Central District, Seattle
The Central Area called the Central District or CD, is a residential district in Seattle located east of First Hill. The Central District has been one of Seattle's most racially and ethnically diverse neighborhoods, was once the center of Seattle's black community and a major hub of African-American businesses; the culture and demographics of the Central District have changed throughout many years. It started out as a predominantly Jewish neighborhood. Jewish residents built Temple De Hirsch on Union Street in 1907. Other former synagogues in the neighborhood are the former Sephardic Bikur Holim synagogue, Herzl Congregation synagogue, Chevra Bikur Cholim. A few decades the Central District became a home to Japanese-Americans in Seattle; the blocks between 14th and 18th Avenues and Yesler Way and Jackson Street still retain a strong Japanese presence—the Buddhist Church, Seattle Koyasan Church, Wisteria Park, Japanese Congregational Church, Keiro Nursing Home, the Kawabe Memorial House. During World War II, presidential Executive Order 9066 made possible the removal of American citizens of Japanese descent from the West Coast.
All Japanese residents were taken out of their homes and sent to internment camps. This and many race-restricted covenants to the north and south paved the way for many African Americans to find a new home in the Central District as part of the Second Great Migration to the city in search of employment opportunities in the munitions plants during the war as well as taking advantage of the post-war economic expansion. By the 1970s, Central District became an African-American neighborhood and the center of the civil rights movement in Seattle. In 1970, Blacks made up nearly 80% of the neighborhood's population However, it marked the neighborhood's decline into poverty and crime for another two decades. In the early 21st century, several demographic trends are changing the population of the Central District again. Low-income segments of the population are moving southward toward the Rainier Valley, while more affluent residents, who might otherwise have purchased homes on Capitol Hill, Leschi, or Mt. Baker are moving into the Central District as real estate and rental property become more expensive in the former neighborhoods and commuting times and costs make suburban areas less attractive.
Due to this market pressure, housing in the Central District is mixed, with some homes on the verge of condemnation, others having undergone extensive renovation. Many condemned houses are being replaced by multi-unit condominiums. Easy access to Interstate 5, Interstate 90, Downtown, as well as ample street parking make the Central District an attractive and convenient place to live. Despite the demographic shifts since the early 1970s, many locals still think of the Central District as a predominantly African-American area. One reason for this is that despite the decline in the African-American population, there is black history in the neighborhood, it is home to the Northwest African American Museum. During the early 1960s, the neighborhood was a hotbed for the Seattle civil rights movement. In 1963, civil rights protesters protested against racial discrimination, they participated in a sit-in in downtown Seattle. At the same time, the Black Panther Party used the neighborhood as a staging area for their movement.
As of 2010 the total population of the Central Area is 29,868 with a population, 59.6% White or Caucasian, 21.4% Black or African-American, 9.1% Asian, 0.6% Native American, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 3.2% from other races and 6.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race consisted of 7.3% of the population. Linda Emery Jimi Hendrix Quincy Jones Kyle Townsend Bruce Lee Rose McGowan Brandon Roy Isaiah Stanback Sir Mix-a-Lot Kip Tokuda NoClue The Central District's main thoroughfares are its east boundary along Martin Luther King Jr. Way, its west boundaries along 12th Avenue and Rainier Avenue, its'main street' 23rd Avenue and E. Union, E. Cherry, E. Jefferson, E. Yesler Way, S. Jackson. Bullitt Center Ezell's Chicken TT Minor School Washington Middle School Garfield High School Medgar Evers Pool Garfield Community Center Odessa Brown Clinic Langston Hughes Performing Arts Center Chevra Bikur Cholim The Nova Project Washington Hall Central District News 23rdandunion.org, outgrowth of a 2009 KUOW-FM/Hollow Earth Radio documentary project.
