The Norwegian Army is an armed branch of the Kingdom of Norway. It operates in Northern Norway and in Afghanistan in Central Asia, as well as in Eastern Europe; the Army is the oldest of the Norwegian service branches, established as a modern military organization under the command of the King of Norway in 1628. The Army participated in various continental wars during the 17th, 18th and 19th century as well, both in Norway and abroad in World War II, it constitutes part of the Norwegian military contribution as a charter member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization since 1949, as well as the European Union. After the Kalmar War broke out in 1611, the Danish king, Fredrik II in the Kingdom of Denmark tried to revive the volunteer leidang, with dire results; as the Norwegian citizenry had not been armed or trained in the use of arms for nearly three centuries they were not able to fight. Soldiers were captured; the soldiers had to participate in military drills, while providing supplementary labor to the local community when not in active service.
Although the army still did not represent the whole nation, as city residents were exempt from military duty, 1628 is regarded by historians as the year when the modern Norwegian army was born. As a result of the Torstenson war lasting from 1643 to 1645, Danish-Norwegian territories were to be ceded to Sweden; this led the Danish king to invite German mercenaries to coach and command the Danish-Norwegian armed forces: a decision echoing down the centuries in traces of Germanic vocabulary used by the Norwegian military to this day. In the early 18th century the Swedes invaded Norway again, this time the Norwegian army held its own, setting the stage for nearly a century of peace – the longest yet in modern Norwegian history – during which time a distinct Norwegian identity began to evolve. German ceased to be the official language of command in the army in 1772, in favour of "Dano-Norwegian". With the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars, the kingdom's of Denmark-Norway and Sweden tried to remain neutral.
By 1807, Denmark-Norway was formally at war with Great Britain. As the Napoleonic era drew to a close, the anti-French victorious allies decided to sever Norway from Denmark and unite and award Norway to neighboring Sweden in 1814 at the Congress of Vienna; this union lasted until 1905, during which time the Norwegian Army retained a separate entity within the joint kingdom. Financial budgeting, regimental organization and uniforms were all independent of their Swedish counterparts; the basis for recruitment for the Norwegian Army was one of conscription for up to five years by lot drawn amongst rural recruits only. A framework hvervede, enlisted as long-service volunteers; as with other armies of the period, the payment of a substitute to serve in one's place was permitted. This system was replaced by one of universal conscription introduced in 1854. Enlistment in the active army was however still based on the drawing of ballots, with those escaping full-time service going to the reserve landvern, where they received brief and basic training.
In 1884, the basis of service was further modified with the training period being reduced to 90 days. The regulars of the hvervede were reduced to a cadre of career officers and other specialists; the individual Norwegian recruit now passed through three stages of service with the line regiments, the militia and the territorial reserve during the 13-year period that his liability for military service lasted. The left-wing parties of the Storting favored the substitution of part-time volunteer rifle clubs for the regular army but this was opposed by the Storting parliamentary majority on the basis of the doubtful effectiveness of such a force. In June 1905, the Storting unilaterally dissolved the 91-year-old union with Sweden. After a short but tense period during which both armies were mobilized, Sweden agreed to the peaceful dissolution of the union. Though nominally a neutral nation during the "Great War" of World War I, Norway was in the unenviable position of being dependent on the warring sides for its trade.
Coal from Britain was needed to keep the country going, Norway had thus to agree that each shipload of coal leaving Britain be matched with incoming Norwegian cargoes such as copper ore and fish. This attracted the attention of the opposing German Empire and its Imperial German Navy's numerous submarines. By 1920, the army of Norway was a national militia. Service was universal and compulsory, liability commencing at the age of 18 and continuing till the age of 56; the men were called out at 21, for the first 12 years belonged to the line. Afterwards they passed into the landatorm, in which they remained until they attained the age of 55 years; the initial training was carried out in recruits' schools. As soon as their courses were finished the men were transferred to the units to which they would permanently belong, with them went through a further training of 30 days. Subsequent training consisted of 80 days in the second and seventh years of service; the line was organized into 6 divisions besides which there was the garrison artillery.
