Bashar Hafez al-Assad is a Syrian politician, the President of Syria since 17 July 2000. He is commander-in-chief of the Syrian Armed Forces and Regional Secretary of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's branch in Syria, he is a son of Hafez al-Assad, President of Syria from 1971 to 2000. Born and raised in Damascus, Assad graduated from the medical school of Damascus University in 1988 and began to work as a doctor in the Syrian Army. Four years he attended postgraduate studies at the Western Eye Hospital in London, specialising in ophthalmology. In 1994, after his elder brother Bassel died in a car crash, Bashar was recalled to Syria to take over Bassel's role as heir apparent, he entered the military academy, taking charge of the Syrian military presence in Lebanon in 1998. On 10 July 2000, Assad was elected as President, succeeding his father, who died in office a month prior. In the 2000 and subsequent 2007 election, he received 99.7% and 97.6% support in uncontested referendums on his leadership.
On 16 July 2014, Assad was sworn in for another seven-year term after receiving 88.7% of votes in the first contested presidential election in Ba'athist Syria's history. The election was held only in areas controlled by the Syrian government during the country's ongoing civil war and dismissed as a "sham" by the Syrian opposition and its Western allies, while an international delegation of observers from more than 30 countries led by Syria's allies stated that the election was "free and fair"; the Assad government describes itself as secular, while some political scientists have claimed that the government exploits sectarian tensions in the country and relies upon the Alawite minority to remain in power. Seen by many states as a potential reformer, the United States, the European Union and the majority of the Arab League called for Assad's resignation from the presidency after he ordered crackdowns and military sieges on Arab Spring protesters, which led to the Syrian Civil War. During the Syrian Civil War, an inquiry by the United Nations reported finding evidence which implicated Assad in war crimes.
In June 2014, Assad was included in a list of war crimes indictments of government officials and rebels handed to the International Criminal Court. Assad has rejected allegations of war crimes and criticised the American-led intervention in Syria for attempting regime change. Bashar Hafez al-Assad was born in Damascus on 11 September 1965, the second oldest son of Anisa Makhlouf and Hafez al-Assad. Al-Assad in Arabic means "the Lion". Assad's paternal grandfather, Ali Sulayman al-Assad, had managed to change his status from peasant to minor notable and, to reflect this, in 1927 he had changed the family name from Wahsh to Al-Assad. Assad's father, was born to an impoverished rural family of Alawite background and rose through the Ba'ath Party ranks to take control of the Syrian branch of the Party in the 1970 Corrective Revolution, culminating in his rise to the Syrian presidency. Hafez promoted his supporters within the Ba'ath Party, many of whom were of Alawite background. After the revolution, Alawite strongmen were installed while Sunnis and Ismailis were removed from the army and Ba'ath party.
The younger Assad had five siblings. A sister named. Assad's youngest brother, was not a public figure and little is known about him other than he was intellectually disabled, died in 2009 after a "long illness". Unlike his brothers Bassel and Maher, second sister named Bushra, Bashar was quiet and lacked interest in politics or the military; the Assad children rarely saw their father, Bashar stated that he only entered his father's office once while he was president. He was described as "soft-spoken", according to a university friend, he was timid, avoided eye contact and speaking in a low voice. Assad received his primary and secondary education in the Arab-French al-Hurriya School in Damascus. In 1982, he graduated from high school and studied medicine at Damascus University. In 1988, Assad graduated from medical school and began working as an army doctor at the Tishrin Military Hospital on the outskirts of Damascus. Four years he settled in London to start postgraduate training in ophthalmology at the Western Eye Hospital.
He was described as a "geeky I. T. guy" during his time in London. Bashar had few political aspirations, his father had been grooming Bashar's older brother Bassel as the future president. However, Bassel died in a car accident in 1994 and Bashar was recalled to the Syrian Army shortly thereafter. Soon after the death of Bassel, Hafez al-Assad decided to make Bashar the new heir apparent. Over the next six and a half years, until his death in 2000, Hafez prepared Bashar for taking over power. Preparations for a smooth transition were made on three levels. First, support was built up for Bashar in the military and security apparatus. Second, Bashar's image was established with the public, and lastly, Bashar was familiarised with the mechanisms of running the country. To establish his credentials in the military, Bashar entered the military academy at Homs in 1994 and was propelled through the ranks to become a colonel of the elite Syrian Republican Guard in January 1999. To establish a power base for Bashar in the military, old divisional commanders were pushed into retirement, new, Alawite officers with loyalties to him took their place.