See The Corner: 23rd and Union, The Hub, KUOW News, August 26, 2009. Seattle Photograph Collection, Central District - University of Washington Digital Collection
Rokkō Island is a man-made island in Higashinada-ku, Japan. It is located in the southeast region at Port of Kobe; the island has a 3.4 km by 2 km rectangular shape, covers 5.80 km² or 1,400 acres. The residential area of the island, featuring apartment buildings -- many with views of the sea -- and single family homes, is located in the center of the island. A green belt separates the residential area from port activities; the two international schools located on the island attract many foreign residents to the island. Kobe is a long and narrow city wedged between the coast to the south and the Rokkō Mountains to the north; as Kobe’s population grew, there was no more space to expand. Kobe's situation was a microcosm of the situation faced by the entire island nation. Japan has a shortage of livable land. Urban planners in Kobe came up with an ingenious way to solve this problem: move mountains to create new land. Workers sliced off the tops of some of the wooded local mountains to the northwest of the city.
A ten-mile long underground conveyor belt was created to take the reclaimed land to its new home in the sea. A conveyer carried the rock and earth to barges, which dumped the contents into two miles out into the sea; the massive undertaking took twenty years, from 1973 until 1992, to construct. The 1,400-acre island is shaped like a rectangle. Rokkō Island is not the first island. Port Island was completed a decade before Rokkō Island. In 1173, Taira no Kiyomori, a military leader of the late Heian period of Japan, built an island known as Kyogashima in 1173. There are two main forms of public transportation to the island; the Rokko Liner, an automated and elevated monorail, runs over the center of the island and whisks people on and off. The Rokkō Liner stops at three stations on the island: Marine Park, Island Center, Island Kita-Guchi, it connects Rokkō Island to Minami Uozaki, Uozaki Station on the Hanshin Line and Sumiyoshi Station on the JR Kobe Line. The Kobe Minato Kanko Bus is another option.
The Harbor Highway is a toll road which links in Port Island from Rokko Island. The Hanshin Expressway Route 5 Wangan Route heads to Osaka. Limousine buses depart from the Kobe Bay Sheraton Hotel to Kansai Airport or to Universal Studios Japan. Ferry boats leave the island every day for Shikoku; the major business on the island is related to the Kobe-Osaka International Port Corporation which operated both port container terminals, port liner berths and port ferry terminals. Several manufacturing companies operate on the island including the chocolatier, Morozoff Ltd; the Asia One Center used to house the P&G Japan Head Office. Rokkō Island features businesses catering to the local residents and tourists including two hotels and restaurants. Kobe International University Rokkō Island High School Kobe City Koyo Junior High School (神戸市立向洋中学校） Rokkō Island Elementary School (神戸市立路六甲アイランド小学校） Canadian Academy Deutsche Schule Kobe/European School Residents can walk, run, or bike on the 5 km long green belt pathway that encircles the island.
The loop takes you through trees and at Marine Park, you’ll get a view of a row of Palm Trees and the Pacific Ocean. The River Mall is an artificial river about 1 km long. In the summer, many children play in the wading pool. There are several playgrounds on the island; the is a community fitness center with exercise equipment, an indoor lap pool. Residents can take lessons. There is an indoor skateboarding park. There are several places to play futsal, indoor soccer. A waterpark opens in the summer. Two museums are located on Rokkō Island. Kobe City Koiso Memorial Museum of Art is a small museum that commemorates the works of Kobe botanical artist Ryohei Koiso; the museum features a replica of his art studio, an art library, three exhibition rooms. The island is home to the Kobe Fashion Museum, located in a futuristic looking building, which has exhibits on the history of fashion, seasonal exhibitions, a library. Various events are held throughout the year for island residents and visitors including a farmer’s market and Christmas caroling.
RIC Summer Evening Carnival features people of various nationalities dancing the bon odori together during the festival. The Rokko Island Halloween and Harvest Festival is an annual event featuring a costume parade, costume contest, pumpkin carving, a haunted house, live shows, trick-or-treating
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal, denser than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable, has a low melting point; when freshly cut, lead is silvery with a hint of blue. Lead has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes each include a major decay chain of heavier elements. Lead is a unreactive post-transition metal, its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature. Compounds of lead are found in the +2 oxidation state rather than the +4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group. Exceptions are limited to organolead compounds. Like the lighter members of the group, lead tends to bond with itself. Lead is extracted from its ores. Galena, a principal ore of lead bears silver, interest in which helped initiate widespread extraction and use of lead in ancient Rome. Lead production declined after the fall of Rome and did not reach comparable levels until the Industrial Revolution. In 2014, the annual global production of lead was about ten million tonnes, over half of, from recycling.
