followed by Aretha Franklin, Dionne Warwick, Patti Smith, Westlife, Al Jourgensen, The Outlaws, Eric Carmen, Exposé, Ace of Base, The Right
Watcher of the Skies
"Watcher of the Skies" is the first track on Genesis' 1972 album Foxtrot. It was released as the album's only single; the title is borrowed from John Keats' 1817 poem "On First Looking into Chapman's Homer": Then felt I like some watcher of the skies When a new planet swims into his ken. The song opens with a Mellotron intro. According to Tony Banks, the introductory section was intended to take advantage of idiosyncrasies in the tuning of the Mellotron model he was using at the time: It was intentionally melodramatic to conjure up an impression of incredible size, it was an extraordinary sound. On the old Mellotron Mark 2 there were these two chords that sounded good on that instrument. There are some chords of tune; these chords created an incredible atmosphere. That's, it never sounded so good on the Mellotron. The two chords in question are Bmaj7/F# and C#/F#; the long keyboard introduction crossfades into the main ensemble section, which features a prominent single-note staccato pattern in a 6/4 time signature played over a pattern of sustained organ chords.
Following the vocal sections of the song, there is an unusual polyrhythm part, where the staccato riff changes to 8/4 time, played against a Mellotron/organ chord part in 6/4. The lyrics were written by Mike Rutherford during a soundcheck for a gig in Naples. While they were surveying the deserted landscape of the airfield where they were rehearsing, they wondered what an empty Earth would look like in this state if surveyed by an alien visitor; the lyrics were influenced by the Arthur C. Clarke 1953 science fiction novel Childhood's End, it opened the band's shows during 1972–74 and remained a staple in the band's live set into the 1980s. In years, it has been played in a medley following the track "It", as can be heard on Three Sides Live; the song was never performed with lyrics after Peter Gabriel's departure. During performances, Peter Gabriel wore bat wings on the side of his head, glowing UV make-up around his eyes, a multicoloured cape; the song was re-recorded in 1972 in a radically shortened single version.
This version was re-released in 1998 as part of the Genesis Archive 1967–75 box set. The song title was used in naming of the tribute album Watcher of the Skies: Genesis Revisited by ex-Genesis member Steve Hackett. On the album, the lead vocal was provided by John Wetton. In the liner notes to the album, Steve Hackett wrote: I remember pushing the band to acquire a Mellotron back in the'70s and, King Crimson had one to spare at the time – the'Black Bitch' I think they called it on account of it always breaking down... This song alone was a strong reason for re-approaching the early material – from Phil's inventive morse code rhythm to Tony's momentous introduction which always sounded best in Italy's Palasports – an aircraft hangar type of rumble ideally suited to spacecraft impersonation; the song was played live during the Foxtrot, Selling England by the Pound, The Lamb Lies Down on Broadway, A Trick of the Tail, Three Sides Live encore tours. The song was performed live by Phish at the 2010 Rock & Roll Hall of Fame induction ceremony on 15 March 2010 at the Waldorf-Astoria hotel in New York City.
The band performed "No Reply at All" after Trey Anastasio's induction speech. Peter Gabriel – lead vocals, bass drum Tony Banks – Hammond organ, backing vocals Steve Hackett – electric guitar Mike Rutherford – bass guitar, bass pedals, backing vocals Phil Collins – drums, backing vocals Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Kit Watkins is an American progressive-ambient-jazz recording artist based in Brattleboro, Vermont. He was a member of the band Happy the Man. Born in Virginia to classical piano teachers, Watkins took piano lessons from the age of 5 to 13; as a teenager he began to play keyboards in various amateur bands, first playing Top 40 material moving to progressive rock covers by bands such as Yes and ELP. While a student at James Madison University, he met guitarist Stanley Whitaker, who introduced him to Gentle Giant and Van der Graaf Generator, he joined Whitaker's fledgling band Happy the Man in 1973. The band moved to the Washington, DC area in the summer of 1975 and developed a devoted following as a result of airplay on WGTB-FM as well as live performances sponsored by the station, headlining the Pandemedia event of that year; the band was a regular act at The Cellar Door in Georgetown, DC, signed to the venue's management office. In 1976, they signed with Clive Davis' Arista Records, which released two albums, Happy The Man and Crafty Hands.
