The Whilkut known as "Redwood Creek Indians" or "Mad River Indians" were an Athapaskan tribe, speaking a dialect similar to the Hupa and Chilula, who inhabited the area on or near the upper Redwood Creek and along the Mad River except near its mouth, up to Iaqua Butte, some settlement in Grouse Creek in the Trinity River drainage in Northwestern California, before contact with Europeans. Little is known of the Whilkut culture beyond its similarity to that of the Hupa and that they were considered by the Hupa and Chilula as a poorer, less settled hill people. Following the gold rush in Northwestern California, routes of pack trains between Humboldt Bay and Weaverville, lay through their territory, their population, never large, was drastically reduced in the 1858-1864 Bald Hills War. Estimated to have 250-350 warriors at the start of the war, the survivors were taken to the Hupa reservation soon after its establishment. After 1870 they drifted back to their traditional homes. Only 50 remained in the 1910 census.
In 1972 only a remnant was left only 20 to 25 individuals. Alfred Louis Kroeber, Handbook of the Indians of California, Volume 1, Kessinger Publishing, 2006, pp. 123, 141. Hupa and Whilkut by William J. Wallace from Robert Heizer, William C. Sturtevant, Handbook of North American Indians: California, Volume 3, Government Printing Office, Washington, 1978, pp. 178-179 Population of Native California Native Americans in California
Northern Paiute people
The Northern Paiute people is a Numic tribe that has traditionally lived in the Great Basin in eastern California, western Nevada, southeast Oregon. The Northern Paiutes' pre-contact lifestyle was well adapted to the harsh desert environment in which they lived; each tribe or band occupied a specific territory centered on a lake or wetland that supplied fish and water-fowl. Communal hunt drives, which involved neighboring bands, would take rabbits and pronghorn from surrounding areas. Individuals and families appear to have moved among the bands. Northern Paiutes lived a nomadic lifestyle, moving from place to place following animal migration patterns and seasonal foods, they lived in independent groups that consisted of a handful or so of different family units. Upon arrival of foreigners into western Nevada, the Northern Paiutes became sedentary in order to protect themselves and handle negotiations with the new settlers; because of their change from nomadic to sedentary lifestyle, women were relied upon more for both their full-time employment and at-home work.
This is true today. In some modern Northern Paiute tribes, men work in “seasonal jobs on the ranches, in the mines, as caretakers in the nearby motels,” and women work “in the laundry, the bakery, in homes and motels as domestics, in the country hospital.”They gathered Pinyon nuts in the mountains in the fall as a critical winter food source. Women gathered grass seeds and roots as important parts of their diet; the name of each band was derived from a characteristic food source. For example, the people at Pyramid Lake were known as the Cui Ui Ticutta; the people of the Lovelock area were known as the Koop Ticutta. The Kucadikadi of Mono County, California are the "brine fly eaters." Relations among the Northern Paiute bands and their Shoshone neighbors were peaceful. There is no sharp distinction between Sosone. Relations with the Waasseoo or Washoe people, who were culturally and linguistically different, were not so peaceful; these differences in lifestyle and language could be because Northern Paiutes may have moved from southern regions to the Nevada/California area in which they reside.
They may have overthrown and destroyed other Indian tribes in order to inhabit their current lands. The Paiutes, for example, were “continually at war” with the Klamath south and west of them. "The Achomawi, south of the Klamath were enemies of the Northern Paiute, the earliest wars related in Achomawi oral tradition were Northern Paiute."Sustained contact between the Northern Paiute and Euro-Americans began in the early 1840s, although the first contact may have occurred as early as the 1820s. Although the Paiute had adopted the use of horses from other Great Plains tribes, their culture was otherwise largely unaffected by European influences; as Euro-American settlement of the area progressed, competition for scarce resources increased. Several violent confrontations took place, including the Pyramid Lake War of 1860, Owens Valley Indian War 1861-1864, Snake War 1864-1868; these incidents began with a disagreement between settlers and the Paiute regarding property, retaliation by one group against the other, counter-retaliation by the opposite party culminating in the armed involvement of the U.
