Luas is a tram/light rail system in Dublin, Ireland. There are two main lines: the Green Line, which began operating on 30 June 2004, the Red Line which opened on 26 September 2004. Since both lines have been extended and split into different branches further out of the city; the two lines, as of 2017, now connect within Dublin City Centre. The system now has sixty-seven stations and 42.5 kilometres of revenue track, which in 2018 carried 41.8 million passengers, an increase of 11.2% compared to 2017. Luas is operated by Transdev, under tender from Transport Infrastructure Ireland.. The Luas was a major part of the National Transport Authority's strategy. Three extensions to the existing Luas lines have been completed. Construction of a 6 km extension to the Green line to the North city centre and Broombridge, which links both Green and Red lines, began in June 2013 and opened to passengers in December 2017; this is the extension route known as BXD. The idea for a new tram or light rail system for the city of Dublin was first suggested in 1994, by a Dublin Transportation Initiative report, which referenced the original Dublin tramways, once running over 60 kilometres and reaching most parts of the city.
Following this report Córas Iompair Éireann, the state-owned public transport operator in Ireland, was asked to study the different options. They recommended two phases for the construction of a tram system: Phase 1: Tallaght to Dundrum/Balally via the City Centre Phase 2: Ballymun to the City Centre and Dundrum/Balally to Sandyford; the Transport Act, 1996 created a legal framework for CIÉ to build a tram system and in May 1997 the company applied for a Light Railway Order to construct the first phase, as well as the Dundrum/Balally to Sandyford part of phase 2. An inquiry started in July 1997, but was put on hold to investigate the possibility of underground sections in the city centre. In May 1998 the government decided amending the plans; the first was to run from Tallaght to Connolly Station, while the second would run from Sandyford Industrial Estate to Dublin Airport, through the city centre and Ballymun. Part of the second was to be underground through the city centre; the responsibility for developing Luas was transferred from CIÉ to the Railway Procurement Agency, a separate government agency created in December 2001.
Construction work began in March 2001 on the Tallaght to Connolly line, as well as the Sandyford to St. Stephen's Green section of the second line, with Ansaldo of Italy and MVM of Australia getting the contract to build the system; the St. Stephen's Green to Dublin Airport section was dropped before construction began, as it was decided to serve the area by a metro instead; the contract to maintain and operate the system was awarded to Veolia Transport Ireland. The development of Luas Red Line was facilitated by EU funding of €82.5 million under the European Regional Development Fund, part of the cost of some line extensions was raised though levies on development in areas close to the projected route. The original launch date for Luas was to be 2003, but delays in construction saw this date pushed back by a year. An advertising campaign took place to inform the public of the development of the system, while construction was taking place. Construction finished in February 2004 and a period of testing and driver training began.
30 June 2004 was decided on as the official launch date of the Green Line. The first tram went into service for the general public at 3 p.m. Several days of free travel and a family fun weekend took place to launch the system; the Red Line opened on 26 September 2004, with six days of free travel for the general public. By November 2006, over 50 million journeys had been made on the system. Around 90,000 Luas trips are made each day. 28.4 million journeys were made in 2007. 27.4 million journeys were made in 2008. 25.4 million journeys were made in 2009. To date, the busiest day on Luas was Friday, 21 December 2007 when 145,000 passenger journeys were recorded. Luas operates without a state subvention; the service recorded a surplus of €985,000 - an achievement well ahead of an anticipated deficit of €2.5 million. On Tuesday, 8 December 2009 the Red Line C1 Connolly to Docklands extension opened. There are 4 stops: George's Dock, Mayor Square-NCI, Spencer Dock and terminating in Point Village, opposite the 3Arena, this extension however bypasses Connolly.