In 1998, Bashar took charge of Syria's Lebanon file, which had since the 1970s been handled by Vice President Abdul Halim Khaddam, who had until been a potential contende
Deutsche Welle or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster. The service is available in 30 languages. DW's satellite television service consists of channels in English, German and Arabic. While funded by the German government, the work of DW is regulated by the Deutsche Welle Act, meaning that content is always independent of government influence. DW is a member of the European Broadcasting Union. DW offers updated articles on its news website and runs its own center for international media development, DW Akademie; the broadcaster's stated goals are to convey Germany as a "liberal, democratic state based on the rule of law", to produce reliable news coverage and to provide access to the German language. DW has been broadcasting since 1953, it is headquartered in Bonn. Television broadcasts are produced entirely in Berlin. Both locations create content for DW's news website; as of 2018, around 1,500 employees and 1,500 freelancers from 60 countries work for Deutsche Welle in its offices in Bonn and Berlin.
According to DW, its output reaches 157 million people worldwide every week. The Director-General of DW is Peter Limbourg. DW's first shortwave broadcast took place on 3 May 1953 with an address by the West German President, Theodor Heuss. On 11 June 1953, ARD public broadcasters signed an agreement to share responsibility for Deutsche Welle. At first, it was controlled by Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk. In 1955, NWDR split into Norddeutscher Rundfunk and Westdeutscher Rundfunk, WDR assumed responsibility for Deutsche Welle programming. In 1960, Deutsche Welle became an independent public body after a court ruled that while broadcasting to Germany was a state matter, broadcasting from Germany was part of the federal government's foreign-affairs function. On 7 June 1962 DW joined ARD as a national broadcasting station. Deutsche Welle was headquartered in the West German city of Cologne. After reunification, when much of the government relocated to Berlin, the station's headquarters moved to Bonn. * by Deutschlandfunk With German reunification in 1990, Radio Berlin International, East Germany's international broadcaster ceased to exist.
Some of the RBI staff joined Deutsche Welle and DW inherited some broadcasting facilities, including transmitting facilities at Nauen, as well as RBI's frequencies. DW began as RIAS-TV, a television station launched by the West Berlin broadcaster RIAS in August 1988; the fall of the Berlin Wall the following year and German reunification in 1990 meant that RIAS-TV was to be closed down. On 1 April 1992, Deutsche Welle inherited the RIAS-TV broadcast facilities, using them to start a German and English-language television channel broadcast via satellite, DW, adding a short Spanish broadcast segment the following year. In 1995, it began 24-hour operation. At that time, DW introduced a new logo. Deutsche Welle took over some of the former independent radio broadcasting service Deutschlandfunk's foreign-language programming in 1993, when Deutschlandfunk was absorbed into the new Deutschlandradio. In addition to radio and television programming, DW sponsored some published material. For example, the South-Asia Department published German Heritage: A Series Written for the South Asia Programme in 1967 and in 1984 published African Writers on the Air.
Both publications were transcripts of DW programming. In September 1994, Deutsche Welle was the first public broadcaster in Germany with an internet presence www-dw.gmd.de, hosted by the GMD Information Technology Research Center. For its first two years, the site listed little more than contact addresses, although DW's News Journal was broadcast in RealAudio from Real's server beginning in 1995, Süddeutsche Zeitung's initial web presence, which included news articles from the newspaper, shared the site. In 1996, it evolved into a news website using the URL dwelle.de. Deutsche Welle purchased the domain dw.com, which belonged to DiamondWare, in 2013. DW moved to the www.dw.com domain on 22 June 2015. DW's news site is in seven core languages, as well as a mixture of news and information in 23 other languages in which Deutsche Welle broadcasts. Persian became the site's eighth focus language in 2007. German and European news is DW's central focus, but the site offers background information about Germany and German language courses.