S. Army. Fatalities were much higher among the Paiute due to newly introduced Eurasian infectious diseases, such as smallpox, which were endemic among the Europeans; the Natives had no acquired immunity. Sarah Winnemucca's book Life Among the Piutes; the government first established the Malheur Reservation for the Northern Paiute in eastern Oregon. It intended to concentrate the Northern Paiute there; because of the distance of the reservation from the traditional areas of most of the bands, because of its poor environmental conditions, many Northern Paiute refused to go there. Those that did, soon left, they clung to their traditional lifestyle as long as possible. When environmental degradation of their lands made that impossible, they sought jobs on white farms, ranches or in cities, they established small Indian colonies, where they were joined by many Shoshone and, in the Reno area, Washoe people. The government created larger reservations at Pyramid Lake and Duck Valley, Nevada. By that time the pattern of small de facto reservations near cities or farm districts with mixed Northern Paiute and Shoshone populations, had been established.
Starting in the early 20th century, the federal government began granting land to these colonies. Under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, several individual colonies gained federal recognition as independent tribes, it is said that the Northern Paiute people have inhabited the area between the West and Northwest of the United States for over 11,000 years. Therefore, their history is old with many varying accounts of their origin. One version of how the Northern Paiute people came to be is that a bird, the Sagehen, was the only bird that survived a massive flood; the Sagehen cared for it until the fire grew bigger and bigger. The water from the flood dried, a man “happened.” This man was called Nűműzóho, a cannibal. The Cannibals killed all the Indians, except for a woman, able to escape; this woman kept herself alive by traveling from place to place in the region and staying with different characters
The Pomo are an indigenous people of California. The historic Pomo territory in northern California was large, bordered by the Pacific Coast to the west, extending inland to Clear Lake, between Cleone and Duncans Point. One small group, the Northeastern Pomo of the Stonyford vicinity of Colusa County, was separated from the core Pomo area by lands inhabited by Yuki and Wintuan speakers; the name pomo derives from a conflation of the Pomo words and. It meant "those who live at red earth hole" and was once the name of a village in southern Potter Valley near the present-day community of Pomo, it may have referred to local deposits of the red mineral magnesite, used for red beads, or to the reddish earth and clay, such as hematite, mined in the area. In the Northern Pomo dialect, -pomo or -poma was used as a suffix after the names of places, to mean a subgroup of people of the place. By 1877, the use of Pomo had been extended in English to mean the entire people known today as the Pomo; the Pomo had 20 chiefs at the same time.
The people called Pomo were linked by location and cultural expression. They were not or politically linked as one large unified group. Instead, they lived in small groups or bands, linked by geography and marriage. Traditionally they relied upon fishing and gathering for their food; the Pomo Indian cultures are several ethnolinguistic groups that make up a single language family in Northern California. Their historic territory extended from the Pacific Coast between Cleone and Duncans Point to Clear Lake; the Pomo Indians preferred to live in small groups which are called "bands". These bands were linked by geography and marriage; the Pomo cultures encompassed hundreds of independent communities. Like many other Native groups, the Pomo Indian of Northern California relied upon fishing and gathering for their daily food supply, they ate salmon, wild greens, mushrooms, grasshoppers, rabbits and squirrels. Acorns were the most important staple in their diet; the division of labor in Pomo Indian communities involved gathering and preparation of plant-based foods by women, while men were hunters and fishers.
The Pomo Indian culture is famed for its tradition of intricate basketry. A valued basket type incorporates bird feathers into design of the basket's weave; some of their most culturally important dances are "Ghost Dance" and "Far South". During a "Ghost Dance" ceremony, they believed, and a "Far South" dance was celebrated as the rite of passage for children to the tribe. The Pomoan languages became endangered after European colonization of their native territory. Contacts with Russian and English have impacted these languages, many are no longer spoken due to language shift to English. There are about twelve Pomo language varieties. Pomo known as Pomoan or less Kulanapan, is a language family that includes seven distinct and mutually unintelligible languages, including Northern Pomo, Northeastern Pomo, Eastern Pomo, Southeastern Pomo, Central Pomo, Southern Pomo, Kashaya. John Wesley Powell classified the language family as Kulanapan in 1891, using the name first introduced by George Gibbs in 1853.
This name for the language family is derived from the name of one Eastern Pomo village on the south shore of Clear Lake. Powers was the first to refer to this entire language family with the name "Pomo", the geographic names that have been used to refer to the seven individual Pomoan languages were introduced by Barrett; the Pomo people participated in shamanism. It included elaborate acting and dancing ceremonies in traditional costume, an annual mourning ceremony, puberty rites of passage, shamanic intervention with the spirit world, an all-male society that met in subterranean dance rooms; the Pomo believed in a supernatural being, the Kuksu or Guksu, who lived in the south and who came during ceremonies to heal their illnesses. Medicine men dressed up as their interpretation of a healer spirit. A shamanistic movement was the "Messiah Cult", introduced by the Wintun people, it was practiced through 1900. This cult believed in prophets who had dreams, "waking visions" and revelations from "presiding spirits", "virtually formed a priesthood".
The prophets earned much status among the people. The record of Pomo myths, legends and histories is extensive; the body of narratives is classed within the Central California cultural pattern. The Pomo had a strong mythology of world order, it includes the personification of the Kuksu or Guksu healer spirit, spirits from six cardinal directions, the Coyote as their ancestor and creator god. According to some linguistic theories, the Pomo people descend from the Hokan-speaking people. One theory places the ancestral community from which the Pomoan languages and cultures are descended in the Sonoma County, California region; this area was. In this hypothesis, about 7000 BCE, a Hokan-speaking people migrated into the valley and mountain regions around Clear Lake, their language evolved into Proto-Pomo; the lake was rich in resources. About 4000 BCE to 5000 BCE, some of the proto-Pomo migrated into the Russian River Valley and north to present-day Ukiah, their language diverged into western, southern and northern Pomo.
Another people Yukian speakers, lived first in the Ru
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
The Esselen are a Native American people belonging to a linguistic group in the hypothetical Hokan language family, who are indigenous to the Santa Lucia Mountains of the region now known as Big Sur in Monterey County, California. Prior to Spanish colonization, they lived seasonally on the coast and inland, surviving off the plentiful seafood during the summer and acorns and wildlife during the rest of the year. Experts estimate there were from 500 to 1200 individuals living in the steep, rocky region at the time of the arrival of the Spanish. During the mission period of California history, Esselen children were baptized by the priests and at a certain age forcibly removed from their village and parents. Adult members of the Esselen tribe were forcibly conscripted and made to labor at the three nearby missions, Mission San Carlos, Mission Nuestra Señora de la Soledad, Mission San Antonio de Padua. Like many Native American populations, their members were decimated by disease, over work, torture.
They were one of the smallest Native American populations in California and due to their proximity to three Spanish missions, they were one of the first whose culture was repressed as a result of European contact and domination. They were assumed to have been exterminated but some tribal members avoided the mission life and emerged from the forest to work in nearby ranches in the early and late 1800s. Descendants of the Esselen are scattered, but many still live in the Monterey Peninsula area and nearby regions. Archaeological and linguistic evidence indicates that the original people's territory once extended much farther north, into the San Francisco Bay Area, until they were displaced by the entrance of Ohlone people. Based on linguistic evidence, Richard Levy places the displacement at around AD 500. Breschini and Haversat place the entry of Ohlone speakers into the Monterey area prior to 200 B. C. based on multiple lines of evidence. Carbon dating of excavated sites places the Esselen in the Big Sur since circa 2630 BCE.
