Khalsa College, Amritsar
Khalsa College is a historic educational institution in the northern Indian city of Amritsar in the state of Punjab, India. Founded in 1892, the sprawling 300-acre campus is located about eight kilometers from the city-center on the Amritsar-Lahore highway, adjoining Guru Nanak Dev University campus, to which Khalsa College is academically affiliated. Khalsa College was built as an educational institute during the British Raj in India when Sikh scholars thought about providing higher education to Sikhs and Punjabis within Punjab. Amritsar was chosen for its establishment and Singh Sabha Movement and Chief Khalsa Diwan approached the Sikh Maharajas and Sikh people of Punjab to raise funds and donate land to build this unique institute. People of Amritsar and other cities of Punjab including rich Sikh families and Maharajas donated land and raised funds to build Khalsa College, Amritsar, its architectural design was created by Ram Singh, a famous architect who designed one of the Places in England.
Its building was completed in 1911–12. Its architectural features are mix of British and Sikh architect. Khalsa college's contribution towards the freedom history of India is significant as it has generated many famous freedom fighters, political leaders, armed forces generals, famous players-Olympians, writers and scholars. More information about Khalsa college can be found in the book "History of Khalsa College Amritsar," written by Dr. Ganda Singh, former head of the dept. of Sikh History, Khalsa College Amritsar. In modern times, the only research work on Khalsa College's history, "The Temple of Study-Khalsa College Amritsar," was performed by Jaspreet Singh Rajpoot, an alumnus of Khalsa, in the year 2002 with the collaboration of Khalsa College governing council and Dr. Mohinder Singh Dhillon, reveals the facts of Khalsa college which are still unknown to most of the people around the world. Khalsa College has following faculties: Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration Faculty of Sciences College of Agriculture Institute of Computer Science Khalsa College Establishment Committee was set up in 1890 with Colonel W. R. M. Holroyd, Director of Public Instruction, Punjab, as president, W. Bell, Principal of Government College, Lahore, as secretary.
Among the native constituents of this 121-member committee were Sir Attar Singh, Gurdial Singh Maan of Nabha, Diwan Gurmukh Singh of Patiala, Bhai Kahn Singh, Professor Gurmukh Singh and Sardar Jawahir Singh. Many princely states of British India and Sikh people of Punjab gave their financial help to the establishment of Khalsa College, including Maharaja Rajendra Singh of Patiala, Maharaja Hira Singh of Nabha, Maharaja Jagatjit Singh of Kapurthala and Sir Sunder Singh Majithia. After a prolonged discussion about the site of Khalsa College, it was decided that one college would be established in Amritsar, followed by a second in Lahore; the 300-acre campus was sited just outside the village of Kot Sayyad Mehmood, renamed Kot Khalsa. The institutions under Khalsa College Charitable Society, running the century old Khalsa College: Colleges- Khalsa College, Amritsar-India Khalsa College of Education, Amritsar Khalsa College for Women, Amritsar Khalsa College of Education, Ranjit Avenue, Amritsar Khalsa College of Nursing, Amritsar Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Amritsar Khalsa College of Engineering & Tech.
Ranjit Avenue, Amritsar Khalsa College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Amritsar Khalsa College of Technology & Business Studies, Mohali Khalsa College of Physical Education, VPO Heir, Distt. Amritsar Khalsa College Chawinda Devi,Amritsar Khalsa College of Law, Amritsar Khalsa College of Management & Technology, AmritsarSchools- Khalsa College Sr. Sec. School, Amritsar Khalsa College Sr. Sec. School, Amritsar Khalsa College Public School, Amritsar Amritsar Khalsa College International Public School, Ranjit Avenue, Amritsar Khalsa College Public School, Amritsar The main building is considered a gem of the Indo-Sarcenic style, influenced by traditional Indian and Mughal schools of architecture; the foundation stone was laid on 5 March 1892, with the first classes starting in 1893. The college was designed by Bhai Ram Singh, principal of the Mayo School of Arts, with the help of engineer Dharam Singh Gharjakhia. Bhai Ram Singh was decorated for his services with the Member of the Victorian Order, the highest civilian award of British India.
