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Harald Høffding

Harald Høffding was a Danish philosopher and theologian. Born and educated in Copenhagen, he became a schoolmaster, in 1883 a professor at the University of Copenhagen, he was influenced by Søren Kierkegaard in his early development, but became a positivist and combining with it the spirit and method of practical psychology and the critical school. The physicist Niels Bohr became a friend of Høffding; the philosopher and author Ágúst H. Bjarnason was a student of Høffding. Høffding's great-nephew was the statistician Wassily Hoeffding. Høffding died in Copenhagen, his best-known work is his Den nyere Filosofis Historie, translated into English from the German edition by B. E. Meyer as History of Modern Philosophy, a work intended by him to supplement and correct that of Hans Brøchner, to whom it is dedicated, his Psychology, the Problems of Philosophy and Philosophy of Religion have appeared in English. Among Høffding's other writings, most of which have been translated into German, are: Den engelske Filosofi i vor Tid.

Harald Høffding, 1891 "Outlines of psychology". Retrieved 2010-09-25. Harald Hoffding, 1906 "The Philosophy of Religion". Retrieved 2012-07-26. Harald Høffding, 1919 "A brief history of modern philosophy". Retrieved 2010-09-25. Harald Høffding, 1920 "Modern philosophers. Retrieved 2010-09-25; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Höffding, Harald". Encyclopædia Britannica. 13. Cambridge University Press. P. 561. Works related to Harald Høffding at Wikisource Works by Harald Høffding at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Harald Høffding at Internet Archive Works by Harald Høffding at LibriVox Presentation of Harald Høffding, in portuguese

BD Camelopardalis

BD Camelopardalis is an S star and symbiotic star in the constellation Camelopardalis. It was recognized as a spectroscopic binary star in 1922, its orbital solution published in 1984. A spectroscopic composition analysis was done of the red giant primary star in 1986. Although the star's spectrum shows the spectral features of zirconium oxide which define spectral class S, BD Cam shows no technetium lines in its spectrum, it is believed to be an "extrinsic" S star, one whose s-process element excesses originate in a binary companion star. The system displays only minimal variations in the visible, but the presence of the companion and its interactions with the stellar wind of the visible red giant makes for observed time-variable spectral features in the ultraviolet and in the near infrared spectral line of helium. At times BD Cam is the brightest S star in the visible sky, because other bright S stars are mira variables or other types of variable star with large changes in apparent brightness.

Its own brightness variability in the visible part of the spectrum is modest. On the basis of the measurement of radial velocities of the line components it is concluded that the helium emission originates in the vicinity of the inner Lagrangian point of the system, indicating a gas motion from the red giant primary, directed to the secondary, with a velocity of about 5 km/s. At the same time, there is a high-velocity, hot wind outwards from the primary red giant with a velocity of about 50 km/s. However, HR 1105 appears to have a variable UV companion. In 1982, no UV flux was discerned for this system, but by 1986 C IV was strong, increasing by a factor of 3 in 1987 with prominent lines of Si III, C III, O III, Si IV, N V. Shcherbakov, A. G.. "Activity modulation of the red giant HR 1105 as observed in the He I lambda 10830 A". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 255: 215–220. Bibcode:1992A&A...255..215S. Ake Thomas B. III. "Companions to peculiar red giants: HR 363 and HR 1105". In ESA, A Decade of UV Astronomy with the IUE Satellite.

1: 245–248. Bibcode:1988ESASP.281a.245A. HR 1105 Image BD Camelopardalis Symbiotic Star Blows Bubbles Into Space

Bengali calendars

The Bengali Calendar or Bangla Calendar is a luni-solar calendar used in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent. A revised version of the calendar is the national and official calendar in Bangladesh and an earlier version of the calendar is followed in the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam; the New Year in the Bengali calendar is known as Pohela Boishakh. The Bengali era is called Bengali Sambat or the Bengali year has a zero year that starts in 593/594 CE, it is 594 less than the AD or CE year in the Gregorian calendar if it is before Pôhela Bôishakh, or 593 less if after Pôhela Bôishakh. The revised version of the Bengali calendar was adopted in Bangladesh in 1987. Among the Bengali community in India, the traditional Bengali Hindu calendar continues to be in use, it sets the Hindu festivals. According to Shamsuzzaman Khan, Nitish Sengupta, the origin of the Bengali calendar is unclear; some historians attribute the Bengali calendar to the 7th century Hindu king Shashanka. The term Bangabda is found too in two Shiva temples many centuries older than Akbar era, suggesting that a Bengali calendar existed long before Akbar's time.

Hindus developed a calendar system in ancient times. Jyotisha, one of the six ancient Vedangas, was the Vedic era field of tracking and predicting the movements of astronomical bodies in order to keep time; the ancient Indian culture developed a sophisticated time keeping methodology and calendars for Vedic rituals. The Hindu Vikrami calendar is named after king Vikramaditya and starts in 57 BC. In rural Bengali communities of India, the Bengali calendar is credited to "Bikromaditto", like many other parts of India and Nepal. However, unlike these regions where it starts in 57 BC, the Bengali calendar starts from 593 suggesting that the starting reference year was adjusted at some point. Various dynasties whose territories extended into Bengal, prior to the 13th-century, used the Vikrami calendar. For example, Buddhist texts and inscriptions created in the Pala Empire era mention "Vikrama" and the months such as Ashvin, a system found in Sanskrit texts elsewhere in ancient and medieval Indian subcontinent.

Hindu scholars attempted to keep time by observing and calculating the cycles of sun and the planets. These calculations about the sun appears in various Sanskrit astronomical texts in Sanskrit, such as the 5th century Aryabhatiya by Aryabhata, the 6th century Romaka by Latadeva and Panca Siddhantika by Varahamihira, the 7th century Khandakhadyaka by Brahmagupta and the 8th century Sisyadhivrddida by Lalla; these texts present Surya and various planets and estimate the characteristics of the respective planetary motion. Other texts such as Surya Siddhanta dated to have been complete sometime between the 5th century and 10th century; the current Bengali calendar in use by Bengali people in the Indian states such as West Bengal, Tripura and Jharkhand is based on the Sanskrit text Surya Siddhanta. It retains the historic Sanskrit names of the months, with the first month as Baishakh, their calendar remains tied to the Hindu calendar system and is used to set the various Bengali Hindu festivals.

Another theory is that the calendar was first developed by Alauddin Husain Shah, a Hussain Shahi sultan of Bengal by combining the lunar Islamic calendar with the solar calendar, prevalent in Bengal. Yet another theory states that the Sasanka calendar was adopted by Alauddin Husain Shah when he witnessed the difficulty with collecting land revenue by the Hijra calendar. During the Mughal rule, land taxes were collected from Bengali people according to the Islamic Hijri calendar; this calendar was a lunar calendar, its new year did not coincide with the solar agricultural cycles. According to some sources, the current Bengali calendar owes its origin in Bengal to the rule of Mughal Emperor Akbar who adopted it to time the tax year to the harvest; the Bangla year was therewith called Bangabda. Akbar asked the royal astronomer Fathullah Shirazi to create a new calendar by combining the lunar Islamic calendar and solar Hindu calendar in use, this was known as Fasholi shan. According to some historians, this started the Bengali calendar.

According to Shamsuzzaman Khan, it could be Nawab Murshid Quli Khan, a Mughal governor, who first used the tradition of Punyaho as "a day for ceremonial land tax collection", used Akbar's fiscal policy to start the Bangla calendar. It is unclear whether it was adopted by Hussain Akbar; the tradition to use the Bengali calendar may have been started by Hussain Shah before Akbar. According to Amartya Sen, Akbar's official calendar "Tarikh-ilahi" with the zero year of 1556 was a blend of pre-existing Hindu and Islamic calendars, it was not used much in India outside of Akbar's Mughal court, after his death the calendar he launched was abandoned. However, adds Sen, there are traces of the "Tarikh-ilahi". Regardless of who adopted the Bengali calendar and the new year, states Sen, it helped collect land taxes after the spring harvest based on traditional Bengali calendar, because the Islamic Hijri calendar created administrative difficulties in setting the collection date. Shamsuzzaman states, "it is called Bangla san or saal, which are Arabic and Parsee words suggests that it was introduced by a Muslim king or sultan."

In contrast, according to Sen, its traditional name is Bangabda. In the era of the Akbar, the calendar was called as Tarikh-e-Elahi. In the "Tarikh-e-Elahi" version of the calendar, each day of the month had a separate name, the months had different names from what they have now. According to Banglapedia, Akbar's grandson Shah