Construction started at the beginning of June 2007. Test runs began on the line in September 2009 before the opening. On, 16 October 2010 the B1 extension from Sandyford to Cherrywood opened. In June 2010, plans to join the two Luas tracks were finalised. On 20 May 2011 Dublin City Council made submissions to An Bord Pleanála's Oral Hearing into Line BXD stating that the Planning Authority had a serious area of concern with the overhead conductor system in the historical city centre asking for a wire free zone. Luas Cross City is an extension of the Green Line which links with the Red Line, continues northwards to Broombridge in North Dublin; the extension began at the existing St. Stephen's Green Green Line stop. Construction started in June 2013, with services beginning in December 2017. Line BX – City Centre link for Red and Green Lines; the RPA started public consultation on the route in December 2005. In March 2
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou
Harcourt Street station
Harcourt Street railway station is a former railway terminus in Dublin. The station opened in 1859 and served as the terminus of the line from Dublin to Bray in County Wicklow, it closed in 1958. There is a Luas tram stop outside the front of the old station; the stationed opened on 7 February 1859. The station facade was designed by George Wilkinson, contains a central arch and a colonnade of doric columns; the station was constructed on an embankment, with the line 25 feet above street level and a Gilbey's bonded spirits store in the undercroft. Although the line was double track, the station only had a single 597 foot long platform on the west side of the railway, which terminated in a 48' diameter turntable at the Hatch Street end of the station. There were two through sidings on the east side of the station, beyond which lay Harcourt Street goods station and the D&WR's locomotive shed. There was no direct access for arriving trains to the goods station, instead'Up' Freight trains had to pull into the passenger station set back onto the'Down' line before entering the goods station.
This was a contributory factor to the 1900 train crash. The first signal box was installed in 1878, was replaced with an electro-mechanical installation in 1938 at which point the station was re-signalled with colour light signals; the station is most famous for a train crash in 1900 - a cattle train from Enniscorthy failed to stop and crashed through the end wall of the station onto Hatch Street, with the locomotive left dangling in mid-air. Nobody was killed, though William Hyland, had his right arm amputated. Following the accident, the Board of Trade recommended the installation of a facing junction to allow direct access to the goods line, until that took place all trains were to stop at Ranelagh to ensure that they made a controlled approach to Harcourt Street station; this practice continued up to its closure. After the formation of The Great Southern Railways in 1925, Harcourt Street declined in importance as services to the South East were concentrated on Westland Row station with goods facilities transferred to the North Wall goods station.
Thereafter, apart from during the 1933 GNR strike, Harcourt Street became predominately a passenger station. The station continued operating until 31 December 1958, when Córas Iompair Éireann, during its rationalisation programme of the railway network, closed the line from Harcourt Street. However, the trackbed was maintained in case of future use of the alignment; the Luas light rail network that opened on 30 June 2004 utilised parts of the old route. The station building has been converted into a leisure venue with bars and music venues. In 1958, C. I.É. opened a liquor museum in the station basement. The exit was to the station refreshment room which was, unlike most other local licensed premises, permitted to sell alcohol in the holy hour between 2pm and 3pm if customers held tickets for distances over 12 miles, namely Bray and beyond. After closure, the museum was moved to the basement of Heuston Station in 1961. Harcourt Street railway line
John Scott, 1st Earl of Clonmell
John Scott, 1st Earl of Clonmell PC KC SL, known as The Lord Earlsfort between 1784 and 1789 and as The Viscount Clonmell between 1789 and 1793, was an Irish barrister and judge. Sometimes known as "Copperfaced Jack", he was Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench for Ireland from 1784 to 1798. Scott was the third son of Thomas Scott of Scottsborough, County Tipperary, by his wife, daughter of Mark Prim of Johnswell, County Kilkenny, his parents were cousins, being two of the grandchildren of Nicholas Purcell, 13th Baron of Loughmoe. His elder brother was the uncle of Bernard Phelan, who established Château Phélan Ségur, Dean John Scott, who first planted the gardens open to the public at Ballyin, County Waterford and was married to a niece of Clonmell's political ally, Henry Grattan. While at Kilkenny College, John Scott stood up to the tormentor of a boy named Hugh Carleton, who grew up to be Viscount Carleton of Clare, Scott's fellow Chief Justice, they became firm friends, Carleton's father known as the'King of Cork', due to his wealth and influence, invited him to their home and became Scott's patron.