Harcharan Singh, Punjabi playwright Harpreet Sandhu, actor Gurbachan Singh Randhawa, athlete Pratap Singh Kairon, former Chief Minister of Punjab Darbara Singh, former Chief Minister of Punjab and national level leader of the Congress Teja Singh Samundri, founder of SGPC - Shiromani Gurudwara Prabhandhak Committee Rajinder Singh "Sparrow" Shergill Sohan Singh Josh, socialist leader of Punjab Gurdial Singh Dhillon, former Speaker of the Indian Parliament Hukam Singh, former Speaker of the Indian Parliament Mulk Raj Anand, novelist Kidar Sharma, film director and screenwriter Bhisham Sahni and writer Manohar Singh Gill, former Chief Election Commissioner of India Hardeep Tauo Toganwalia, Captain of Canadian Kabaddi Team Bishen Singh Bedi, former captain of the Indian cricket team Gurshabad, Playback singer and performer Ranjit Bawa, Punjabi singer Amrinder
Punjab Province (British India)
Punjab spelled Panjab, was a province of British India. Most of the Punjab region was annexed by the East India Company in 1849, was one of the last areas of the Indian subcontinent to fall under British control. In 1858, the Punjab, along with the rest of British India, came under the direct rule of the British crown; the province comprised five administrative divisions, Jullundur, Lahore and Rawalpindi and a number of princely states. In 1947, the partition of India led to the province being divided into East Punjab and West Punjab, in the newly created Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan respectively; the region was called Sapta Sindhu, the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean. The Sanskrit name for the region, as mentioned in the Ramayana and Mahabharata for example, was Panchanada which means "Land of the Five Rivers", was translated to Persian as Punjab after the Muslim conquests; the name Punjab is a compound of two Persian words Panj and āb and was introduced to the region by the Turko-Persian conquerors of India and more formally popularised during the Mughal Empire.
Punjab means " Five Waters" referring to the rivers: Jhelum, Ravi and Beas. All are tributaries of the Chenab being the largest. Geographically, the province was a triangular tract of country of which the Indus River and its tributary the Sutlej formed the two sides up to their confluence, the base of the triangle in the north being the Lower Himalayan Range between those two rivers. Moreover, the province as constituted under British rule included a large tract outside these boundaries. Along the northern border, Himalayan ranges divided it from Tibet. On the west it was separated from the North-West Frontier Province by the Indus, until it reached the border of Dera Ghazi Khan District, divided from Baluchistan by the Sulaiman Range. To the south lay Sindh and Rajputana, while on the east the rivers Jumna and Tons separated it from the United Provinces. In total Punjab had an area of 357 000 km square about the same size as modern day Germany, being one of the largest provinces of the British Raj.
It encompassed the present day Indian states of Punjab, Chandigarh and Himachal Pradesh and the Pakistani regions of the Punjab, Islamabad Capital Territory and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. In 1901 the frontier districts beyond the Indus were separated from Punjab and made into a new province: the North-West Frontier Province. On 21 February 1849, the East India Company decisively defeated the Sikh Empire at the Battle of Gujrat bringing to an end the Second Anglo-Sikh War. Following the victory, the East India Company annexed the Punjab on 2 April 1849 and incorporated it within British India; the province whilst nominally under the control of the Bengal Presidency was administratively independent. Lord Dalhousie constituted the Board of Administration by inducting into it the most experienced and seasoned British officers; the Board was led by Sir Henry Lawrence, who had worked as British Resident at the Lahore Durbar and consisted of his younger brother John Lawrence and Charles Grenville Mansel. Below the Board, a group of acclaimed officers collectively known as Henry Lawrence's "Young Men" assisted in the administration of the newly acquired province.
The Board was abolished by Lord Dalhousie in 1853. Recognising the cultural diversity of the Punjab, the Board maintained a strict policy of non-interference in regard to religious and cultural matters. Sikh aristocrats were given patronage and pensions and groups in control of historical places of worship were allowed to remain in control. In 1858, under the terms of the Queen's Proclamation issued by Queen Victoria, the Punjab, along with the rest of British India, came under the direct rule of the British crown. Delhi was transferred from the North-Western Provinces to the Punjab in 1859; the British colonial government took this action to punish the city for the important role that the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II, the city as a whole played in the 1857 Rebellion. Sir John Lawrence Chief Commissioner, was appointed the first Lieutenant-Governor on 1 January 1859. In 1866, the Judicial Commissioner was replaced by a Chief Court; the direct administrative functions of the Government were carried by the Lieutenant-Governor through the Secretariat, comprising a Chief Secretary, a Secretary and two Under-Secretaries.