Both albums were produced by Ken Scott, engineer from The Beatles' White Album sessions, who engineered and produced albums by David Bowie, Mahavishnu Orchestra, the Dixie Dregs. Watkins worked with Scott as the band's representative in recording and mixing both Happy The Man albums, but before Crafty Hands was finished being recorded, Clive had a change of heart and dropped the band from his label. In 1979, HTM performed locally to an growing audience, they struggled to find another label to pick them up. In the Spring of 1979, HTM disbanded only months after having recorded a demo tape of their 3rd album. In 1983, Kit released the band's demo and called it, 3rd, Better late.. on his Azimuth Record Label. Kit and Brad Allen performed only one show in support of Frames Of Mind, at a club called DC Space, on Jan 21 1982. During which concert, Brad took time out to repair it. During this break, someone called out a request, "Play Untitled!" Untitled, was an outtake from the Labyrinth album and was performed live at Kit and Coco shows.
Kit honored the request. Untitled was released on Kit's Holographic Tapestries CD. In June 1979, Watkins traveled to England to join Camel, the band recorded a new album, I Can See Your House From Here for Decca Records, with Rupert Hine as producer. During 1980, Watkins launched a solo career and recorded his first solo album, Labyrinth, on Kit's own indie Label Azimuth. In a review of the album, critic George Varga described Watkins as "a composer and synthesizer wizard of unequaled talents." The LP was in the same vein as Happy The Man, including a couple of compositions written for Happy The Man's third album. "Kit & Coco" played duo concerts sparsely in the fall and winter of 1980 and 1981 - in between Kit's tours with Camel. The duo performed with backing tape accompaniment ending their set with an unaccompanied improvisation. A historic video tape of Kit & Coco's December 1, 1981 performance at DC's 9:30 Club was made but has never been released. Watkins' next effort, Frames of Mind, with Brad Allen on guitars and vocals, appeared in 1982.
The album was a fun and quirky mix of new wave pop and hybrid world music, recorded at Watkins' home studio in Arlington and released on his label, Azimuth Records. In 1983, Kit released Happy The Man's 3rd LP, "Better late.." on his Azimuth Record Label. In 1987, Watkins relocated to Linden, Virginia in the rural Blue Ridge Mountains where he recorded and released several albums over the next 10 years, including Azure, SunStruck, wet and low for the Minneapolis-based East Side Digital label, Thought Tones, A Different View, Kinetic Vapors, Holographic Tapestries, Beauty Drifting for his Linden Music label. Linden released a number of albums by other notable electronic/ambient artists, including David Borden, Robert Rich, Jeff Greinke. Linden Music closed its doors in 1997 due to distribution problems, but Watkins has continued releasing his work on CD, first via MP3.com and via Cafepress. In 2000, he signed a contract with One Way Records for the release of four of his albums which continue to be distributed nationally.
Recent albums include The Unseen, Rolling Curve, The Gathering, music for the end, This Time and Space, Flying Petals, World Fiction. Critic Ernie Rideout, in reviewing Flying Petals, wrote that it "is as intriguing for the depth of compositional talent as it is for beautiful sound design and monster grooves."Watkins has released two DVDs: a hypnotic visual work based on his album This Time and Space. In 2008, Watkins began an association with the Earth Mantra ambient netlabel which has released many of his albums for free under a Creative Commons license. Labyrinth Frames of Mind Azure SunStruck Thought Tones Volume 1 A Different View wet and low Thought Tones Volume 2 Kinetic Vapors Circle Holographic Tapestries Beauty Drifting Rolling Curve The Unseen The Gathering music for the end This Time and Space unraveled Flying Petals World Fiction SkyZone The Works (27 albums plus 12 bonus tracks: all in MP3
Genesis were an English rock band formed at Charterhouse School, Surrey, in 1967. The most successful and longest-lasting line-up consisted of keyboardist Tony Banks, bassist/guitarist Mike Rutherford and drummer/singer Phil Collins. Significant former members were guitarist Steve Hackett; the band moved from folk music to progressive rock in the 1970s, before moving towards pop at the end of the decade. They have sold 21.5 million copies of their albums in the United States, with worldwide sales of between 100 million and 150 million. Formed by five Charterhouse pupils including Banks, Rutherford and Anthony Phillips, Genesis were named by former pupil Jonathan King, who arranged for them to record several unsuccessful singles and their debut album From Genesis to Revelation in 1968. After splitting with King, the group began to tour professionally, signed with Charisma Records and recorded Trespass in the progressive rock style. Following the departure of Phillips, Genesis recruited Collins and Hackett and recorded Nursery Cryme.