However, researchers have obtained a radiocarbon date from coastal Esselen territory in the Big Sur River drainage dated prior to 6,500 years ago. The name Esselen derived from the name of a major native village from the village known as Exse'ein, or the place called Eslenes; the village name is derived from a tribal location known as Ex'selen, "the rock,", in turn derived from the phrase Xue elo xonia eune, "I come from the rock." "The Rock" may refer to the 361 feet tall promontory, visible for miles both up and down the coast, on which the Point Sur Lighthouse is situated. It may have referred to Pico Blanco, the mountain they believed that all life came from; the Spanish extended the term to mean the entire linguistic group. Variant spellings exist in old records, including Aschatliens, Eslen, Eslenes and Escelen. "Aschatliens" may refer in and around the village of Achasta. Achasta was a Rumsen Ohlone village, unrelated to the Esselen. Achasta was founded only after the establishment of Mission San Carlos.
It was the closest village to Mission San Carlos, was 10+ miles from Esselen territory. "Eslenes" was nowhere near Mission San Carlos. The Esselen language is a language, it is hypothetically part of the Hokan family. The language was spoken in the northern Santa Lucia Range. Prior to contact with European culture, there were between 1000 speakers. La Pérouse, a French explorer, recorded 22 words in 1786, he wrote in his journal during the expedition: The country of the Ecclemachs extends above 20 leagues to the eastward of Monterey. Their language is different from all those of their neighbors, has more resemblance to the languages of Europe than to those of the Americas; this grammatical phenomenon, the most curious in this respect observed on the continent, will be interesting to those of the learned, who seek, in the analogy of languages, the history and genealogy of transplanted nations. In 1792, Galiano, a Spanish ship's captain recorded 107 phrases. In 1832, Father Felipe Arroyo de la Cuesta recorded 14 phrases at Soledad.
The speakers were the Arroyo Seco area 15 miles to the east. The neighboring Rumsen people were fluent in Esselen and they provided de la Cuesta some language. A total of about 300 words along with some short phrases have been identified. Examples include mamamanej; the last known fluent speaker was Isabel Meadows who died in 1939. The Esselen resided along the upper Carmel and Arroyo Seco Rivers, along the Big Sur coast from near present-day Hurricane Point to the vicinity of Vicente Creek in the south; the Central California coast in this region is marked by high, steep cliffs and rocky shores, interrupted by small coastal creeks with occasional, small beaches. The mountains are rugged with narrow canyons; the terrain makes the area inaccessible, long-term habitation a challenge, limited the size of the native population. The Esselen's territory extended inland through the Santa Lucia Mountains as far as the Salinas Valley. Prior to the arrival of the Spanish, they were hunter-gatherers who resided in small groups with no centralized political authority.
Modern researchers believe there were five distinct Esselen districts: Excelen, Imunahan and Aspasniahan. Each are believed to have had a stable resident population. Within each district the people occupied several villages depending on the season and availability of food and shelter. Carbon dating tes
The Shastan peoples are a group of linguistically related indigenous from the Klamath Mountains. They traditionally inhabited portions of several regional waterways, including the Klamath, Sacramento and McCloud rivers. Shastan lands presently form portions of the Siskiyou and Jackson counties. Scholars have divided the Shastan peoples into four languages, although arguments in favor of more or less existing have been made. Speakers of Shasta proper, Konomihu and New River Shasta resided in settlements near a water source, their villages had only either one or two families. Larger villages had additional buildings utilised by the community; the California Gold Rush drew in an influx of outsiders into California in the late 1840s eager to gain mineral wealth. For the Shasta, this was a devastating process as their lands soon had thousands of miners operating along various waterways. Conflicts arose as the outsiders didn't respect their homeland. Introduction to new diseases and fighting against invading Americans reduced the number of Shasta.
The Shasta residents of Bear Creek were active in Rogue River Wars and assisted the Takelma until they were forcibly removed to the Grande Ronde and Siletz Reservations in Oregon. In the late 1850s the Shastan peoples of California were forcibly removed from their territories and sent to the same two distant reservations. By the early years of the 20th century only 100 Shasta individual existed; some Shasta descendants still reside at the Grand Ronde and Siletz Reservations, while others are in Siskiyou county at the Quartz Valley Indian Reservation or Yreka. Many former members of the Shasta tribe have been inducted into the Karuk and Alturas tribes. Prior to contact with European descendants the term Shasta wasn't used by the Shastan peoples themselves. Among the Shasta proper they called themselves "Kahosadi" or "plain speakers". Variations of Shasta used by whites include Chasta, Tsashtl and Saste. Dixon noted that the Shastan peoples didn't use "Shasta" as a place name and wasn't a word at all in their languages.
In interviews with Shasta informants Dixon was informed of a prominent man of Scott Valley that lived up until the 1850s with the name of Susti or Sustika. This was the probable origin of the term according to Dixon, an interpretation that Kroeber agreed with. Merriam reviewed information from Albert Samuel Gatschet and fur trader Peter Skene Ogden, concluding that while the Shastan peoples didn't refer to themselves as Shasta traditionally. Scholars have accepted Dixon's etymology for Shasta. Renfro questions its validity however as Ogden used a variation of the term before Sustika was prominent. In 1814, near the Willamette Trading Post a meeting occurred between North West Company officer Alexander Henry and an assembled Sahaptin congregation of Cayuse and Walla Walla, in addition to a third group of people, named Shatasla. Maloney argued. Something Garth conjectured as well; this interpretation has been contested by other scholars based on linguistic and historical evidence. Previous to Maloney's assertion, Frederick Hodge in 1910 noted the word Shatalsa as being related to word Sahaptin.
This older etymology was defended by Stern against Maloney's interpretation, in addition to being accepted by Clark as well. The Shasta were the numerically largest of the Shastan speakers, their territories spread from around modern Ashland in the north, Jenny Creek and Mt. Shasta to the east, southward to the Scott Mountains, westward to modern Seiad Valley and the Salmon and Marble Mountains; this area had four important waterways. These were the Klamath River and two of its tributaries, the Shasta River and Scott River, along with the Bear Creek in the Rogue Valley. Four bands of Shasta existed with variations in custom and differing dialects; each band had names derived from nearby waterways. In this way people from Shasta River or Ahotidae were the "Ahotireitsu", those from the Upper Rogue Valley or Ikiruk were the "Ikirukatsu", inhabitants of Scott River or Iraui were the "Irauitsu". Shasta families located directly along the Klamath River were referred to by the Ikirukatsu as "Wasudigwatsu" after their particular words for the Klamath River and gulch.
The Irauistu knew them as "Wiruwhikwatsu" and the Ahotireitsu called them "Wiruwhitsu", terms derived from "down river" and "up river" respectively. Shasta settlements only contained a single family. In larger villages headmen held sway; the responsibilities of this position were varied. They were expected "to exhort the people to live in peace, do good, have kind hearts, be industrious." A common requirement to hold the position was. This came from the expectation for them to use their property in negotiations to settles disputes between members of their village or with other settlements. In raids on enemies the headman did not participate but negotiated with enemy headmen to establish peaceable relations; each of the four Shasta bands had individual headmen as well. While only the Ikirukatsu were reported to have had hereditary succession to the position it is thought the other three bands had some form hereditarian succession as well. While each of the four band headmen were considered equal, in trying disputes the Ikirukatsu headman would negotiate an end to the issue.