Lead's high density, low melting point and relative inertness to oxidation make it useful. These properties, combined with its relative abundance and low cost, resulted in its extensive use in construction, batteries and shot, solders, fusible alloys, white paints, leaded gasoline, radiation shielding. In the late 19th century, lead's toxicity was recognized, its use has since been phased out of many applications. However, many countries still allow the sale of products that expose humans to lead, including some types of paints and bullets. Lead is a toxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones, it acts as a neurotoxin damaging the nervous system and interfering with the function of biological enzymes, causing neurological disorders, such as brain damage and behavioral problems. A lead atom has 82 electrons, arranged in an electron configuration of 4f145d106s26p2; the sum of lead's first and second ionization energies—the total energy required to remove the two 6p electrons—is close to that of tin, lead's upper neighbor in the carbon group.
This is unusual. The similarity of ionization energies is caused by the lanthanide contraction—the decrease in element radii from lanthanum to lutetium, the small radii of the elements from hafnium onwards; this is due to poor shielding of the nucleus by the lanthanide 4f electrons. The sum of the first four ionization energies of lead exceeds that of tin, contrary to what periodic trends would predict. Relativistic effects, which become significant in heavier atoms, contribute to this behavior. One such effect is the inert pair effect: the 6s electrons of lead become reluctant to participate in bonding, making the distance between nearest atoms in crystalline lead unusually long. Lead's lighter carbon group congeners form stable or metastable allotropes with the tetrahedrally coordinated and covalently bonded diamond cubic structure; the energy levels of their outer s- and p-orbitals are close enough to allow mixing into four hybrid sp3 orbitals. In lead, the inert pair effect increases the separation between its s- and p-orbitals, the gap cannot be overcome by the energy that would be released by extra bonds following hybridization.
Rather than having a diamond cubic structure, lead forms metallic bonds in which only the p-electrons are delocalized and shared between the Pb2+ ions. Lead has a face-centered cubic structure like the sized divalent metals calcium and strontium. Pure lead has a silvery appearance with a hint of blue, it tarnishes on contact with moist air and takes on a dull appearance, the hue of which depends on the prevailing conditions. Characteristic properties of lead include high density, malleability and high resistance to corrosion due to passivation. Lead's close-packed face-centered cubic structure and high atomic weight result in a density of 11.34 g/cm3, greater than that of common metals such as iron and zinc. This density is the origin of the idiom to go over like a lead balloon; some rarer metals are denser: tungsten and gold are both at 19.3 g/cm3, osmium—the densest metal known—has a density of 22.59 g/cm3 twice that of lead. Lead is a soft metal with a Mohs hardness of 1.5. It is somewhat ductile.
The bulk modulus of lead—a measure of its ease of compressibility—is 45.8 GPa. In comparison, that of aluminium is 75.2 GPa. Lead's tensile strength, at 12–17 MPa, is low; the melting point of lead—at 327.5 °C —is low compared to most metals. Its boiling point of 1749 °C is the lowest among the carbon group elements; the electrical resistivity of lead at 20 °C is 192 nanoohm-meters an order of magnitude higher than those of other industrial metals. Lead is a superconductor at temperatures lower than 7.19 K.
San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the US state of California. It is surrounded by a contiguous region known as the San Francisco Bay Area, is dominated by the large cities of San Jose, San Francisco and Oakland. San Francisco Bay drains water from 40 percent of California. Water from the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, from the Sierra Nevada mountains, flow into Suisun Bay, which travels through the Carquinez Strait to meet with the Napa River at the entrance to San Pablo Bay, which connects at its south end to San Francisco Bay; the Guadalupe River enters the bay at its southernmost point in San Jose. The Guadalupe drains water from the Santa Cruz mountains and Hamilton Mountain ranges in southernmost San Jose, it enters the bay at the town of Alviso. It connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait. However, this entire group of interconnected bays is called the San Francisco Bay; the bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on February 2, 2012. The bay covers somewhere between 400 and 1,600 square miles, depending on which sub-bays, wetlands, so on are included in the measurement.
The main part of the bay measures three to twelve miles wide east-to-west and somewhere between 48 miles 1 and 60 miles 2 north-to-south. It is the largest Pacific estuary in the Americas; the bay was navigable as far south as San Jose until the 1850s, when hydraulic mining released massive amounts of sediment from the rivers that settled in those parts of the bay that had little or no current. Wetlands and inlets were deliberately filled in, reducing the Bay's size since the mid-19th century by as much as one third. Large areas of wetlands have been restored, further confusing the issue of the Bay's size. Despite its value as a waterway and harbor, many thousands of acres of marshy wetlands at the edges of the bay were, for many years, considered wasted space; as a result, soil excavated for building projects or dredged from channels was dumped onto the wetlands and other parts of the bay as landfill. From the mid-19th century through the late 20th century, more than a third of the original bay was filled and built on.
The deep, damp soil in these areas is subject to soil liquefaction during earthquakes, most of the major damage close to the Bay in the Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 occurred to structures on these areas. The Marina District of San Francisco, hard hit by the 1989 earthquake, was built on fill, placed there for the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, although liquefaction did not occur on a large scale. In the 1990s, San Francisco International Airport proposed filling in hundreds more acres to extend its overcrowded international runways in exchange for purchasing other parts of the bay and converting them back to wetlands; the idea was, remains, controversial. There are five large islands in San Francisco Bay. Alameda, the largest island, was created when a shipping lane was cut to form the Port of Oakland in 1901, it is now a suburban community. Angel Island was known as "Ellis Island West" because it served as the entry point for immigrants from East Asia, it is now a state park accessible by ferry.
Mountainous Yerba Buena Island is pierced by a tunnel linking the east and west spans of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge. Attached to the north is the artificial and flat Treasure Island, site of the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition. From the Second World War until the 1990s, both islands served as military bases and are now being redeveloped. Isolated in the center of the Bay is Alcatraz, the site of the famous federal penitentiary; the federal prison on Alcatraz Island no longer functions, but the complex is a popular tourist site. Despite its name, Mare Island in the northern part of the bay is a peninsula rather than an island. San Francisco Bay is thought to represent a down-warping of the Earth's crust between the San Andreas Fault to the west and the Hayward Fault to the east, though the precise nature of this remains under study. About 560,000 years ago, a tectonic shift caused the large inland Lake Corcoran to spill out the central valley and through the Carquinez Strait, carving out sediment and forming canyons in what is now the northern part of the San Francisco Bay and Golden Gate strait.
Until the last ice age, the basin, now filled by the San Francisco Bay was a large linear valley with small hills, similar to most of the valleys of the Coast Ranges. As the great ice sheets began to melt, around 11,000 years ago, the sea level started to rise. By 5000 BC the sea level rose 300 feet; the valley become a bay, the small hills became islands. From 15,000 – 10,000 years ago, the Ohlone tribe inhabited the area, now the San Francisco Bay; the natives were displaced 5,000 years ago as the bay filled with water due to the rising sea level at the end of the ice age. The first European to see San Francisco Bay is N. de Morena, left at New Albion at Drakes Bay in Marin County, California by Sir Francis Drake in 1579 and walked to Mexico. The first recorded European discovery of San Francisco Bay was on November 4, 1769 when Spanish explorer Gaspar de Portolà, unable to find the port of Monterey, continued north close to what is now Pacifica and reached the summit of the 1,200-foot-high Sweeney Ridge, now marked as the place where he first sighted San Francisco Bay.