In 1756, Mr Carleton sent both the young men off, with equal allowances, to study at Trinity College and the Middle Temple in London. On being called to the Irish Bar in 1765, Scott's eloquence secured him a position that enabled him to pay £300 a year to his patron, Francis Carleton, who through a series of disappointments had at the same time as Scott's success been declared bankrupt, he continued to gratefully support his patron until Hugh Carleton was financially able to insist that he take up the payments to his father. Scott in life turned against Hugh, describing him in his diary as a "worthless wretch". Admitted to King's Inn in 1765, he was entitled to practice as a Barrister. In 1769 he was elected as the Member of Parliament for Mullingar, a seat he held until 1783; the following year he was made a K. C. In 1772 he was Counsel to the Board of Revenue, an lucrative office: in return he was expected to defend the Government's policy, which he did with great energy. In 1774 he was appointed Solicitor-General for Ireland.
Three years he was elected a Privy Councillor and Attorney-General for Ireland. He was dismissed from the latter position in 1782 for refusing to acknowledge the right of England to legislate for Ireland. In 1775, he was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Law by Dublin, he held the office of Prime Serjeant-at-Law of Ireland between 1777 and 1782. He was Clerk of the Pleas of the Court of Exchequer in 1783 and was elected Member of Parliament for Portarlington between 1783 and 1784. In 1784, Scott was created 1st Baron Earlsfort of Lisson-Earl, County Tipperary, following his appointment to Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench. In 1789, he was created 1st Viscount Clonmell, of Clonmel, County Tipperary and in 1793 he was created 1st Earl of Clonmell. By the 1790s he had an annual income of £20,000. Due to heavy drinking and overeating he became grossly overweight, this no doubt contributed to his early death, although his diary shows that he made frequent good resolutions about living a more temperate life.
He wrote that too many of his colleagues, including Philip Tisdall, his predecessor as Attorney General, had died through failing to moderate their drinking as they grew older, but it seems that he could not take his own good advice. His heavy drinking is thought to have been responsible for the red face which earned him the nickname "Copper-faced Jack". According to fencing author Captain Anthony Gordon, the idea for the invention of bayonet fencing in Ireland came from Scott, was only developed and propagated by Gordon; the Irish fencing treatise "A Few Mathematical and Critical Remarks on the Sword", is dedicated to Scott. In its opening pages, the author writes to him: "if I knew but one man in the kingdom, to have a sounder judgment and a finer imagination, a more humane and expanded heart, a more spirited and judicious arm, I should have been still more presumtuous than I am, in prefixing YOUR NAME to so trifling a production." During his time as Attorney General, Scott publicly defended the custom of dueling, encouraged legal tolerance towards duelists who had acted honorably and fought for good cause.
However, Scott acted unfavorably towards the notorious duelist George Robert "Fighting" Fitzgerald, who published a poem while in prison lampooning and attacking Scott. He regarded most of his judicial colleagues with suspicion and dislike, which extended to former friends like Hugh Carleton. Of his junior colleagues in the Court of King's Bench, he admired Samuel Bradstreet, but dismissed William Henn as a fool, while John Bennett, a man noted for independence of mind, he marked down as an enemy. After 1792, following the death of Bennett and the retirement of Henn, Scott became complete master in his own court, his rival William Downes, 1st Baron Downes, who became Lord Chief Justice in 1803, he described as "cunning and vain, one who wishes me ill". In Court his manner was arrogant, he treated barristers with a complete lack of courtesy, his rudeness to one barrister led to the Bar passing a resolution that no barrister would appear in his Court until he apologised. Clonmell had no choice.
In 1797, in the last conversation he would have with his wife's cousin, Valentine Lawless, 2nd Baron Cloncurry, he exclaimed:'My dear Val, I have been a fortunate man in life. I am a
Edward Henry Carson, Baron Carson, PC, PC, from 1900 to 1921 known as Sir Edward Carson, was an Irish unionist politician and judge. From Dublin, he became the leader of the Irish Unionist Alliance and Ulster Unionist Party between 1910 and 1921, held numerous positions in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom and served as a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary, he was one of the few people not a monarch to receive a British state funeral. Historian John Brown says that "His larger than life-size statue, erected in his own lifetime in front of the Northern Ireland parliament at Stormont, symbolizes the held perception that Northern Ireland is Carson's creation." Edward Carson, the 2nd son of Edward Henry Carson, was born at 4 Harcourt Street, in Dublin, into a wealthy Anglican family. Carson's mother was Isabella Lambert, the daughter of Captain Peter Lambert, part of an old Anglo-Irish family, the Lamberts of Castle Ellen, County Galway. Carson spent holidays at Castle Ellen, owned by his uncle, he was one of six children.
Edward was educated at Portarlington School, Wesley College and Trinity College, where he read law and was an active member of the College Historical Society. He played with the college hurling team. Carson graduated BA and MA, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Dublin in June 1901. In 1877 Carson was called to the Irish Bar at King's Inns, he gained a reputation for fearsome advocacy and supreme legal ability and became regarded as a brilliant barrister, among the most prominent in Ireland at the time. He was an acknowledged master of the appeal to the jury by his legal wit and oratory, he was appointed Queen's Counsel in 1889 and was Called to the English Bar at Middle Temple on 26 April 1893. He was twice admitted to the Inn, once on 1 November 1875 and again on 21 April 1893, was made a Bencher on 15 June 1900. In 1895, he was engaged by the Marquess of Queensberry to lead his defence against Oscar Wilde's action for criminal libel; the Marquess, angry at Wilde's ongoing homosexual relationship with his son, Lord Alfred Douglas, had left his calling card at Wilde's club with an inscription accusing Wilde of being a "posing somdomite".
Wilde retaliated with a libel action. Kevin Myers states, he discovered that Queensberry had been telling the truth about Wilde's activity and was therefore not guilty of the libel of which Wilde accused him. Carson and Wilde had known each other when they were students at Trinity College, and, when he heard that Carson was to lead the defence, Wilde is quoted as saying that "No doubt he will pursue his case with all the added bitterness of an old friend." Carson portrayed the playwright as a morally depraved hedonist who seduced naïve young men into a life of homosexuality with lavish gifts and promises of a glamorous artistic lifestyle. He impugned Wilde's works as morally repugnant and designed to corrupt the upbringing of the youth. Queensberry spent a large amount of money on private detectives who investigated Wilde's activity in the London underworld of homosexual clubs and procurers. Wilde abandoned the case when Carson announced in his opening speech for the defence that he planned to call several male prostitutes who would testify that they had had sex with Wilde, which would have rendered the libel charge unsupportable as the accusation would have been proven true.
Wilde was bankrupted when he was ordered to pay the considerable legal and detective bills Queensberry had incurred in his defence. Based on the evidence of Queensberry's detectives and Carson's cross-examinations of Wilde at the trial, Wilde was subsequently prosecuted for gross indecency in a second trial, he was found guilty and sentenced to two years' hard labour, after which he moved to France, where he died penniless. In 1908 Carson appeared for the London Evening Standard in a libel action brought by George Cadbury; the Standard was controlled by Unionist interests which supported Joseph Chamberlain's Imperial Preference views. The Cadbury family had, in 1901, purchased The Daily News; the Standard articles alleged that Cadbury Bros Ltd. which claimed to be model employers having created the village of Bournville outside Birmingham, knew of the slave labour conditions on São Tomé, the Portuguese island colony from which Cadbury purchased most of the cocoa used in the production of their chocolate.
The articles alleged that George's son William had gone to São Tomé in 1901 and observed for himself the slave conditions, that the Cadbury family had decided to continue purchasing the cocoa grown there because it was cheaper than that grown in the British colony of the Gold Coast, where labour conditions were much better, being regulated by the Colonial Office. The Standard alleged that the Cadbury family knew that the reason cocoa from São Tomé was cheaper was because it was grown by slave labour; this case was regarded at the time as an important political case as Carson and the Unionists maintained that it showed the fundamental immorality of free trade. George Cadbury recovered contemptuous damages of one farthing in a case described as one of Carson's triumphs. Carson was the victorious counsel in the 1910 Archer-Shee Case, exonerating a Royal Naval College, Osborne cadet of the charge of theft; the cadet was from a quite prominent Roman Catholic banking family, educated at Stonyhurst.
On this case, Terence Rattigan based his play The Winslow Boy. The fictional barrister, Mor
St Stephen's Green
St Stephen's Green is a city centre public park in Dublin, Ireland. The current landscape of the park was designed by William Sheppard, it was re-opened to the public on Tuesday, 27 July 1880 by Lord Ardilaun. The park is adjacent to one of Dublin's main shopping streets, Grafton Street, to a shopping centre named for it, while on its surrounding streets are the offices of a number of public bodies as well as a stop on one of Dublin's Luas tram lines, it is informally called Stephen's Green. At 22 acres, it is the largest of the parks in Dublin's main Georgian garden squares. Others include nearby Merrion Fitzwilliam Square; the park is rectangular, surrounded by streets that once formed major traffic arteries through Dublin city centre, although traffic management changes implemented in 2004 during the course of the Luas works have reduced the volume of traffic. These four bordering streets are called St Stephen's Green North, St Stephen's Green South, St Stephen's Green East and St Stephen's Green West.
Until 1663 St Stephen's Green was a marshy common on the edge of Dublin, used for grazing. In that year Dublin Corporation, seeing an opportunity to raise much needed revenue, decided to enclose the centre of the common and to sell land around the perimeter for building; the park was enclosed with a wall in 1664. The houses built around the Green were replaced by new buildings in the Georgian style and by the end of the eighteenth century the Green was a place of resort for the better-off of the city. Much of the present-day landscape of the square comprises modern buildings, some in a replica Georgian style, little survives from the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1814 control of St Stephen's Green passed to Commissioners for the local householders, who redesigned its layout and replaced the walls with railings. After the death of Prince Albert, Queen Victoria suggested that St Stephen's Green be renamed Albert Green and have a statue of Albert at its centre, a suggestion rejected with indignation by the Dublin Corporation and the people of the city, to the Queen's chagrin.
Access to the Green was restricted to local residents, until 1877, when Parliament passed an Act to reopen St Stephen's Green to the public, at the initiative of Sir A. E. Guinness, a member of the Guinness brewing family who lived at St Anne's Park, Raheny and at Ashford Castle, he paid for the laying out of the Green in its current form, which took place in 1880, gave it to the Corporation, as representatives of the people. By way of thanks the city commissioned a statue of him, his brother Edward lived at Iveagh House, which his descendants gave in 1939 to the Department of External Affairs. During the Easter Rising of 1916, a group of insurgents made up of members of the Irish Citizen Army, under the command of Commandant Michael Mallin, his second-in-command Kit Poole, Constance Markievicz, established a position in St Stephen's Green, they numbered between 200 and 250. They confiscated motor vehicles to establish road blocks on the streets that surround the park, dug defensive positions in the park itself.
This approach differed from that of taking up positions in buildings, adopted elsewhere in the city. It proved to have been unwise when elements of the British Army took up positions in the Shelbourne Hotel, at the northeastern corner of St Stephen's Green, overlooking the park, from which they could shoot down into the entrenchments. Finding themselves in a weak position, the Volunteers withdrew to the Royal College of Surgeons on the west side of the Green. During the Rising, fire was temporarily halted to allow the park's groundsman to feed the local ducks; the park is now operated by the Office of Public Works on behalf of the Irish state. The landscaping of the park has undergone three major changes since its inception, its first major change occurred in 1670: two rows of lime trees were planted around the perimeter, functioning as its first enclosure. At this time, the park was only accessible to the wealthy residents. In 1815 the park was redesigned by the Dublin city surveyor Arthur Neville.
In his redesign, he added winding pathways and iron fences. At this time, the park was still closed to the public. During the 1860s, the campaign to make the park publicly accessible was underway, the city engineer, George W. Hemans, proposed a new design to make the park as walkable and as functionally practical as possible; this included creating four gates at each corner of the park that would be linked by the extant pathways designed by Neville. This plan was abandoned, most due to the fact that Hemans was employed by Dublin Corporation. However, many of Hemans' designs, like the addition of the gates and connecting pathways, were included in the final plans submitted by William Sheppard, the principal designer responsible for the landscape of the park as we know it today, engineer A. L. Cousins, sponsored by Lord Ardilaun. Ardilaun played a significant role in the planning and importing of the exotic trees and plants that would be installed in the park. While the central park of St Stephen's Green is one of three ancient commons in the city, its current layout owes much to the restorations of the 1800s.
The grounds are rectangular, measuring 550 by 450 metres, are centred on a formal garden. One of the more unusual aspects of the park lies on the north west corner of this central area, a garden for the blind with scented plants, which can withstand handling, are labelled in Braille. Further north again is a large lake. Home to ducks
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s