Their live shows began to be centred on Gabriel's theatrical costumes and performances. They were first successful in mainland Europe, before entering the UK charts with Foxtrot. In 1973, they released Selling England by the Pound, which featured their first UK top 30 single "I Know What I Like"; the concept album The Lamb Lies Down on Broadway followed in 1974, was promoted with a transatlantic tour featuring an elaborate stage show. Following the Lamb tour, Gabriel left Genesis in August 1975 to begin a solo career. After an unsuccessful search for a replacement, Collins took over as lead singer, while Genesis gained popularity in the UK and the US. Following A Trick of the Tail and Wind & Wuthering, Hackett left, reducing the band to Banks and Collins. Genesis' next album... And Then There Were Three... produced their first UK top ten and US top 30 single in 1978 with "Follow You Follow Me", they continued to gain success with Duke and Genesis, reaching a peak with Invisible Touch, which featured five US top five singles.
Its title track reached number one in the US. After the tour for We Can't Dance, Collins left Genesis in 1996 to focus on his solo career. Banks and Rutherford recruited Ray Wilson for Calling All Stations, but a lack of success in the US led to a group hiatus. Banks and Collins reunited for the Turn It On Again Tour in 2007, with Gabriel and Hackett were interviewed for the 2014 BBC documentary Genesis: Together and Apart, their discography includes six live albums, six of which topped the UK chart. They have won numerous awards and nominations, including a Grammy Award for Best Concept Music Video with "Land of Confusion", inspired a number of tribute bands recreating Genesis shows from various stages of the band's career. In 2010, Genesis were inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame; the founding members of Genesis, singer Peter Gabriel, keyboardist Tony Banks, guitarist Anthony Phillips and guitarist Mike Rutherford, drummer Chris Stewart, met at Charterhouse School, a private school in Godalming, Surrey.
Banks and Gabriel arrived at the school in September 1963, Rutherford in September 1964, Phillips in April 1965. The five were members in one of the school's two bands. In January 1967, after both groups had split and Rutherford continued to write together and proceeded to make a demo tape at a friend's home-made studio, inviting Banks and Stewart to record with them in the process; the five recorded six songs: "Don't Want You Back", "Try a Little Sadness", "She's Beautiful", "That's Me", "Listen on Five", "Patricia", an instrumental. When they wished to have them professionally recorded they sought Charterhouse alumnus Jonathan King, who seemed a natural choice as their publisher and producer following the success of his 1965 UK top five single, "Everyone's Gone to the Moon". A group friend gave the tape to King, enthusiastic. Under King's direction, the group, aged between 15 and 17, signed a one-year recording contract with Decca Records. From August to December 1967, the five recorded a selection of potential singles at Regent Sound Studios on Denmark Street, where they attempted longer and more complex compositions, but King advised them to stick to more straightforward pop.
In response Banks and Gabriel wrote "The Silent Sun", a pastiche of the Bee Gees, one of King's favourite bands, recorded with orchestral arrangements added by Arthur Greenslade. The group exchanged various names for the band, including King's suggestion of Gabriel's Angels and Champagne Meadow from Phillips, before taking King's suggestion of Genesis, indicating the start of his production career. King chose "The Silent Sun" as their first single, with "That's Me" on the B-side, released in February 1968, it achieved some airplay on BBC Radio One and Radio Caroline but it failed to sell. A second single, "A Winter's Tale" / "One-Eyed Hound", followed in May 1968 which sold little. Three months Stewart left the group to continue with his studies, he was replaced by fellow Charterhouse pupil John Silver. King felt; the result, From Genesis to Revelation, was produced at Regent Sound in ten days during their school's summer break in August 1968. King assembled the tracks as a concept album which he produced, while Greenslade added further orchestral arrangements to the songs, something the band were not informed of until
Foreigner is an English-American rock band formed in New York City in 1976 by veteran English musician and ex-Spooky Tooth member Mick Jones, fellow Briton and ex-King Crimson member Ian McDonald along with American vocalist Lou Gramm. Jones came up with the band's name as he, McDonald and Dennis Elliott were British, while Gramm, Al Greenwood and Ed Gagliardi were American, their biggest hit single, "I Want to Know What Love Is", topped the United Kingdom and United States charts among others. They are one of the world's best-selling bands of all time with worldwide sales of more than 80 million records, including 37.5 million records in the US. Since its beginning, Foreigner has been led by English musician Mick Jones. After the collapse of the Leslie West Band in 1976, Jones found. Jones got together with New York keyboardist Al Greenwood, drummer Stan Williams and Louisiana bassist Jay Davis and began jamming. Another friend, Stories singer Ian Lloyd, was brought in to sing but Jones decided the chemistry was not quite right and retained only Greenwood as he renewed his search for players.