They were members of the Indian Civil Service. The territory under the Lieutenant consisted of 29 Districts, grouped under 5 Divisions, 43 Princely States; each District was under a Deputy-Commissioner. Each District was subdivided into between three and seven tehsils, each under a tahsildar, assisted by a naib tahsildar. In 1885 the Punjab administration began an ambitious plan to transform over six million acres of barren waste land in central and western Punjab into irrigable agricultural land; the creation of canal colonies was designed to relieve demographic pressures in the central parts of the province, increase productivity and revenues, create a loyal support amongst peasant landholders. The colonisation resulted in an agricultural revolution in the province, rapid industrial growth, the resettlement of over one million Punjabis in the new areas. A number of towns were created or saw significant development in the colonies, such as Lyallpur and Montgomery. Colonisation led to the canal irrigated area of the Punj
Amritsar also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in northwestern India, the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district and is located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab. According to the 2011 census, the population of Amritsar was 1,132,761, it is one of ten Municipal Corporations in the state and Karamjit Singh Rintu is the current mayor of the city. The city is situated 217 km northwest of state capital Chandigarh and 455 km northwest of New Delhi, the national capital, it is with the Wagah Border being only 28 km away. Amritsar has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India. Amritsar is home to the Harmandir Sahib, popularly known as "the Golden Temple," one of Sikhism's most spiritually significant and most-visited gurudwaras; the Bhagwan Valmiki Tirath Sthal situated at Amritsar is believed to be the Ashram site of Maharishi Valmiki, the writer of Ramayana.
As per the Ramayana, Sita gave birth to Kusha, sons of lord Rama at Ramtirth ashram. Large number of people visit Ramtirth Temple at annual fair. Nearby cities to Amritsar and Kasur were said to be founded by Lava and Kusha, respectively. During Ashvamedha Yagna by Lord Rama and Kush captured the ritual horse and tied Lord Hanuman to a tree near to today's Durgiana Temple. During Navratra festivities it is considered to be auspicious by Hindu population of the city to visit that temple. Guru Ram Das, the fourth Sikh guru is credited with founding the holy city of Amritsar in the Sikh tradition. Two versions of stories exist regarding the land. In one based on a Gazetteer record, the land was purchased with Sikh donations, for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung. According to the Sikh historical records, the site was chosen by Guru Amar Das and called Guru Da Chakk, after he had asked Ram Das to find land to start a new town with a man made pool as its central point. After his coronation in 1574, the hostile opposition he faced from the sons of Amar Das, Ram Das founded the town named after him as "Ramdaspur".
He started by completing the pool, building his new official Guru centre and home next to it. He invited artisans from other parts of India to settle into the new town with him; the town expanded during the time of Arjan constructed by voluntary work. The town grew to become the city of Amritsar, the pool area grew into a temple complex after his son built the gurdwara Harmandir Sahib, installed the scripture of Sikhism inside the new temple in 1604; the construction activity between 1574 and 1604 is described in Mahima Prakash Vartak, a semi-historical Sikh hagiography text composed in 1741, the earliest known document dealing with the lives of all the ten Gurus. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, involving the killings of hundreds of Indian civilians on the orders of a senior British military officer, Reginald Edward Harry Dyer, took place on 13 April 1919 in the heart of Amritsar, the holiest city of the Sikhs, on a day sacred to them as the birth anniversary of the Khalsa. In the Punjab, during World War I, there was considerable unrest among the Sikhs, first on account of the demolition of a boundary wall of Gurdwara Rakab Ganj at New Delhi and because of the activities and trials of the Ghadarites all of whom were Sikhs.
In India as a whole, there had been a spurt in political activity owing to the emergence of two leaders: Mahatma Gandhi who after a period of struggle against the British in South Africa, had returned to India in January 1915, Annie Besant, head of the Theosophical Society of India, who on 11 April 1916 established the Home Rule League with autonomy for India as its goal. In December 1916, the Indian National Congress, at its annual session held at Lucknow, passed a resolution asking the king to issue a proclamation announcing that it is the "aim and intention of British policy to confer self-government on India at an early date". On 10 April 1919, Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew, two popular proponents of the Satyagraha movement led by Gandhi, were called to the deputy commissioner's residence and sent off by car to Dharamsetla, a hill town, now in Himachal Pradesh; this led to a general strike in Amritsar. Excited groups of citizens soon merged into a crowd of about 50,000 marching on to protest to the deputy commissioner against the arrest of the two leaders.
The crowd, was stopped and fired upon near the railway foot-bridge. According to the official version, the number of those killed was 12 and of those wounded between 20 and 30. Evidence before an inquiry of the Indian National Congress put the number of the dead between 20 and 30. Three days on 13 April, the traditional festival of Baisakhi, thousands of Sikhs and Hindus gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh. An hour after the meeting began as scheduled at 16:30, Dyer arrived with a group of sixty-five Gurkha and twenty-five Baluchi soldiers. Without warning the crowd to disperse, Dyer blocked the main exits and ordered his troops to begin shooting toward the densest sections of the crowd. Firing continued for ten minutes. A British inquiry into the massacre placed the death toll at 379; the Indian National Congress determined that 1,000 people were killed. Operation Blue Star was an Indian military operation ordered by Indira Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India to curb and remove Sikh militants from the Golden Temple in Amritsar.
The operation was carried out by Indian army troops with tanks and armoured
Bathinda is a city and Municipal Corporation in Southern part of Punjab, India. It is one of the oldest cities in Punjab and the current administrative headquarters of Bathinda District, it is in northwestern India in the Malwa Region, 227 km west of the capital city of Chandigarh and is the fifth largest city of Punjab. Bathinda's nicknamed the'City of Lakes', courtesy of the artificial lakes in the city; the first empress of India, Razia Sultan was imprisoned in the Qila Mubarak fort in Bathinda. The gurudwara and mazaar of Haji Rattan is a popular tourist centre of Bathinda having connections with popular legends. Bathinda is a home of Central University of Punjab and upcoming AIIMS. Bathinda is home to two modern thermal power plants, Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Plant and Guru Hargobind Thermal Plant at Lehra Mohabbat; the city has a fertilizer plant, a large oil refinery, two cement plants, a large army cantonment, an air force station, a zoo, a historic Qila Mubarak fort. Bathinda is one of cotton markets in northern India.
Bhatinda was changed to Bathinda to conform to the phonetical expression as locally pronounced. According to Henry George Raverty, Bathinda was known as Tabarhindh; the earliest mention of Tabarhindh occurs in the Jami-Ul-Hakayat written about 607 Hijri or 1211 AD. In 1004, Mahmud of Ghazni besieged the local fort, located on the route from the northwest into the rich Ganges valley. In 1189, Muhammad Ghori occupied the fort of Bathinda. Prithvi Raj Chauhan, the ruler of this region, managed to recover possession of the fort thirteen months in 1191 after the first battle of Tarain. In 1634, a battle named Battle of Lahira was fought between Guru Mughals. In circa 1754, the town was conquered by Maharaja Ala Singh, the Maharaja of Patiala and since it followed the history of erstwhile princely state of Patiala. With the dawn of independence and merger of Patiala and East Punjab States into a division called PEPSU, Bathinda become a full-fledged district with headquarters at Bathinda city; as per provisional reports of Census India, population of Bathinda city in 2011 is 285,813.
The sex ratio of Bathinda city is 868 females per 1000 males. The number of literate people in Bathinda city are 211,318 of which 118,888 are males while 92,430 are females, average literacy rate is 82.84 percent of which male and female literacy is 87.86 and 77.16 percent respectively. Total children in Bathinda city are 30,713: 14,241 girls. Child sex ratio of girls is 865 per 1000 boys. Hinduism is the majority religion in Bathinda city with 62.61% people following the faith. Sikhism is the second most popular religion in the city, followed by 35.04% of the people. Minorities are Muslims, Christians and Jains. Sikhs count for 70.89% of the population in Bathinda District on a whole in spite of not being a majority in the city. Bathinda is a part of the Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains; the exact cartographic co-ordinates of Bathinda are 30.20°N 74.95°E / 30.20. It has an average elevation of 201 metres. Bathinda's climate corresponds to semi-arid with high variation between summer and winter temperatures.
Average annual rainfall is low, in a range of 20 mm to 40 mm. In recent times, Summer temperatures of 49 °C and winter temperatures of 1 °C were not unknown in Bathinda, lowest being -1.4 °C in the winter of 2013 Bathinda is an upcoming industrial city. Major industries in the city and its suburbs include: National Fertilizer Ltd, Bathinda Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Plant, Bathinda Ambuja Cements Ltd, Malout Road, Bathinda Guru Gobind Singh Refinery, a joint project between HPCL and Mittal Energy Limited. Ultra Tech Cement Ltd, Lehra Mohabbat Guru Hargobind Thermal Plant, Lehra Mohabbat Bathinda District Co-op Producer Union Milk Plant, Bathinda Vardhman Polytex Ltd, Badal Road, Bathinda BCL Industries & Infrastructure Ltd, Hazi Rattan, Bathinda Several sugar mills, brick kilns, food processing plants are located in the city and its suburbs. Bhatinda Railway Station has connectivity to most of the major cities in India. Three national highways, NH 7 and NH 54 and NH 148B pass through the city. Like most cities in Punjab, Bathinda is well connected by bus to major nearby cities.
Buses provide to and fro connectivity to Chandigarh, Jalandhar, New Delhi, Amritsar and several other cities. Bathinda Airport, which shares its runway with the Air Force station in Bhisiana, opened to the public in 2016; as of 2018, flights ply only to and from New Delhi. Qila Mubarak known locally as the Razia Sultana fort is located in the heart of the city, it has a great historical significance. Razia Sultana, the first Empress of Delhi, was imprisoned in the fort, it is maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India and is frequented by both local and foreign tourists. Damdama Sahib is a Sikh gurudwara in a suburb 28 km southeast of the city, it is known for being the place where the tenth Sikh guru prepared the final version of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the definitive Sikh scripture. It is five seats of temporal authority of Sikhism. Maiser Khana is a famous Hindu temple dedicated to goddess Jwala Ji, situated 29km southeast of the city, it is kn
Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee
The Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee is an organization in India responsible for the management of gurdwaras, Sikh places of worship in three states of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh and union territory of Chandigarh. SGPC administers Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar; the SGPC is governed by the chief minister of Punjab. The SGPC manages the security, facility maintenance and religious aspects of Gurdwaras as well as keeping archaeologically rare and sacred artifacts, including weapons, clothes and writings of the Sikh Gurus. Bibi Jagir Kaur became the first woman to be elected president of the SGPC for the second time in September 2004, she had held the same post from March 1999 to November 2000. In 1920 the emerging Akali leadership summoned a general assembly of the Sikhs holding all shades of opinion on 15 November 1920 in vicinity of the Akal Takht in Amritsar; the purpose of this assembly was to elect a representative committee of the Sikhs to administer the Harimandir Sahib Complex and other important historical gurdwaras.
Two days before the proposed conference the British government set up its own committee consisting of 36 Sikhs to manage the Harimandir Sahib. Sikhs held their scheduled meeting and elected a bigger committee consisting of 175 members and named it Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee; the members of the government appointed committee were included in it. Harbans Singh Attari became vice president and Sunder Singh Ramgarhia became secretary of the committee. By that time Master Tara Singh had started taking interest in Sikh religious affairs, he was one of the 175 members elected to the committee. The formation of Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee provided a focal point for the movement for the reformation of Sikh religious places; the Committee began to take over management of gurdwaras one by one, were resisted by incumbent mahants. Starting in late 1920, a large number of reformers both in urban and rural Punjab had joined to form separate and independent religious orders called jathas.
The primary purpose of a jatha was to gain control over local gurdwaras. A jatha under the command of a jathedar would occupy a shrine and try to take over management in its favor from its current incumbents. Sometimes the transfer went peacefully in the case of smaller Gurdwaras with less income resources; this was done sometimes with the threat of force. The Sikh leadership was aware of the importance of the press for the success of any movement, it enlisted the active support and sympathy of some of the important nationalist papers in the country like'The Independent', The Tribune, Kesri, Milap and Bande Matram. Two of the vernacular dailies Akali and the Akali-te-Pardesi, edited by Master Tara Singh played an important role, it brought the necessary awakening among the Sikh masses and prepared them to undertake the struggle for reform. With the direct and indirect support of the Central Sikh League, the Indian National Congress and the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, the Shiromani Akali Dal started a non-violent struggle against the government for the control of the Gurdwaras.
The reports of some immoral acts perpetrated at Tarn-Taran reached the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee at its meeting on 14 January 1921. A fortnight earlier a local jatha was beaten up and not allowed to perform kirtan at the gurdwara, it decided to send a jatha from Amritsar under Jathedar Teja Singh Bhuchar. Jathedar Kartar Singh Jhabbar with Akalis from'Khara Sauda Bar' joined him. On 25 January, a group of about forty workers took over the control of Sri Darbar Sahib Tarn-Taran from its Mahant. In the ensuing conflict two Akalis were killed and several others wounded by the henchmen of the Mahants; the Mahants were ousted from the Gurdwara and the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee appointed a managing committee. At the same time Malcolm Hailey, the governor of the Punjab showed his readiness to assist the Sikhs in taking possession of all the important Gurdwaras in the province through a five-member committee constituted by the Sikh members of the legislative council. Hailey presented a draft of a new Gurdwara Bill to the Akali leaders imprisoned in Lahore fort.
Master Tara Singh, Bhag singh Advocate, gurcharn singh Advocate, Teja Singh Akerpuri Sohan Singh Josh and Sardar Teja Singh Samundri studied each clause of the bill carefully. The bill met all the Akali demands and was passed into law on 28 July 1925 by the Governor General of India after its ratification by the Punjab legislative council; the Act came into force on 1 November 1925 with a gazette notification from the government of Punjab. According to the Act a Central Gurdwara Board elected by the Sikhs was to be the custodian of all-important Sikh places of worship; the first meeting of the Gurdwara board passed a resolution that its designation be changed to Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, accepted by the government. Thus ended what came to be known in common parlance as the'Third Sikh War'; the Punjab government withdrew its orders declaring the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee and other Akali organs as unlawful associations and recognized the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee as a representative body of the Sikhs.
In making the Punjab government agree to such recognition, the Akali leadership undoubtedly scored a victory over the bureaucracy. The Sikh Gurdwara bill met most of the demands of the Sikhs, but the government was willing to release the prisoners conditionally i.e. on the understanding to be given by the Akalis that they would agree to work for the Gurdwara Act. The Shiromani Akali Dal and the executive declared conditions imposed for the release of prisoners as wholly unnecessar
Guru Nanak Dev University
Guru Nanak Dev University was established at Amritsar, India on 24 November 1969 to commemorate Guru Nanak Dev's birth quincentenary celebrations. Guru Nanak Dev University campus is spread over 500 acres near village of Kot Khalsa, nearly 8 km west of the Amritsar, next to Khalsa College, Amritsar. G. N. D. U. is both an affiliating university. In conceiving its future course, the objectives enshrined in the Act 1969 emphasized that the new university would make provision for imparting education and promoting research in the humanities, learned professions, sciences of applied nature and technology. Studies and research on the life and teachings of Guru Nanak, in addition to working towards the promotion of Punjabi language and spreading education among educationally backward classes and communities were the other commitments. Guru Nanak Dev University campus is spread over 500 acres near the village of Kot Khalsa, some 8 km west of the Amritsar City on Amritsar - Lahore highway, next to Khalsa College, Amritsar.
G. N. D. U. Presents a picture of modern architecture. Traditional red brick geometrical blocks represent its regard for time-honored values and its commitment to scientific advancement. Making its humble beginning in an annex of the adjoining Khalsa College, the university today boasts 37 academic departments, two regional centers, three constituent colleges and a score of support service departments together with several administrative offices; the National Assessment and Accreditation Council accredited the university at the five-star level. Bishan Singh Samundri Karam Singh Gill J. S. Grewal S. S. Bal Gurdip Singh Randhawa Harbhajan Singh Soch S. P. Singh Jairup Singh Ajaib Singh Brar Jaspal Singh Sandhu The National Institutional Ranking Framework ranked Guru Nanak Dev University 86 overall in India and 59 among universities in 2018. List of places named after Guru Nanak Dev Official University website
Colby College is a private liberal arts college in Waterville, Maine. 1,800 students from more than 60 countries are enrolled annually. The college offers 54 major fields of 30 minors, it was founded in 1813 as the Maine Literary and Theological Institution until it was renamed after the city it resides in with Waterville College. The donations of Christian philanthropist Gardner Colby saw the institution renamed again to Colby University before concluding on its final and current title, reflecting its liberal arts college curriculum. Located in central Maine, the 714-acre Neo-Georgian campus sits atop Mayflower Hill and overlooks downtown Waterville and the Kennebec River Valley. Along with fellow Maine institutions Bates College and Bowdoin College, Colby competes in the New England Small College Athletic Conference and the Colby-Bates-Bowdoin Consortium. Colby is ranked as the 18th best liberal arts in the country according to U. S. News & World Report and is ranked 61st among all institutions of higher learning according to Forbes.
On February 27, 1813, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, led by Baptists, adopted a petition to establish the Maine Literary and Theological Institution. It was moved to Waterville and used 179 acres of land donated by citizens. In 1818, trustees assigned the institution to Rev. Jeremiah Chaplin and classes began a vacant Waterville home. After Maine separated from Massachusetts in 1820, the first Maine legislature affirmed the Massachusetts charter for the institution, but made significant changes. Students could no longer be denied admission based on religion, the institution was prohibited from applying a religious test when selecting board members, the trustees now had the authority to grant degrees; the Maine Literary and Theological Institution was renamed Waterville College on February 5, 1821, four years the theological department was discontinued. In 1828 the trustees decided to turn the somewhat informal preparatory department of the college into a separate school, to, given the name Waterville Academy (most called the Coburn Classical Institute.
In 1833, Rev. Rufus Babcock became Colby's second president, students formed the nation's first college-based anti-slavery society. In 1845, the college's first Greek Society was formed, a chapter of Delta Kappa Epsilon, followed by chapters of Zeta Psi in 1850 and Delta Upsilon in 1852. During the Civil War, many young men were called away from school to join the fight. Shannon, Henry C. Merriam, Benjamin Butler. Twenty-seven Waterville College students perished in the war, more than 100 men from the town. In the years following the war, as was the case at many American colleges, Waterville College was left with few students remaining to pay the bills and a depleted endowment; the college was on the verge of closing. On August 9, 1865, prominent Baptist philanthropist Gardner Colby attended Waterville College's commencement dinner, unbeknownst to anyone in attendance except college president James Tift Champlin, announced a matching $50,000 donation to the college. Trustees of the college voted to construct a library and chapel to honor the Colby men who died in the war, called the Memorial Hall.
The college remained isolated from neighboring Bates College, Bowdoin College due to relative location in Waterville, coupled with socio-economic and political differences. At the 1871 commencement, a Martin Milmore sculpture based on the Lion of Lucerne was added as the centerpiece of the building. In the fall of 1871, Colby University was the first all-male college in New England to accept female students; the national Sigma Kappa sorority was founded at Colby in 1874 by the college's first five female students. However the college resegregated them in 1890. One of the buildings is named after the first woman to attend, Mary Caffrey Low, the valedictorian of the Class of 1875. In 1874, based on the success of its partnership with the Coburn Classical Institute, Colby created relationships with Hebron Academy and Houlton Academy In 1893, the Higgins Classical Institute was deeded to Colby - the last preparatory school that the university would acquire. Students published the first issue of The Colby Echo in 1877.
On January 25, 1899, Colby president Nathaniel Butler Jr.'73, renamed the "university" Colby College. In 1920, Colby celebrated its centennial, marking not the date of the original charter, but the date of its charter from the new State of Maine in 1820. Franklin W. Johnson was appointed president of the college in June 1929; that same year saw the public release of the Maine Higher Education Survey Report, which gave Colby's campus a less than desirable review. Criticisms included a cramped location of just 28 acres located between the Kennebec River and the Maine Central Railroad Company tracks through Waterville, an aging physical plant, proximity to the unpleasant odors of a pulp mill and the soot of the railroad. Using the report as justification, President Johnson presented a proposal to move the college to a more adequate location to the Trustees on June 14, 1929; the campaign to raise funds for the move was complicated by the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression, competing offers for the college's contemplated location emerged.
Most notably, William H. Gannett offered a site in Augusta - a financially attractive option for the college, but a troublesome prospect for the town of Waterville. A joint effort between Waterville citizens and the college raised more than $100,000 to purchase 600 acres near the outskirts of the city on Mayflower