Deutsch, Warum Nicht? is a personal course for learning the German language, created by Deutsche Welle and the Goethe-Institut. In 2001, Deutsche Welle founded the German TV subscription TV channel for North American viewers; the project was shut down after four years owing to low subscriber numbers. It has since been replaced by the DW-TV channel. Unlike most other international broadcasters, DW-TV does not charge terrestrial stations for use of its programming, as a result and other programmes are rebroadcast on numerous public broadcasting stations in several countries, including the United States and New Zealand. In the Philippines, selected Anglophone programmes are shown nationwide on Net 25. Deutsche Welle is still suffering from financial and staffing cuts, its budget was reduced by about €75 million over five years, a
Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection
The Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection, abbreviated BMJV, is a cabinet-level ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany. Under the German federal system, individual States are most responsible for the administration of justice and the application of penalties; the Federal Ministry of Justice devotes itself to creating and changing law in the classic core areas related to Constitutional law. The Ministry analyzes the legality and constitutionality of laws prepared by other ministries; the German Federal Court of Justice, the German Patent and Trade Mark Office, the German Patent Court all fall under its scope. The ministry is located in Berlin; the BMJV was founded on January 1877, as the Imperial Justice Office. After Germany became a republic in 1919, it was raised to the rank of a federal ministry as the Reichsministerium der Justiz or Reichsjustizministerium; the ministry was formally renamed the Bundesministerium der Justiz in 1949. In several laws predating 1949, the ministry and the minister are however referred to as Reichsministerium der Justiz and Reichsminister der Justiz, respectively.
This has been replaced with the new name and title when laws have been amended, most in 2010. Heinrich Friedberg 1876–1879 Hermann von Schelling 1879–1889 Otto von Oehlschläger 1889–1891 Robert Bosse 1891–1892 Eduard von Hanauer 1892–1893 Rudolf Arnold Nieberding 1893–1909 Hermann Lisco 1909–1917 Paul Georg Christof von Krause 1917–1919 Otto Landsberg 1919 Eugen Schiffer 1919–1920 Andreas Blunck 1920 Eugen Schiffer 1921 Gustav Radbruch 1921–1922 Rudolf Heinze 1922–1923 Gustav Radbruch 1923 Erich Emminger 1923–1924 Kurt Joël 1924–1925 Josef Frenken 1925 Hans Luther 1925–1926 Wilhelm Marx 1926 Johannes Bell 1926–1927 Oskar Hergt 1927–1928 Erich Koch-Weser 1928–1929 Theodor von Guérard 1929–1930 Johann Viktor Bredt 1930 Kurt Joël 1930–1932 Franz Gürtner 1932–1941 Franz Schlegelberger 1941–1942 Otto Georg Thierack 1942–1945 Political Party: FDP DP CSU CDU SPD EURALIUS Official homepage in German Organization chart of the ministry Tasks and organisation of the ministry Official translation of German federal laws/parts
Karlsruhe is the second-largest city of the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg after its capital of Stuttgart, its 309,999 inhabitants make it the 21st largest city of Germany. On the right bank of the Rhine, the city lies near the French-German border, between the Mannheim/Ludwigshafen conurbation to the north, the Strasbourg/Kehl conurbation to the south, it is the largest city of a region named after Hohenbaden Castle in the city of Baden-Baden. Karlsruhe is the largest city in the South Franconian dialect area, the only other larger city in that area being Heilbronn; the city is the seat of the Federal Constitutional Court, as well as of the Federal Court of Justice and the Public Prosecutor General of the Federal Court of Justice. Karlsruhe was the capital of the Margraviate of Baden-Durlach, the Margraviate of Baden, the Electorate of Baden, the Grand Duchy of Baden, the Republic of Baden, its most remarkable building is Karlsruhe Palace, built in 1715. There are nine institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport is the second-busiest airport of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart Airport, the 17th-busiest airport of Germany. Karlsruhe lies to the east of the Rhine, completely on the Upper Rhine Plain, it contains the Turmberg in the east, lies on the borders of the Kraichgau leading to the Northern Black Forest. The Rhine, one of the world's most important shipping routes, forms the western limits of the city, beyond which lie the towns of Maximiliansau and Wörth am Rhein in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate; the city centre is about 7.5 km from the river. Two tributaries of the Rhine, the Alb and the Pfinz, flow through the city from the Kraichgau to join the Rhine; the city lies at an altitude between 100 and 322 m. Its geographical coordinates are 49°00′N 8°24′E, its course is marked by a stone and painted line in the Stadtgarten. The total area of the city is 173.46 km2, hence it is the 30th largest city in Germany measured by land area. The longest north-south distance is 19.3 km in the east-west direction.