During a session for Ian Lloyd's album, Jones met up with transplanted Englishman and ex-King Crimson member Ian McDonald and another session for Ian Hunter unearthed another fellow Brit in drummer Dennis Elliott. But after auditioning about forty or fifty singers, the right vocalist was becoming harder to come by until Jones dragged out an old Black Sheep album given to him backstage at a Spooky Tooth concert a few years prior by that group's lead singer, Lou Gramm. Jones put in a call to Gramm, back in his hometown of Rochester, New York after Black Sheep's break-up, sent him a plane ticket to New York City. Gramm proved to be the missing piece of the puzzle and Brooklyn, New York bassist Ed Gagliardi completed the new sextet. A name, "Trigger", was tentatively agreed to and was the name that appeared on their demo tape, but it was passed on by all the record companies it was delivered to. John Kalodner, a former journalist and radio programmer, working in A&R at Atlantic Records, happened to spot a tape on Atlantic president Jerry L. Greenberg's desk with the Trigger identification on it.
Kalodner had just been to hear an outfit called Trigger and realized that this was not the same band. He convinced Greenberg that at least one of the songs on the tape could be a big hit and to look into signing this group immediately; because the Trigger name was taken, Jones came up with the Foreigner moniker from the fact that no matter what country they were in, three would be foreigners, because he, McDonald and Elliott were English, while Gramm and Gagliardi were American. In November 1976, after six months of rehearsals, the newly named Foreigner started recording their debut album with producers John Sinclair and Gary Lyons at The Hit Factory but switched to Atlantic Recording Studios where they finished recording the basic tracks and completed the overdubs; the first attempt at mixing the album was done at London. But, because of the band's dissatisfaction with the results, the album was re-mixed back at Atlantic by Mick Jones, Ian McDonald and Jimmy Douglass. Bud Prager signed on as a role he would continue in for the next 17 years.
The band's debut, was released in February 1977 and sold more than four million copies in the United States, staying in the Top 20 for a year with such hits as "Feels Like the First Time", "Cold as Ice" and "Long, Long Way from Home". By May 1977, Foreigner was headlining theaters and had scored a gold record for the first album. Not long afterwards, they were selling out U. S. basketball arenas and hockey rinks. After a show at Memorial Hall in Kansas City, Kansas on May 6, 1977, drummer Elliott injured his hand, prompting the band to call in Ian Wallace to play alongside Elliott on some of the dates until the hand was healed. After a year on the road, the band played before over two hundred thousand people at California Jam II on March 18, 1978 and during the following month, the band toured Europe and Australia for the first time, their second album, Double Vision, co-produced by Keith Olsen, topped their previous, selling five million records and spawned hits in "Hot Blooded", the title track "Double Vision" and "Blue Morning, Blue Day".
Album number three, Head Games, co-produced by Roy Thomas Baker, referred to by Gramm as their "grainiest" album, was successful because of the thunderous "Dirty White Boy" and another title track hit "Head Games". For Head Games, bassist Ed Gagliardi was replaced by Englishman Rick Wills. In his autobiography, Juke Box Hero, Gramm explains why the band parted ways with Gagliardi: "He was a little headstrong and had his own ideas that weren't always compatible with what we were trying to accomplish. Ed was obstinate at times, playing the song the way he wanted to play it rather than the way it was drawn up. Jones had to stop sessions to get Ed back on track. After a while it became tiresome and slowed down the recording process." Gramm went on to say that he was disappointed overall with Head Games and thought it sounded unfinished. It ended up selling about two million fewer than its predecessor. In a 2015 interview with Classicrockrevisited, Gramm explains his thoughts about wh
Hot Tuna is an American blues band formed in 1969 by guitarist/vocalist Jorma Kaukonen and bassist Jack Casady. Although it has always been a fluid aggregation, with musicians coming and going over the years, the band's name has become a metonym for Kaukonen and Casady's ongoing collaboration. Hot Tuna began as a side project to Jefferson Airplane, intended to mark time while Grace Slick recovered from throat node surgery that had left her unable to perform; the band's name came from someone Jorma Kaukonen referred to as a "witty wag" who called out, "hot tuna" after hearing the line'What's that smell like fish, oh baby,' from the song "Keep On Truckin'." Kaukonen, Jack Casady, Paul Kantner and new drummer Joey Covington played several shows around San Francisco, including the Airplane's original club, The Matrix, before Jefferson Airplane resumed performing to support Volunteers.. Once the Airplane had resumed touring, Tuna found itself opening for the Airplane, their early repertoire derived from Kaukonen's Airplane material and covers of American country and blues artists such as Reverend Gary Davis, Jelly Roll Morton, Bo Carter and Blind Blake.
In September 1969, Kaukonen and Casady employed the moniker for a week of acoustic-based concerts at the New Orleans House in Berkeley, California. This album has become affectionately known by the group's fans as the "breaking glass album", because of the sound of breaking beer glasses during the recording of "Uncle Sam Blues." Some tracks included Will Scarlett on harmonica. After the album was recorded, Jorma's brother Peter Kaukonen soon replaced Kantner on rhythm guitar and Jefferson Airplane co-lead vocalist Marty Balin joined on vocals for the electric songs. In 1970, the younger Kaukonen was replaced by Paul Ziegler; that summer, RCA paid for the band to go to Jamaica to record their next album, but the album was never finished, in part due to a financial dispute between Balin and Kaukonen and Casady. Violinist Papa John Creach joined Hot Tuna and Jefferson Airplane in October 1970. Both bands finished a joint tour in November 1970 with shows at the Fillmore East. In September 1970, Kaukonen and Casady performed two acoustic-based shows as Hot Tuna without Jefferson Airplane at Pepperland and received good reviews, further signifying that Hot Tuna could survive without the other band to support it.
As Jefferson Airplane wound down and stopped touring for over eighteen months after the Fillmore East shows, Hot Tuna – for whom live performance was always of prime importance – became an independent group consisting of Kaukonen, drummer Sammy Piazza, Creach, moving to the electric band format. This line-up was first documented on the album First Pull Up, Then Pull Down, recorded live at the Chateau Liberte, an obscure club located near Los Gatos, California in the Santa Cruz Mountains, favored by the band throughout the era; the group appeared on three tracks from Papa John Creach's debut solo album, as well as "Walking the Tou Tou" from his second album Filthy!. The studio albums Burgers and The Phosphorescent Rat followed, with Creach leaving before the latter was recorded; these two albums featured Kaukonen compositions. On the former album, David Crosby sang supporting vocals on "Highway Song," while keyboardist Nick Buck contributed to two tracks; as the band prepared for its 1974 tour in support of The Phosphorescent Rat, Kaukonen laid off Piazza after deciding to have the band return to its semi-acoustic repertoire.
Kaukonen and Casady proceeded to record Kaukonen's first solo album, Quah. However, July 1974 marked a departure from their bluesy, acoustic style when Hot Tuna dropped their acoustic sets and morphed into a heavy rock band. In October 1974, the group performed on The Midnight Special; the albums America's Choice, Yellow Fever, Hoppkorv showcase a power trio with the addition of new drummer Bob Steeler. Jeff Tamarkin's liner notes on the RCA "Platinum Gold Hot Tuna Collection" characterize this trilogy as being emblematic of the band's "rampage years." Kaukonen is quoted as saying the change of focus was due to the fact that "it was just fun to be loud." During this period, Kaukonen's electric guitar playing was multi-layered, prominently showcasing such effects as the Roland Jet phaser. His "rampage" style is typified by the solos on "Funky #7" and "Serpent of Dreams" on America's Choice and "Song for the Fire Maiden," "Sunrise Dance with the Devil," and "Surphase Tension" on Yellow Fever. Live performances throughout the epoch were distinguished by free-flow improvisational jams and long sets with extended versions of their studio material.