There were 56 battalions of infantry, 5 companies of cyclists, 3 regiments of cavalry, 2
Chief of Defence (Norway)
The Chief of Defence is the highest-ranking officer of the Military of Norway, second only to the King of Norway. Though he holds the same rank as the King of Norway, according to the Norwegian Constitution the King holds the highest command of the Army, Air Force and Home Guard; the Chief of Defence is the top advisor to the Government regarding military issues. He is responsible for carrying out the mission the King or Minister of Defence gives to the Military, he is Norway's representative to NATO's military committee. The post was first established in 1940, is held by Admiral Haakon Bruun-Hanssen
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
General Sverre Diesen is a Norwegian military officer and former Chief of Defence of Norway. Diesen was succeeded as Chief of Defence by Lieutenant General Harald Sunde on 1 October 2009. Sverre Diesen at Forsvarsnett
Norwegian Armed Forces
The Norwegian Armed Forces is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Norway. It consists of four branches, the Norwegian Army, the Royal Norwegian Navy, which includes the Coast Guard, the Royal Norwegian Air Force, the Home Guard, as well as several joint departments; the military force in peace time is around 16,048 personnel including military and civilian staff, around 63,318 in total with the current military personnel and the Norwegian Home Guard in full mobilization. An organised military was first assembled in Norway in the 9th century and was early focused around naval warfare; the army was created in 1628 as part of Denmark–Norway, followed by two centuries of regular wars. A Norwegian military was established in 1814, but the military did not see combat until the German occupation of Norway in 1940. Norway abandoned its position as a neutral country in 1949 to become a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation; the Cold War saw a large build-up of air stations and military bases in Northern Norway.
Since the 2000s, the military has transformed from a focus on defence from an invasion to a mobile force for international missions. Among European NATO members, the military expenditure of US$7.2 billion is the highest per capita. The formal commander-in-chief is King Harald V; the Chief of Defence is the professional heads of the armed forces, is the principal military adviser to the Minister of Defence. The Chief of Defence and his staff is located at Akershus Fortress in Oslo, while the Norwegian Joint Headquarters, responsible for commanding operations, is located in Bodø; the main naval base is Haakonsvern in Bergen, the main army camps are in Bardu, Målselv and Rena, the main air station is Ørland. Military branches: Norwegian Army Royal Norwegian Navy Royal Norwegian Air Force Home Guard Norwegian Cyber Force Norwegian Special Operation Forces Other main structures include: Defence Staff Norway in Oslo acts as the staff of the Chief of Defence, it is headed by admiral. DEFSTNOR manages resources, provides force generation and support activities.
Each of the four branches of defence is headed by a two-star general/admiral who are subordinate to DEFSTNOR. National Joint Headquarters located at Reitan, close to Bodø has operational control of Norwegian armed forces worldwide 24/7, it is headed by the Supreme Commander Norwegian Forces -- admiral. Norwegian Defence Logistics Organisation at Kolsås outside Oslo is responsible for engineering, investment, supply and communications technology, it is responsible for maintenance and storage of material. As of March 2016, Norway employs a weak form of mandatory military service for women. While 63,841 men and women were called in for the examination of persons liable for military service in 2012, 9265 were conscripted. In practice recruits are not forced to serve, instead only those who are motivated are selected. In earlier times, up until at least the early 2000s, all men aged 19–44 were subject to mandatory service, with good reasons required to avoid becoming drafted. Since 1985, women have been able to enlist for voluntary service as regular recruits.