Karlsruhe is part of the urban area of Karlsruhe/Pforzheim, to which certain other towns in the district of Karlsruhe such as Bruchsal, Ettlingen and Rheinstetten, as well as the city of Pforzheim, belong. The city was planned with the palace tower at the center and 32 streets radiating out from it like the spokes of a wheel, or the ribs of a folding fan, so that one nickname for Karlsruhe in German is the "fan city". All of these streets survive to this day; because of this city layout, in metric geometry, Karlsruhe metric refers to a measure of distance that assumes travel is only possible along radial streets and along circular avenues around the centre. The city centre is the oldest part of town and lies south of the palace in the quadrant defined by nine of the radial streets; the central part of the palace runs east-west, with two wings, each at a 45° angle, directed southeast and southwest. The market square lies on the street running south from the palace to Ettlingen; the market square has the town hall to the west, the main Lutheran church to the east, the tomb of Margrave Charles III William in a pyramid in the buildings, resulting in Karlsruhe being one of only three large cities in Germany where buildings are laid out in the neoclassical style.
The area north of the palace is a forest. The area to the east of the palace consisted of gardens and forests, some of which remain, but the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Wildparkstadion football stadium, residential areas have been built there; the area west of the palace is now residential. Karlsruhe experiences an oceanic climate and its winter climate is milder, compared to most other German cities, except for the Rhine-Ruhr area. Summers are hotter than elsewhere in the country and it is one of the sunniest cities in Germany, like the Rhine-Palatinate area. Precipitation is evenly spread throughout the year. In 2008, the weather station in Karlsruhe, operating since 1876, was closed. According to legend, the name Karlsruhe, which translates as "Charles’ repose" or "Charles' peace", was given to the new city after a hunting trip when Margrave Charles III William of Baden-Durlach, woke from a dream in which he dreamt of founding his new city. A variation of this story claims. Charles William founded the city on June 17, 1715, after a dispute with the citizens of his previous capital, Durlach.
The founding of the city is linked to the construction of the palace. Karlsruhe became the capital of Baden-Durlach, in 1771, of the united Baden until 1945. Built in 18
A jurist is someone who researches and studies jurisprudence. Such a person can work as an legal writer or law lecturer. In the United Kingdom, New Zealand, South Africa, in many other Commonwealth countries, the word jurist sometimes refers to a barrister, whereas in the United States of America and Canada it refers to a judge, thus a jurist, someone who studies and comments on law, stands in contrast with a lawyer, someone who applies law on behalf of clients and thinks about it in practical terms. There is a fundamental difference between that of a jurist. Many legal scholars and authors have explained that a person may be both a lawyer and a jurist, but a jurist is not a lawyer, nor a lawyer a jurist. Both must possess an acquaintance with the term "law"; the work of the jurist is the study and arrangement of the law—work which can be done wholly in the seclusion of the library. The work of the lawyer is the satisfaction of the wishes of particular human beings for legal assistance—work which requires dealing to some extent therefore with people in the office, in the court room, or in the market-place.
The term jurist has another sense, wider, synonymous with legal professional, i.e. anyone professionally involved with law and justice. In some other European languages, a word resembling jurist is used in this major sense; this is a sequential classification of some notable jurists. History of the legal profession History of the American legal profession Law professor Legal profession List of jurists Paralegal Media related to Jurists at Wikimedia Commons
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC