The philosopher's stone, or stone of the philosophers is a legendary alchemical substance capable of turning base metals such as mercury into gold or silver. It is called the elixir of life, useful for rejuvenation and for achieving immortality; the philosopher's stone was the central symbol of the mystical terminology of alchemy, symbolizing perfection at its finest and heavenly bliss. Efforts to discover the philosopher's stone were known as the Magnum Opus. Mention of the philosopher's stone in writing can be found as far back as Cheirokmeta by Zosimos of Panopolis. Alchemical writers assign a longer history. Elias Ashmole and the anonymous author of Gloria Mundi claim that its history goes back to Adam who acquired the knowledge of the stone directly from God; this knowledge was said to be passed down through biblical patriarchs. The legend of the stone was compared to the biblical history of the Temple of Solomon and the rejected cornerstone described in Psalm 118; the theoretical roots outlining the stone’s creation can be traced to Greek philosophy.
Alchemists used the classical elements, the concept of anima mundi, Creation stories presented in texts like Plato's Timaeus as analogies for their process. According to Plato, the four elements are derived from a common source or prima materia, associated with chaos. Prima materia is the name alchemists assign to the starting ingredient for the creation of the philosopher's stone; the importance of this philosophical first matter persisted throughout the history of alchemy. In the seventeenth century, Thomas Vaughan writes, "the first matter of the stone is the same with the first matter of all things". Early medieval alchemists built upon the work of Zosimos in the Byzantine Empire and the Arab empires. Byzantine and Arab alchemists were fascinated by the concept of metal transmutation and attempted to carry out the process; the 8th-century Muslim alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan analyzed each classical element in terms of the four basic qualities. Fire was both hot and dry, earth cold and dry, water cold and moist, air hot and moist.
He theorized that every metal was a combination of these four principles, two of them interior and two exterior. From this premise, it was reasoned that the transmutation of one metal into another could be affected by the rearrangement of its basic qualities; this change would be mediated by a substance, which came to be called xerion in Greek and al-iksir in Arabic. It was considered to exist as a dry red powder made from a legendary stone—the philosopher's stone; the elixir powder came to be regarded as a crucial component of transmutation by Arab alchemists. In the 11th century, there was a debate among Muslim world chemists on whether the transmutation of substances was possible. A leading opponent was the Persian polymath Avicenna, who discredited the theory of transmutation of substances, stating, "Those of the chemical craft know well that no change can be effected in the different species of substances, though they can produce the appearance of such change."According to legend, the 13th-century scientist and philosopher Albertus Magnus is said to have discovered the philosopher's stone.
Magnus does not confirm he discovered the stone in his writings, but he did record that he witnessed the creation of gold by "transmutation". The 16th-century Swiss alchemist Paracelsus believed in the existence of alkahest, which he thought to be an undiscovered element from which all other elements were derivative forms. Paracelsus believed; the English philosopher Sir Thomas Browne in his spiritual testament Religio Medici identified the religious aspect of the quest for the philosopher's Stone when declaring: The smattering I have of the Philosophers stone, hath taught me a great deale of Divinity. A mystical text published in the 17th century called the Mutus Liber appears to be a symbolic instruction manual for concocting a philosopher's stone. Called the "wordless book", it was a collection of 15 illustrations; the equivalent of the philosopher's stone in Buddhism and Hinduism is the Cintamani. It is referred to as Paras/Parasmani or Paris. In Mahayana Buddhism, Chintamani is held by the bodhisattvas and Ksitigarbha.
It is seen carried upon the back of the Lung ta, depicted on Tibetan prayer flags. By reciting the Dharani of Chintamani, Buddhist tradition maintains that one attains the Wisdom of Buddhas, is able to understand the truth of the Buddhas, turns afflictions into Bodhi, it is said to allow one to see the Holy Retinue of his assembly upon one's deathbed. In Tibetan Buddhist tradition the Chintamani is sometimes depicted as a luminous pearl and is in the possession of several of different forms of the Buddha. Within Hinduism it is connected with the gods Ganesha. In Hindu tradition it is depicted as a fabulous jewel in the possession of the Nāga king or as on the forehead of the Makara; the Yoga Vasistha written in the 10th century AD, contains a story about the philosopher's stone. A great Hindu sage wrote about the spiritual accomplishment of Gnosis using the metaphor of the philosopher's stone. Saint Jnaneshwar wrote a commentar
Attar of Nishapur
Abū Ḥamīd bin Abū Bakr Ibrāhīm, better known by his pen-names Farīd ud-Dīn and ʿAṭṭār, was a twelfth-century Persian poet, theoretician of Sufism, hagiographer from Nishapur who had an immense and lasting influence on Persian poetry and Sufism. Manṭiq-uṭ-Ṭayr and Ilāhī-Nāma are among his most famous works. Information about Attar's life is scarce, he is mentioned by only two of his contemporaries, ` Tusi. However, all sources confirm that he was from Nishapur, a major city of medieval Khorasan, according to `Awfi, he was a poet of the Seljuq period. According to Reinert: It seems that he was not well known as a poet in his own lifetime, except at his home town, his greatness as a mystic, a poet, a master of narrative was not discovered until the 15th century. At the same time, the mystic Persian poet Rumi has mentioned: "Attar was the spirit, Sanai his eyes twain, And in time thereafter, Came we in their train" and mentions in another poem: "Attar has traversed the seven cities of Love, We are still at the turn of one street".`Attar was the son of a prosperous chemist, receiving an excellent education in various fields.
While his works say little else about his life, they tell us that he practiced the profession of pharmacy and attended to a large number of customers. The people he helped in the pharmacy used to confide their troubles in `Attar and this affected him deeply, he abandoned his pharmacy store and traveled - to Baghdad, Kufa, Medina, Khwarizm and India, meeting with Sufi Shaykhs - and returned promoting Sufi ideas.`Attar's initiation into Sufi practices is subject to much speculation. Of all the famous Sufi Shaykhs supposed to have been his teachers, only one - Majd ud-Din Baghdadi a disciple of Najmuddin Kubra- comes within the bounds of possibility; the only certainty in this regard is ` Attar's own statement. In any case it can be taken for granted that from childhood onward `Attar, encouraged by his father, was interested in the Sufis and their sayings and way of life, regarded their saints as his spiritual guides. At the age of 78, Attar died a violent death in the massacre which the Mongols inflicted on Nishapur in April 1221.
Today, his mausoleum is located in Nishapur. It was built by Ali-Shir Nava'i in the 16th century and on underwent a total renovation during Reza Shah the great in 1940; the thoughts depicted in `Attar's works reflects the whole evolution of the Sufi movement. The starting point is the idea that the body-bound soul's awaited release and return to its source in the other world can be experienced during the present life in mystic union attainable through inward purification. In explaining his thoughts,'Attar uses material not only from Sufi sources but from older ascetic legacies. Although his heroes are for the most part Sufis and ascetics, he introduces stories from historical chronicles, collections of anecdotes, all types of high-esteemed literature, his talent for perception of deeper meanings behind outward appearances enables him to turn details of everyday life into illustrations of his thoughts. The idiosyncrasy of `Attar's presentations invalidates his works as sources for study of the historical persons whom he introduces.
As sources on the hagiology and phenomenology of Sufism, his works have immense value. Judging from `Attar's writings, he approached the available Aristotelian heritage with skepticism and dislike, he did not seem to want to reveal the secrets of nature. This is remarkable in the case of medicine, which fell well within the scope of his professional expertise as pharmacist, he had no motive for sharing his expert knowledge in the manner customary among court panegyrists, whose type of poetry he despised and never practiced. Such knowledge is only brought into his works in contexts where the theme of a story touches on a branch of the natural sciences. According to Edward G. Browne, Attar as well as Rumi and Sana'i, were Sunni as evident from the fact that their poetry abounds with praise for the first two caliphs Abu Bakr and Umar ibn al-Khattāb - who are detested by Shia mysticism. According to Annemarie Schimmel, the tendency among Shia authors to include leading mystical poets such as Rumi and Attar among their own ranks, became stronger after the introduction of Twelver Shia as the state religion in the Safavid Empire in 1501.
In the introductions of Mukhtār-Nāma and Khusraw-Nāma, Attar lists the titles of further products of his pen: Dīwān Asrār-Nāma Manṭiq-uṭ-Ṭayr known as Maqāmāt-uṭ-Ṭuyūr Muṣībat-Nāma Ilāhī-Nāma Jawāhir-Nāma Šarḥ al-Qalb He states, in the introduction of the Mukhtār-Nāma, that he destroyed the Jawāhir-Nāma' and the Šarḥ al-Qalb with his own hand. Although the contemporary sources confirm only `Attar's authorship of the Dīwān and the Manṭiq-uṭ-Ṭayr, there are no grounds for doubting the authenticity of the Mukhtār-Nāma and Khusraw-Nāma and their prefaces. One work is missing from these lists, namely the Tadhkirat-ul-Awliyā, omitted because it is a prose work. In its introduction `Attar mentions three other works of his, including one entitled Šarḥ al-Qalb the same that he destroyed; the nature of the other two, entitled Kašf al-Asrār and Maʿrifat al-Nafs, remains unknown. Led by the hoopoe, the birds of the world set forth in search of their king, Simurgh, their quest takes them through s
Yemen known as the Republic of Yemen, is a country at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. Yemen is the second-largest Arab sovereign state in the peninsula, occupying 527,970 square kilometres; the coastline stretches for about 2,000 kilometres. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Guardafui Channel to the south, the Arabian Sea and Oman to the east. Yemen's territory includes more than 200 islands. Yemen's constitutionally stated capital is the city of Sana'a, but the city has been under Houthi rebel control since February 2015. Yemen was the home of the Sabaeans, a trading state that flourished for over a thousand years and included parts of modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea. In 275 CE, the region came under the rule of the Jewish-influenced Himyarite Kingdom. Christianity arrived in the fourth century. Islam spread in the seventh century and Yemenite troops were crucial in the expansion of the early Islamic conquests.
Administration of Yemen has long been notoriously difficult. Several dynasties emerged from the ninth to 16th centuries, the Rasulid dynasty being the strongest and most prosperous; the country was divided between the British empires in the early twentieth century. The Zaydi Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen was established after World War I in North Yemen before the creation of the Yemen Arab Republic in 1962. South Yemen remained a British protectorate known as the Aden Protectorate until 1967 when it became an independent state and a Marxist-Leninist state; the two Yemeni states united to form the modern republic of Yemen in 1990. Yemen is the poorest country in the Middle East. Under the rule of President Ali Abdullah Saleh, Yemen was described by critics as a kleptocracy. According to the 2009 International Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, Yemen ranked 164 out of 182 countries surveyed. In the absence of strong state institutions, elite politics in Yemen constituted a de facto form of collaborative governance, where competing tribal, regional and political interests agreed to hold themselves in check through tacit acceptance of the balance it produced.
The informal political settlement was held together by a power-sharing deal among three men: President Saleh, who controlled the state. The Saudi payments have been intended to facilitate the tribes' autonomy from the Yemeni government and to give the Saudi government a mechanism with which to weigh in on Yemen's political decision-making, it is a member of the United Nations, Arab League, Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation, G-77, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab Satellite Communications Organization, Arab Monetary Fund and the World Federation of Trade Unions. Since 2011, Yemen has been in a state of political crisis starting with street protests against poverty, unemployment and president Saleh's plan to amend Yemen's constitution and eliminate the presidential term limit, in effect making him president for life. President Saleh stepped down and the powers of the presidency were transferred to Vice President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, formally elected president on 21 February 2012 in a one-man election.
The total absence of central government during this transitional process engendered the escalation of the several clashes on-going in the country, like the armed conflict between the Houthi rebels of Ansar Allah militia and the al-Islah forces, as well as the al-Qaeda insurgency. In September 2014, the Houthis took over Sana'a with the help of the ousted president Saleh declaring themselves in control of the country after a coup d'état; this resulted in a new civil war and a Saudi Arabian-led military intervention aimed at restoring Hadi's government. At least 56,000 civilians and combatants have been killed in armed violence in Yemen since January 2016; the conflict has resulted in a famine, affecting 17 million people. The lack of safe drinking water, caused by depleted aquifers and the destruction of the country's water infrastructure, has caused the world's worst outbreak of cholera, with the number of suspected cases exceeding 994,751. Over 2,226 people have died since the outbreak began to spread at the end of April 2017.
In 2016 the United Nations reported that Yemen is the country with the most people in need of humanitarian aid in the world with 21.2 million. The term Yamnat was mentioned in Old South Arabian inscriptions on the title of one of the kings of the second Himyarite kingdom known as Shammar Yahrʽish II; the term was referring to the southwestern coastline of the Arabian peninsula and the southern coastline between Aden and Hadramout. The historical Yemen includes much greater territory than that of the current republic of Yemen, it stretches from the northern'Asir Region in southwestern Saudi Arabia to Dhofar Governorate in southern Oman. One etymology derives Yemen from ymnt, meaning "South", plays on the notion of the land to the right. Other sources claim that Yemen is related to yamn or yumn, meaning "felicity" or "blessed", as much of the country is fertile; the Romans called it Arabia Felix, as opposed to Arabia Deserta. Latin and Greek writers used the name "India" to re
The Quran is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God. It is regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature; the Quran is divided into chapters. Muslims believe that the Quran was orally revealed by God to the final Prophet, through the archangel Gabriel, incrementally over a period of some 23 years, beginning on 22 December 609 CE, when Muhammad was 40, concluding in 632, the year of his death. Muslims regard the Quran as Muhammad's most important miracle, a proof of his prophethood, the culmination of a series of divine messages starting with those revealed to Adam and ending with Muhammad; the word "Quran" occurs some 70 times in the Quran's text, other names and words are said to refer to the Quran. According to tradition, several of Muhammad's companions served as scribes and recorded the revelations. Shortly after his death, the Quran was compiled by the companions, who had written down or memorized parts of it; the codices showed differences that motivated Caliph Uthman to establish a standard version, now known as Uthman's codex, considered the archetype of the Quran known today.
There are, variant readings, with minor differences in meaning. The Quran assumes familiarity with major narratives recounted in the Biblical scriptures, it summarizes some, dwells at length on others and, in some cases, presents alternative accounts and interpretations of events. The Quran describes itself as a book of guidance for mankind 2:185, it sometimes offers detailed accounts of specific historical events, it emphasizes the moral significance of an event over its narrative sequence. Hadith are additional written traditions supplementing the Quran. In most denominations of Islam, the Quran is used together with hadith to interpret sharia law. During prayers, the Quran is recited only in Arabic. Someone who has memorized the entire Quran is called a hafiz. Quranic verse is sometimes recited with a special kind of elocution reserved for this purpose, called tajwid. During the month of Ramadan, Muslims complete the recitation of the whole Quran during tarawih prayers. In order to extrapolate the meaning of a particular Quranic verse, most Muslims rely on exegesis, or tafsir.
The word qurʼān appears assuming various meanings. It is a verbal noun of the Arabic verb qaraʼa, meaning "he read" or "he recited"; the Syriac equivalent is qeryānā, which refers to "scripture reading" or "lesson". While some Western scholars consider the word to be derived from the Syriac, the majority of Muslim authorities hold the origin of the word is qaraʼa itself. Regardless, it had become an Arabic term by Muhammad's lifetime. An important meaning of the word is the "act of reciting", as reflected in an early Quranic passage: "It is for Us to collect it and to recite it."In other verses, the word refers to "an individual passage recited ". Its liturgical context is seen in a number of passages, for example: "So when al-qurʼān is recited, listen to it and keep silent." The word may assume the meaning of a codified scripture when mentioned with other scriptures such as the Torah and Gospel. The term has related synonyms that are employed throughout the Quran; each synonym possesses its own distinct meaning, but its use may converge with that of qurʼān in certain contexts.
Such terms include kitāb. The latter two terms denote units of revelation. In the large majority of contexts with a definite article, the word is referred to as the "revelation", that, "sent down" at intervals. Other related words are: dhikr, used to refer to the Quran in the sense of a reminder and warning, ḥikmah, sometimes referring to the revelation or part of it; the Quran describes itself as "the discernment", "the mother book", "the guide", "the wisdom", "the remembrance" and "the revelation". Another term is al-kitāb, though it is used in the Arabic language for other scriptures, such as the Torah and the Gospels; the term mus'haf is used to refer to particular Quranic manuscripts but is used in the Quran to identify earlier revealed books. Islamic tradition relates that Muhammad received his first revelation in the Cave of Hira during one of his isolated retreats to the mountains. Thereafter, he received revelations over a period of 23 years. According to hadith and Muslim history, after Muhammad immigrated to Medina and formed an independent Muslim community, he ordered many of his companions to recite the Quran and to learn and teach the laws, which were revealed daily.
It is related that some of the Quraysh who were taken prisoners at the Battle of Badr regained their freedom after they had taught some of the Muslims the simple writing of the time. Thus a group of Muslims became literate; as it was spoken, the Quran was recorded on tablets and the wide, flat ends of date palm fronds. Most suras were in use amongst early Mu
Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī, was a Persian polymath, alchemist and important figure in the history of medicine. He wrote on logic and grammar. A comprehensive thinker, Razi made fundamental and enduring contributions to various fields, which he recorded in over 200 manuscripts, is remembered for numerous advances in medicine through his observations and discoveries. An early proponent of experimental medicine, he became a successful doctor, served as chief physician of Baghdad and Ray hospitals; as a teacher of medicine, he attracted students of all backgrounds and interests and was said to be compassionate and devoted to the service of his patients, whether rich or poor. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, he was among the first to use humoral theory to distinguish one contagious disease from another, wrote a pioneering book about smallpox and measles providing clinical characterization of the diseases, he discovered numerous compounds and chemicals including alcohol and sulfuric acid.
Through translation, his medical works and ideas became known among medieval European practitioners and profoundly influenced medical education in the Latin West. Some volumes of his work Al-Mansuri, namely "On Surgery" and "A General Book on Therapy", became part of the medical curriculum in Western universities. Edward Granville Browne considers him as "probably the greatest and most original of all the Muslim physicians, one of the most prolific as an author". Additionally, he has been described as a doctor's doctor, the father of pediatrics, a pioneer of ophthalmology. For example, he was the first to recognize the reaction of the eye's pupil to light. Razi was born in the city of Ray situated on the Great Silk Road that for centuries facilitated trade and cultural exchanges between East and West, his nisba, Râzī, means "from the city of Ray" in Persian. It is located on the southern slopes of the Alborz mountain range situated near Iran. In his youth, Razi moved to Baghdad where he practiced at the local bimaristan.
He was invited back to Rey by Mansur ibn Ishaq the governor of Rey, became a bimaristan's head. He dedicated two books on medicine to Mansur ibn Ishaq, The Spiritual Physic and Al-Mansūrī on Medicine; because of his newly acquired popularity as physician, Razi was invited to Baghdad where he assumed the responsibilities of a director in a new hospital named after its founder al-Muʿtaḍid. Under the reign of Al-Mutadid's son, Al-Muktafi Razi was commissioned to build a new hospital, which should be the largest of the Abbasid Caliphate. To pick the future hospital's location, Razi adopted what is nowadays known as an evidence-based approach suggesting having fresh meat hung in various places throughout the city and to build the hospital where meat took longest to rot, he spent the last years of his life in his native Rey suffering from glaucoma. His eye affliction ended in total blindness; the cause of his blindness is uncertain. One account mentioned by Ibn Juljul attributed the cause to a blow to his head by his patron, Mansur ibn Ishaq, for failing to provide proof for his alchemy theories.
He was approached by a physician offering an ointment to cure his blindness. Al-Razi asked him how many layers does the eye contain and when he was unable to receive an answer, he declined the treatment stating "my eyes will not be treated by one who does not know the basics of its anatomy"; the lectures of Razi attracted many students. As Ibn al-Nadim relates in Fihrist, Razi was considered a shaikh, an honorary title given to one entitled to teach and surrounded by several circles of students; when someone raised a question, it was passed on to students of the'first circle'. When all students would fail to answer, Razi himself would consider the query. Razi was a generous person by nature, with a considerate attitude towards his patients, he was charitable to the poor, treated them without payment in any form, wrote for them a treatise Man La Yaḥḍuruhu al-Ṭabīb, or Who Has No Physician to Attend Him, with medical advice. One former pupil from Tabaristan came to look after him, but as al-Biruni wrote, Razi rewarded him for his intentions and sent him back home, proclaiming that his final days were approaching.
According to Biruni, Razi died in Rey in 925 sixty years of age. Biruni, who considered Razi as his mentor, among the first penned a short biography of Razi including a bibliography of his numerous works. Ibn al-Nadim recorded an account by Razi of a Chinese student who copied down all of Galen's works in Chinese as Razi read them to him out loud after the student learned fluent Arabic in 5 months and attended Razi's lectures. After his death, his fame spread beyond the Middle East to Medieval Europe, lived on. In an undated catalog of the library at Peterborough Abbey, most from the 14th century, Razi is listed as a part author of ten books on medicine. Al-Razi was one of the world's first great medical experts, he is considered the father of psychotherapy. Razi wrote: Smallpox appears when blood "boils" and is infected, resulting in vapours being expelled, thus juvenile blood is being transformed into richer blood, having the color of mature wine. At this stage, smallpox shows up as "bubbles found in wine"... this disease can occur at other times (
Ibn Wahshiyyah the Nabataean known as ʾAbū Bakr ʾAḥmad bin ʿAlī was an Arab alchemist, farm toxicologist and historian born at Qusayn near Kufa in Iraq. He was the first historian to be able to at least decipher what was written in the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, by relating them to the contemporary Coptic language. Ibn al-Nadim lists a large number of books on magic, offerings, alchemy and medicine, that were either written, or translated from older books, by Ibn Wahshiyya, his works on alchemy were co-authored with an alchemist named Abu Talib al-Zalyat. In agriculture, the Filahât al-Nabâtiyyah of Ibn Wahshiyya is the most influential of all Muslim works on the subject. Written in the third/ninth century and drawn from Chaldaean and Babylonian sources, the book deals not only with agriculture but with the esoteric sciences magic and sorcery, has always been considered to be one of the important books in Arabic on the occult sciences. Ibn Wahshiyya translated from Nabataean the Nabataean Agriculture, a major treatise on the subject, said to be based on ancient Babylonian sources.
The book extols Babylonian civilization against that of the conquering Arabs. It contains valuable information on agriculture and superstitions, in particular discusses beliefs attributed to the Sabians – understood as people who lived before Adam – that Adam had parents and that he came from India; these ideas were discussed by the Jewish philosophers Yehuda Halevi and Maimonides, through which they became an influence on the seventeenth century French Millenarian Isaac La Peyrère. He wrote a toxicology treatise, the Book of Poisons, combining contemporary science and astrology. Ibn Wahshiyya was one of the first historians to be able to at least decipher what was written in the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, by relating them to the contemporary Coptic language used by Coptic priests in his time. An Arabic manuscript of Ibn Wahshiyya's book Kitab Shawq al-Mustaham, a work that discusses a number of ancient alphabets, in which he deciphered a number of Egyptian hieroglyphs, was read by Athanasius Kircher in the 17th century, translated and published in English by Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall in 1806 as Ancient Alphabets and Hieroglyphic Characters Explained.
This book was known to a colleague of Champollion. Dr Okasha El Daly, at University College London's Institute of Archaeology, claims that some hieroglyphs had been decoded by Ibn Wahshiyya, eight centuries before Champollion deciphered the Rosetta stone. A. K. Eyma critiques this idea and think that "there was no such thing as an Arabic decipherment of hieroglyphs", he published several cipher alphabets. Islamic science Muslim Agricultural Revolution List of Shi'a Muslims Šauq al-mustahām fī maʿrifat rumūz al-aqlām Ibn-Waḥšīya, Aḥmad Ibn-ʻAlī. Ancient alphabets and hieroglyphic characters explained: with an account of the Egyptian priests, their classes and sacrifices. Bulmer. Retrieved 12 June 2011. Hamarneh, Sami K.. "Ibn Wahshiyya, Abū Bakr Ahmad Ibn ͑Salī Ibn Āl-Mukhtār". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Encyclopedia.com
Al-Mu'izz ibn Badis
Al- Muʻizz ibn Bādīs. Al-Muizz ascended the throne as a minor following the death of his father Badis ibn Mansur, with his aunt acting as regent. In 1016 there was a bloody revolt in Ifriqiya in which the Fatimid residence Al-Mansuriya was destroyed and 20,000 Shiites were massacred; the unrest forced a ceasefire in the conflict with the Hammadids of Algeria, their independence was recognized in 1018. Al-Muizz took over the government in 1022 following the overthrow of his aunt; the relationship with the Fatimids was strained, when in 1027 they supported a revolt of the Zanatas in Tripolitania which resulted in permanent loss of control of the region. His son Abdallah shortly ruled Sicily in 1038-1040, after intervening with a Zirid army in the civil war that broke out in the island; the political turmoil notwithstanding, the general economic wellbeing made possible an extensive building programme. However, the kingdom found itself in economic crisis in the 1040s, reflected in currency devaluation and famine.
This may have been related to the high level of tribute which the Zirids were compelled to pay annually to the Fatimids. When al-Muizz recognised the Abbasids in Baghdad as rightful Caliphs in 1045 and adopted Sunni orthodoxy, the break with the Fatimids was complete, he denounced the Fatimids and their followers as heretics in newly minted coinage. The Fatimids sent a military campaign composed of Bedouin tribes of the Banu Hilal and the Banu Sulaym from Egypt to Ifriqiya; the invasion of the Bedouin led to great hardship after the defeat at Jabal Haydaran impacting agriculture in Ifriqiya. The Fatimids dispatched Makin al-Dawla to rally the Bedouin invaders and duly besiege al-Muizz in Kairouan and conquer Gabes and much of Ifriqiya’s hinterlands in 1053–1054.*Brett, Michael. Fatimid Empire. Edinburgh University Press. Pp. 186–187. ISBN 978-0-7486-4077-5; the conquest of Kairouan in 1057 resulted in further anarchy. The Zirids lost control over the hinterland and were only able to retain the coastal areas, the capital being moved to Mahdia.
With the growth of Bedouin Emirates and the continuing insecurity inland, the economy of Ifriqiya looked towards the Mediterranean, with the result the coastal cities grew in importance through maritime trade and piracy. Al-Muizz was succeeded by his son Tamim ibn Muizz, he is thought to be the author of the famous Kitab `umdat al-kuttab wa `uddat dhawi al-albab. It is divided in twelve chapters, writes amongst others on the excellence of the pen, he wrote on the preparation of types of inks, the preparation of colored inks, metallic inks, the coloring of dyes and mixtures, secret writing, the making of paper and the Arabic gum and glue