However, producer Harry Maslin did not appreciate the group's style and held them to a more traditional rock format for Hoppkorv. In 1977, Kaukonen began to perform solo sets; the trio stopped touring at the end of 1977 and performed its final concert at the Palladium on November 26. Although liv
Harrisonburg is an independent city in the Shenandoah Valley region of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. It is the county seat of the surrounding Rockingham County, although the two are separate jurisdictions; as of the 2010 census, the population was 48,914, with a census-estimated 2016 population of 53,078. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Harrisonburg with Rockingham County for statistical purposes into the Harrisonburg, Virginia Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a 2011 estimated population of 126,562. Harrisonburg is home to James Madison University, a public research university with an enrollment of over 20,000 students, Eastern Mennonite University, a private, Mennonite-affiliated liberal arts university. Although the city has no historical association with President James Madison, JMU was nonetheless named in his honor as Madison College in 1938 and renamed as James Madison University in 1977. EMU owes it existence to the sizable Mennonite population in the Shenandoah Valley, to which many Pennsylvania Dutch settlers arrived beginning in the mid-18th century in search of rich, unsettled farmland.
The city has become a bastion of ethnic and linguistic diversity in recent years. Over 1,900 refugees have been settled in Harrisonburg since 2002; as of 2014, Hispanics or Latinos of any race comprise 19% of the city's population. Harrisonburg City Public Schools students speak 55 languages in addition to English, with Spanish and Kurdish being the most common languages spoken. Over one-third of HCPS students are English as a second language learners. Language learning software company Rosetta Stone was founded in Harrisonburg in 1992, the multilingual "Welcome Your Neighbors" yard sign originated in Harrisonburg in 2016; the earliest documented English exploration of the area prior to settlement was the "Knights of the Golden Horseshoe Expedition", led by Lt. Gov. Alexander Spotswood, who reached Elkton, whose rangers continued and in 1716 passed through what is now Harrisonburg. Harrisonburg known as "Rocktown", was named for Thomas Harrison, a son of English settlers. In 1737, Harrison settled in the Shenandoah Valley laying claim to over 12,000 acres situated at the intersection of the Spotswood Trail and the main Native American road through the valley.
In 1779, Harrison deeded 2.5 acres of his land to the "public good" for the construction of a courthouse. In 1780, Harrison deeded an additional 50 acres; this is the area now known as "Historic Downtown Harrisonburg." In 1849, trustees chartered a mayor–council form of government, although Harrisonburg was not incorporated as an independent city until 1916. Today, a council–manager government administers Harrisonburg. On June 6, 1862, an American Civil War skirmish took place at Good's Farm, Chestnut Ridge near Harrisonburg between the forces of the Union and the forces of the Confederacy at which the C. S. Army Brigadier General, Turner Ashby, was killed; when the slaves of the Shenandoah Valley were freed in 1865, they set up near modern-day Harrisonburg a town called Newtown. This settlement was annexed by the independent city of Harrisonburg some years probably around 1892. Today, the old city of Newtown is still the home of the majority of Harrisonburg's predominantly black churches, such as First Baptist and Bethel AME.
The modern Boys and Girls Club of Harrisonburg is located in the old Lucy Simms schoolhouse used for the black students in the days of segregation. A large portion of this black neighborhood was dismantled in the 1960s when – in the name of urban renewal – the city government used federal redevelopment funds from the Housing Act of 1949 to force black families out of their homes and bulldozed the neighborhood; this effort, called "Project R4", focused on the city blocks east of Main, north of Gay, west of Broad, south of Johnson. According to Bob Sullivan, an intern working in the city planner's office in 1958, the city planner at the time, David Clark had to convince the city council that Harrisonburg had slums. Newtown, a low socioeconomic status housing area, was declared a slum. Federal law mandated; the vote was close with 1,024 votes in favor and 978 against R4. After the vote, the Harrisonburg Redevelopment and Housing Authority was formed. All of the members were white men; the project began and, due to eminent domain, the government could force the people of Newtown to sell their homes.
They were offered rock bottom prices for their homes. Many people couldn't afford a new home and had to move into public housing projects and become dependent on the government. Many of the businesses of Newtown that were bought out could not afford to reestablish themselves. Kline's, a white-owned business, was one of the few businesses in the area, able to reopen; the city sold the land to commercial developers. In early 2002, the Harrisonburg community discussed the possibility of creating a pedestrian mall downtown. Public meetings were held to discuss the drawbacks of pursuing such a plan; the community decided to keep its Main Street open to traffic. From these discussions, however, a strong voice emerged from the community in support of downtown revitalization. On July 1, 2003, Harrisonburg Downtown Renaissance was incorporated as a 501 nonprofit organization with the mission of rejuvenating the downtown district. In 2004, downtown was designated as the Harrisonburg Downtown Historic District on the National Register of Historic Places and a designated Virginia Main Street Community, with the neighboring Old Town Historic District residential community gaining histori