Three related groups of Shastan speakers resided adjacent to the Shasta proper. These were the Okwanuchu of the upper Sacramento and McCloud rivers, the Salmon River based Konomihu and New River Shasta. There is little recorded informat
The Tongva are Native Americans who inhabited the Los Angeles Basin and the Southern Channel Islands, an area covering 4,000 square miles. The Tongva are known as the Gabrieleño and Fernandeño, names derived from the Spanish missions built on their territory: Mission San Gabriel Arcángel and Mission San Fernando Rey de España. Along with the neighboring Chumash, the Tongva were the most powerful indigenous people to inhabit Southern California. At the time of European contact, they may have numbered 5,000 to 10,000. Many lines of evidence suggest that the Tongva are descended of Uto-Aztecan-speaking peoples from Nevada who moved southwest into coastal Southern California 3,500 years ago; these migrants either pushed out the Hokan-speaking peoples in the region. By 500 AD, the Tongva had come to occupy all the lands now associated with them. A hunter-gatherer society, the Tongva traded with neighboring peoples. Over time, scattered communities came to speak distinct dialects of the Tongva language, part of the Takic subgroup of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
There may have been five or more such dialects. The Tongva language became extinct in the twentieth century, but a reconstructed form continues to be spoken today. Initial Spanish exploration of the Los Angeles area occurred in 1542, but sustained contact with the Tongva came only after Mission San Gabriel Arcángel was constructed in 1771; this marked the beginning of an era of forced relocation and exposure to Old World diseases, leading to the rapid collapse of the Tongva population. At times the Tongva violently resisted Spanish rule, such as the 1785 rebellion led by the female chief Toypurina. In 1821, Mexico gained its independence from Spain and the government sold mission lands to ranchers, forcing the Tongva to culturally assimilate. Three decades California was ceded to the United States following the Mexican–American War; the US government signed treaties with the Tongva, promising 8.5 million acres of land for reservations, but these treaties were never ratified. By the turn of the 20th century, the Island Tongva had disappeared and the mainland communities were nearing extinction.
The endonym Tongva was recorded by American ethnographer C. Hart Merriam in 1903 and has been adopted by scholars and descendants, although some prefer the endonym Kizh. Since 2006, there have been four organizations claiming to represent the Tongva Nation: the Gabrielino-Tongva Tribe, known as the "hyphen" group from the hyphen in their name. Two of the groups are the result of a hostile split over the question of building an Indian casino. In 1994, the state of California recognized the Tongva "as the aboriginal tribe of the Los Angeles Basin," but no group representing the Tongva has attained recognition by the federal government. In 2008, more than 1,700 people claimed partial ancestry; the first record of an endonym for the Tongva people was Kizh, from 1846. Although subsequent authors equated this with the word for "house", Hale gives the word for house as kītç in a list where the language was called "Kīj", suggesting that the words were distinct; the term Kizh was used at that time to designate the language, the first comprehensive publication on the language used it.
In 1875, Yarrow indicated. He reported that the natives called themselves Tobikhar, meaning "settlers", spoke exclusively Spanish. In 1885, Hoffman referred to the natives as Tobikhar; the word Tongva was recorded by Merriam in 1903 from a single informant. Merriam could not pronounce the village name Toviscangna He ( abbreviated or spelled it Tong-vā; the name Tongva has become preferred as a self-designation since the 1990s, although either "Gabrieleño" or "Gabrielino" is part of every official name. The territory which in historical times was occupied by the kizh People of the willow houses had been inhabited for more than 10,000 years. A prehistoric milling area estimated to be 8,000 years old was discovered in 2006 at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains near Azusa, California; the find yielded arrowheads and stone slabs used to grind seeds as well as tools and implements, but no human or animal bones. The Chowigna site in Palos Verdes, excavated in the 1930s, dates back 7,100 years or more.
In 2007 and early 2008, over 174 ancient American Indian remains were unearthed by archaeologists at a development site of Brightwater Hearthside Homes in the Bolsa Chica Mesa area in Huntington Beach, California. This land was once shared by the Acjachemem tribes; the site was in legal limbo for years before Hearthside was given permission to start construction of over 300 homes. The Tongva and Acjachemem Indians are in dispute over the remains; as speakers of a language of the Uto-Aztecan family, the remote ancestors of the Tongva coalesced as a people in the Sonoran Desert, between 3,000 and 5,000 years ago. This was a center of that language family; the diversity within the Takic group is "moderately deep". The division of the Tongva-Serrano group into the separate Tongva and Serrano peoples is more recent, may have been influenced by