Portolá and his party did not realize what they had discovered, thinking they had arrived at a large arm of what is now called Drakes Bay. At the time, Drakes Bay went by the name Bahia de San
Fremont is a neighborhood in Seattle, United States. A separate city, it was annexed to Seattle in 1891, is named after Fremont, the hometown of two of its founders Luther H. Griffith and Edward Blewett. Fremont is situated along the Fremont Cut of the Lake Washington Ship Canal to the north of Queen Anne, the east of Ballard, the south of Phinney Ridge, the southwest of Wallingford, its boundaries are not formally fixed, but they can be thought of as consisting of the Ship Canal to the south, Stone Way N. to the east, N. 50th Street to the north, 8th Avenue N. W. to the west. The neighborhood's main thoroughfares are Fremont and Aurora Avenues N. and N. 46th, 45th, 36th, 34th Streets. The Aurora Bridge carries Aurora Avenue over the Ship Canal to the top of Queen Anne Hill, the Fremont Bridge carries Fremont Avenue over the canal to the hill's base. A major shopping district is centered on Fremont Avenue N. just north of the bridge. Sometimes referred to as "The People's Republic of Fremont" or "The Artists' Republic of Fremont," and at one time a center of the counterculture, Fremont has become somewhat gentrified in recent years.
The neighborhood remains home to a controversial statue of Vladimir Lenin salvaged from Slovakia by a local art lover, teaching in the area at the time. After the 1989 fall of the Communist government, he brought the statue to Fremont with money raised through a mortgage on his house; the Fremont Troll is an 18-foot-tall concrete sculpture of a troll crushing a Volkswagen Beetle in its left hand, created in 1990 and situated under the north end of the Aurora Bridge. The street running under the bridge and ending at the Troll was renamed Troll Avenue N. in 2005. In addition, signs throughout Fremont give advice such as "set your watch back five minutes," "set your watch forward five minutes," and "throw your watch away." Other landmarks include the Fremont Rocket, a Fairchild C-119 tail boom modified to resemble a missile, the outdoor sculpture Waiting for the Interurban. Since the early 1970s some Fremont residents have been referring to their neighborhood as "The Center of the Universe". An unofficial motto "De Libertas Quirkas" appears in websites about the area.
The Fremont Arts Council sponsors several attended annual events in Fremont. The Summer Solstice Parade & Pageant has made Fremont famous for its nude Solstice Cyclists. Another event is Troll-a-ween. Important to Fremont is the large block on Linden Avenue N. that contains the B. F. Day Elementary School and B. F. Day Playground, two separate entities. B. F. Day is the longest continually operating school in the Seattle school district, having been founded in 1892. Another longstanding institution is the Fremont branch of the Seattle Public Library. An informal library predated the 1891 annexation of Fremont to Seattle, annexation made it the city's first branch library; the present structure dates from 1921. Besides the B. F. Day playfield, Fremont has three small public parks, Fremont Peak Park just south of N. 45th Street, Ross Park and Playground at 3rd Avenue NW and NW 43rd Street, A. B. Ernst Park next to the library. Ernst Park was named for a Fremont resident, he was known as the "Father of City Playfields".
He served on the Board of Park Commissioners from 1906 to 1913 and helped implement Seattle's Olmsted parks plan. The Burke-Gilman Trail passes through Fremont just north of the Lake Washington Ship Canal; the large Gas Works Park is just east of Fremont on the north shore of Lake Union. Theo Chocolate's factory and store and daywear label Cutter & Buck's corporate headquarters, Brooks Sports' headquarters are located here. Fremont has several breweries including the Fremont Brewing; the original Redhook breweries were located in Fremont until their closures in 1988 and 2002, respectively. Google opened offices here in 2006, the parent company of Geocaching.com is headquartered in Fremont. A growing number of technology companies have offices in Fremont, including Adobe Systems, the Allen Institute for Brain Science, Google, SDL PLC, Impinj and Tableau Software. Most of these offices are along the Lake Washington Ship Canal; the neighborhood is home to a number of nonprofit organizations, including Literacy Source and Provail, a provider of social services to people with disabilities and an affiliate of the United Cerebral Palsy network.
A wedge-shaped building on the diagonal street Leary Way that cuts across Fremont from the adjacent Ballard neighborhood was once home to legendary Seattle producer Jack Endino's Reciprocal Recording studio, where he recorded Nirvana's first demos and the band's debut on Sub Pop records, Bleach. HistoryLink History of Fremont Google Map of Fremont Fremont Arts Council Fremont Neighborhood Council Fremont Chamber of Commerce Fremont Public Association now Solid Ground homepage Fremont Sunday Market Seattle Photograph Collection, Fremont - University of Washington Digital Collection
Treasure Island, San Francisco
Treasure Island is an artificial island in the San Francisco Bay and a neighborhood in the city and county of San Francisco. Built 1936–37 for the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition, the island's World’s Fair site is a California Historical Landmark. Buildings there have been listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the historical Naval Station Treasure Island an auxiliary air facility are designated in the Geographic Names Information System; the San Francisco census tract that includes Treasure Island extends far into San Francisco Bay and includes a tip of Alameda Island. Yerba Buena and Treasure islands together have a land area of 576.7 acres with - in 2010 - a total population of 2,500. Treasure Island is connected by a 900 ft causeway to Yerba Buena Island, which in turn has on- and off-ramps to Interstate 80 on the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge; the island has a marina and a bikeway connecting to the newly completed Eastern span replacement of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge.
Raised walkways circumscribe nearly the entire island along five streets. Prior to the island's construction by the United States government, "Yerba Buena Shoals" of rock north of the transbay island had less than 27 ft clearance and were a shipping hazard; the 400-acre island was constructed by emplacing 287,000 short tons of quarried rock in the shoals for the island/causeway perimeter rock walls. 23 feet of dredged bay sand filled the interior, was mitigated from salt, 50,000 cubic yards topsoil was used for planting 4,000 trees, 70,000 shrubs, 700,000 flowering plants. Facility construction had begun by March 1937 when two hangars were being built. On Monday, February 18, 1939, the'Magic Isle' opened with a "walled city" of several fair ground courts: a central Court of Honor, a Court of the East, a Port of Trade Winds on the south and on the north: a Court of Pacifica, a 12,000-car parking lot, the adjacent National Building, the $1.5M Federal Building, the Hall of Western States, the $800K administration building, various exhibit halls for industries, two 335-by-78-foot hangars planned for post-exposition use by Pan Am flying boats using the Port of Trade Winds Harbor referred to as Clipper Cove between the two islands.
In addition to Building 2 and Building 3, remaining exposition buildings include Building 1 intended after the expo as the Pan American World Airways terminal. The expo's Magic Carpet Great Lawn remains.)A couplet from the song "Lydia the Tattooed Lady", in the Marx Brothers' 1939 film, At The Circus, reads "Here is Grover Whalen unveilin' the Trylon/Over on the West Coast we have Treasure Island", citing, in the Trylon and Treasure Island, two prominent features of international civic events happening that year. Treasure Island was intended to become a second airport for San Francisco, augmenting the existing San Francisco Municipal Airport, now SFO, but with war looming, the Navy moved in. Naval Station Treasure Island began under a 1941 war lease as a United States Navy "reception center". On April 17, 1942, the U. S. Navy cut short an ownership dispute with the city by seizing the island; the Navy compensated the city with $10 million in improvements to the existing airport, including reclaiming 93 acres of land, postwar ownership of all military improvements.
NAVSTA Treasure Island had a Naval Auxiliary Air Facility to support helicopters, fixed wing planes, blimps and airships and a U. S. Navy/USMC electronics school. During World War II over 12,000 men a day were processed here for Pacific area assignments, thousands more were processed for separation in the aftermath of the war; the psychiatric ward of the naval base at Treasure Island was used to study and experiment on naval sailors who were being discharged for being homosexual. Since before the'50s, through the'90s the U. S. Navy's Naval Technical Training Center - Treasure Island, was operational. Multiple Maintenance Skills were part of the curriculum there, including training of Electronic Technicians in both Communications & Radar systems, as well as training of Shipfitter and Damage Control Technicians, which covered Nuclear Biological & Chemical Warfare Decontamination techniques. In 1972 a new U. S. Navy Rate consisting of the old Shipfitter and Damage Control Technician ratings was created.
This New U. S. Navy Rate was Hull Maintenance Technician; the Navy realized that Damage Control is such a large responsibility, it needed a rating tasked with those duties, hence the reemergence of the Damage Controlman Rating in 1988. In recognition of his naval base leadership and development efforts since the inception of US Naval Station Treasure Island, Rear Admiral Hugo Wilson Osterhaus Square was established in front of Building 1 Administration Building, Treasure Island. Medal of Honor and Navy Cross recipient USMC Gunnery Sgt John Basilone movie theatre Building 401 @ 680 Avenue I was established in rec
Petroleum is a occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation, i.e. separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point by means of distillation using a fractionating column. It consists of occurring hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and may contain miscellaneous organic compounds; the name petroleum covers both occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure. Petroleum has been recovered by oil drilling. Drilling is carried out after studies of structural geology, sedimentary basin analysis, reservoir characterisation have been completed, it is refined and separated, most by distillation, into a large number of consumer products, from gasoline and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals.
Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials, it is estimated that the world consumes about 95 million barrels each day. The use of petroleum as fuel is controversial due to its impact on global warming and ocean acidification. Fossil fuels, including petroleum, need to be phased out by the end of 21st century to avoid "severe and irreversable impacts for people and ecosystems", according to the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; the word petroleum comes from Medieval Latin petroleum, which comes from Latin petra', "rock", Latin oleum, "oil". The term was used in the treatise De Natura Fossilium, published in 1546 by the German mineralogist Georg Bauer known as Georgius Agricola. In the 19th century, the term petroleum was used to refer to mineral oils produced by distillation from mined organic solids such as cannel coal, refined oils produced from them. Petroleum, in one form or another, has been used since ancient times, is now important across society, including in economy and technology.
The rise in importance was due to the invention of the internal combustion engine, the rise in commercial aviation, the importance of petroleum to industrial organic chemistry the synthesis of plastics, solvents and pesticides. More than 4000 years ago, according to Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, asphalt was used in the construction of the walls and towers of Babylon. Great quantities of it were found on the banks of the river Issus, one of the tributaries of the Euphrates. Ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society; the use of petroleum in ancient China dates back to more than 2000 years ago. In I Ching, one of the earliest Chinese writings cites that oil in its raw state, without refining, was first discovered and used in China in the first century BCE. In addition, the Chinese were the first to use petroleum as fuel as early as the fourth century BCE. By 347 AD, oil was produced from bamboo-drilled wells in China. Crude oil was distilled by Arabic chemists, with clear descriptions given in Arabic handbooks such as those of Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi.
The streets of Baghdad were paved with tar, derived from petroleum that became accessible from natural fields in the region. In the 9th century, oil fields were exploited in the area around Azerbaijan; these fields were described by the Arab geographer Abu al-Hasan'Alī al-Mas'ūdī in the 10th century, by Marco Polo in the 13th century, who described the output of those wells as hundreds of shiploads. Arab and Persian chemists distilled crude oil in order to produce flammable products for military purposes. Through Islamic Spain, distillation became available in Western Europe by the 12th century, it has been present in Romania since the 13th century, being recorded as păcură. Early British explorers to Myanmar documented a flourishing oil extraction industry based in Yenangyaung that, in 1795, had hundreds of hand-dug wells under production. Pechelbronn is said to be the first European site where petroleum has been used; the still active Erdpechquelle, a spring where petroleum appears mixed with water has been used since 1498, notably for medical purposes.
Oil sands have been mined since the 18th century. In Wietze in lower Saxony, natural asphalt/bitumen has been explored since the 18th century. Both in Pechelbronn as in the coal industry dominated the petroleum technologies. Chemist James Young noticed a natural petroleum seepage in the Riddings colliery at Alfreton, Derbyshire from which he distilled a light thin oil suitable for use as lamp oil, at the same time obtaining a more viscous oil suitable for lubricating machinery. In 1848, Young set up a small business refining the crude oil. Young succeeded, by distilling cannel coal at a low heat, in creating a fluid resembling petroleum, which when treated in the same way as the seep oil gave similar products. Young found that by sl