On 14 June 2013, the Norwegian Parliament voted to extend conscription to women. In 2015 conscription was extended to women making Norway the first NATO member and first European country to make national service compulsory for both men and women. There is a right of conscientious objection. 1 National Joint Headquarters in Bodø 12 Home Guard districts Tactical Mobile Land/Maritime Command Joint ISTAR Unit Module based ISTAR Unit Norwegian Coastal Ranger Command Unmanned aerial vehicle capability Airborne Ground Surveillance Norwegian Home Guard – 45,000 personnel, rapid reaction forces, follow-on-forces, reinforcement forces and reserves. Capacity for information operations Norwegian Defence Security Department Flexible medical units NRBC protection Explosive Ordnance Disposal Joint C2I Unit Civil Military Coordination Unit Deployable logistical support 2 mobilisation host country battalions From 1 August 2009 the Norwegian Army changed its structure: Brigade Nord Army Weapons School HM the Kings Guard Garnisonen i Sør-Varanger Military Academy Logistics and Operational Support Operation Support Detachment 5 - 1 = 4 Fridtjof Nansen class Aegis frigates 6 Skjold class fast missile boats.
6 Ula class submarines Mine Warfare Capability 6 Oksøy-class mine hunter and Alta-class minesweeper Mine Clearance Command. 2 Air Control Centre/Recognized Air picture Production Centre/Sensor Fusion post Strategic Airlift / Aerial refueling Maritime surveillance (4 x P-3C Orion and 2
A General Officer is an officer of high rank in the army, in some nations' air forces or marines. The term "general" is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank, it originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, which rank was taken from Middle French capitaine général. The adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction. Today, the title of "General" is known in some countries as a four-star rank; however different countries use other insignia for senior ranks. It has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank in use in a number of armies, air forces and marine organizations; the various grades of general officer are at the top of the military rank structure. Lower-ranking officers in land-centric military forces are known as field officers or field-grade officers, below them are company-grade officers. There are two common systems of general ranks used worldwide.
In addition, there is a third system, the Arab system of ranks, used throughout the Middle East and North Africa but is not used elsewhere in the world. Variations of one form, the old European system, were once used throughout Europe, it is used in the United Kingdom, from which it spread to the Commonwealth and the United States of America. The general officer ranks are named by prefixing "general", as an adjective, with field officer ranks, although in some countries the highest general officers are titled field marshal, marshal, or captain general; the other is derived from the French Revolution, where generals' ranks are named according to the unit they command. The system used either a colonel general rank; the rank of field marshal was used by some countries as the highest rank, while in other countries it was used as a divisional or brigade rank. Many countries used two brigade command ranks, why some countries now use two stars as their brigade general insignia. Mexico and Argentina still use two brigade command ranks.
In some nations, the equivalent to brigadier general is brigadier, not always considered by these armies to be a general officer rank, although it is always treated as equivalent to the rank of brigadier general for comparative purposes. As a lieutenant outranks a sergeant major; the serjeant major was the commander of the infantry, junior only to the captain general and lieutenant general. The distinction of serjeant major general only applied after serjeant majors were introduced as a rank of field officer. Serjeant was dropped from both rank titles, creating the modern rank titles. Serjeant major as a senior rank of non-commissioned officer was a creation; the armies of Arab countries use traditional Arabic titles. These were formalized in their current system to replace the Turkish system, in use in the Arab world and the Turco-Egyptian ranks in Egypt. Other nomenclatures for general officers include the titles and ranks: Adjutant general Commandant-general Inspector general General-in-chief General of the Army General of the Air Force General of the Armies of the United States, a title created for General John J. Pershing, subsequently granted posthumously to George Washington Generaladmiral Air general and aviation general Wing general and group general General-potpukovnik Director general Director general of national defence Controller general Prefect general Master-General of the Ordnance – senior British military position.
Police Director General. Commissioner Admiral In addition to militarily educated generals, there are generals in medicine and engineering; the rank of the most senior chaplain, is usually considered to be a general officer rank. In the old European system, a general, without prefix or suffix, is the most senior type of general, above lieutenant general and directly below field marshal as a four-star rank, it is the most senior peacetime rank, with more senior ranks being used only in wartime or as honorary titles. In some armies, the rank of captain general, general of the army, army general or colonel general occupied or occupies this position. Depending on circumstances and the army in question, these ranks may be considered to be equivalent to a "full" general or to a field marshal; the rank of general came about as a "captain-general", the captain of an army in general (i.e. th
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC