The Macintosh IIsi is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from October 1990 to March 1993. Introduced as a lower-cost alternative to the other Macintosh II family of desktop models, it was popular for home use, as it offered more expandability and performance than the Macintosh LC, introduced at the same time. Like the LC, it has built-in sound support, as well as support for color displays, with a maximum screen resolution of 640×480 in eight-bit color; the IIsi remained on the market for two and a half years, was discontinued shortly after the introduction of its replacement, the Centris 610. The IIsi's case design is a compact three-box desktop unit used for no other Macintosh model, one of the only Macintosh models of which this is true. Positioned below the Macintosh IIci as Apple's entry-level professional model, the IIsi's price was lowered by the redesign of the motherboard substituting a different memory controller and the deletion of all but one of the expansion card slots and removal of the level 2 cache slot.
It shipped with either a 40-MB or 80-MB internal hard disk, a 1.44-MB floppy disk drive. The MC 68882 FPU was an optional upgrade, mounted on a special plug-in card. Ports included SCSI, two serial ports, an ADB port, a floppy drive port, 3.5mm stereo headphone sound output and microphone sound input sockets. A bridge card was available for the IIsi to convert the Processor Direct slot to a standard internal NuBus card slot, compatible with other machines in the Macintosh II family; the bridge card included a math co-processor to improve floating-point performance. The NuBus card was mounted horizontally above the motherboard. To cut costs, the IIsi's video shared the main system memory, which had the effect of slowing down video especially as the IIsi had 1 MB of slow RAM soldered to the motherboard. David Pogue's book Macworld Macintosh Secrets observed that one could speed up video if one set the disk cache size large enough to force the computer to draw video RAM from faster RAM installed in the SIMM banks.
The IIsi suffers from sound difficulties: over time, the speaker contacts can fail, causing the sound to periodically drop out. This problem was caused by the modular construction of the computer, where the mono loudspeaker is on a daughterboard under the motherboard, with springy contacts. Speaker vibrations led to fretting of the touching surfaces; the problem could be solved by removing the motherboard and using a pencil eraser to clean the contacts of the daughterboard holding the loudspeaker. As the IIsi is the only Macintosh to use this case design, these issues were never corrected in a subsequent model; the IIsi was designed to be and cheaply manufactured, such that no tools were required to put one together – everything is held in place with clips or latches. Because of its heritage as a cut-down IIci, it was a simple modification to substitute a new clock crystal to increase the system's clock rate to 25 MHz for a slight increase in performance. Charles Bukowski was an enthusiastic user of the IIsi.
Macintosh IIsi teardown at ifixit.com
The Apple IIGS, the fifth and most powerful of the Apple II family, is a 16-bit personal computer produced by Apple Computer, Inc. While featuring the Macintosh look and feel, resolution and color similar to the Commodore Amiga and Atari ST, it remains compatible with earlier Apple II models; the "GS" in the name stands for "Graphics and Sound," referring to its enhanced multimedia hardware its state of the art audio. The microcomputer is a radical departure from any previous Apple II, with its 65C816 16-bit microprocessor, direct access to megabytes of RAM, mouse, it was the first computer produced by Apple to use a color graphical user interface and Apple Desktop Bus interface for keyboards and other input devices. It is the first personal computer to have a wavetable synthesis chip, utilizing technology from Ensoniq; the IIGS set forth a promising future and evolutionary advancement of the Apple II line, but Apple focused on the Macintosh platform. The IIGS clock speed was intentionally limited below the maximum for the 65C816 so the system would not outperform the Macintosh.
The IIGS outsold all other Apple products, including the Macintosh, during its first year in production. Apple ceased IIGS production in December 1992; the Apple IIGS made significant improvements over previous machines from the line such as the Apple IIe and Apple IIc. It emulates its predecessors by utilizing a custom chip called the Mega II and used the new Western Design Center 65C816 16-bit microprocessor running at 2.8 MHz, faster than the 8-bit NMOS 6502 and CMOS 65C02 processors used in the earlier Apple II models. Use of the 65C816 allows the IIGS to address more RAM; the use of a 2.8 MHz clock was a marketing decision intended to limit the IIGS's performance to a level lower than that of the Macintosh, a decision that had a critical effect on the IIGS's success. The IIGS includes enhanced graphics and sound, which led to its GS name, its graphical capabilities are the best of the Apple II series, with new higher resolution video modes. These include a 640×200-pixel mode with 2-bit color and a 320×200-pixel mode with 4-bit color, both of which can select 4 or 16 colors at a time from a palette of 4,096 colors.
By changing the palette on each scanline, it is possible to display up to 256 colors or more per screen, quite seen within games and graphic design software during this computer's heyday. Through some clever programming, it is possible to make the IIGS display as many as 3,200 colors at once; when first introduced, Apple's user interface known as MouseDesk and the IIGS System Demo were both in black and white only. Users did not see color until an application. Audio is generated by a built-in sound-and-music synthesizer in the form of the Ensoniq 5503 digital oscillator chip, which has its own dedicated RAM and 32 separate channels of sound; these channels are paired to produce 15 voices in stereo audio. Although Apple had hoped that the IIc would outsell the IIe, the latter was more popular because of its slots; the IIGS supports both 5.25-inch and 3.5-inch floppy disks and, like the IIe before it, has several expansion slots. These include seven general-purpose expansion slots compatible with those on the Apple II, II+, IIe, plus a memory expansion slot that can be used to add up to 8 MB of RAM.
The IIGS, like the IIc has dedicated ports for external devices. These include a port to attach more floppy disk drives, two serial ports for devices such as printers and modems, an Apple Desktop Bus port to connect the keyboard and mouse, composite and RGB video ports; these ports are associated with the slots, so for example using a card in slot 1 means that the printer port is disabled. The machine features a user-adjustable control panel and real-time clock, which are maintained by a built-in battery; the IIGS supports booting from an AppleShare server, via the AppleTalk protocol, over LocalTalk cabling. When the Apple IIe Workstation Card was introduced, this capability was given to the IIe; this was over a decade before NetBoot offered the same capability to computers running Mac OS 8 and beyond. In addition to supporting all graphics modes of previous Apple II models, the Apple IIGS introduced several new ones through a custom video graphics chip, all of which use a 12-bit palette for a total of 4,096 possible colors, though not all colors can appear onscreen at the same time.
320×200 pixels with a single palette of 16 colors. 320×200 pixels with up to 16 palettes of 16 colors. In this mode, the VGC holds 16 separate palettes of 16 colors in its own memory; each of the 200 scan lines can be assigned any one of these palettes allowing for up to 256 colors on the screen at once. 320×200 pixels with up to 200 palettes of 16 colors. In this mode, the CPU assists the VGC in swapping palettes into and out of the video memory so that each scan line can have its own palette of 16 colors allowing for up to 3,200 colors on the screen at once. 320×200 pixels with 15 colors per palette, plus a fill-mode color. In this mode, color 0 in the palette is replaced by the last non-zero color pixel displayed on the scan line, allowing fast solid-fill graphics. 640×200 pixels with 4 pure colors. 640×200 pixels with up to 16 palettes of 4 pure colors. In this mode, the VGC holds 16 separate palettes of 4 pure colors in its own memory; each of the 200 scan lines can be assigned any one of these palett
Apple II series
The Apple II series is a family of home computers, one of the first successful mass-produced microcomputer products, designed by Steve Wozniak, manufactured by Apple Computer, launched in 1977 with the original Apple II. In terms of ease of use and expandability, the Apple II was a major advancement over its predecessor, the Apple I, a limited-production bare circuit board computer for electronics hobbyists. Through 1988, a number of models were introduced, with the most popular, the Apple IIe, remaining changed little into the 1990s. A 16-bit model with much more advanced graphics and sound, the Apple IIGS, was added in 1986. While compatible with earlier Apple II systems, the IIGS was in closer competition with the Atari ST and Amiga; the Apple II was first sold on June 10, 1977. By the end of production in 1993, somewhere between five and six million Apple II series computers had been produced; the Apple II was one of the longest running mass-produced home computer series, with models in production for just under 17 years.
The Apple II became one of several recognizable and successful computers during the 1980s and early 1990s, although this was limited to the USA. It was aggressively marketed through volume discounts and manufacturing arrangements to educational institutions, which made it the first computer in widespread use in American secondary schools, displacing the early leader Commodore PET; the effort to develop educational and business software for the Apple II, including the 1979 release of the popular VisiCalc spreadsheet, made the computer popular with business users and families. The original Apple II operating system was in ROM along with Integer BASIC. Programs were entered saved and loaded on cassette tape; when the Disk II was implemented in 1978 by Steve Wozniak, a Disk Operating System or DOS was commissioned from the company Shepardson Microsystems where its development was done by Paul Laughton. The final and most popular version of this software was Apple DOS 3.3. Some commercial Apple II software did not use standard DOS formats.
This discouraged the modifying of the software on the disks and improved loading speed. Apple DOS was superseded by ProDOS, which supported a hierarchical filesystem and larger storage devices. With an optional third-party Z80-based expansion card, the Apple II could boot into the CP/M operating system and run WordStar, dBase II, other CP/M software. With the release of MousePaint in 1984 and the Apple IIGS in 1986, the platform took on the look of the Macintosh user interface, including a mouse. Despite the introduction of the Motorola 68000-based Macintosh in 1984, the Apple II series still accounted for 85% of the company's hardware sales in the first quarter of fiscal 1985. Apple continued to sell Apple II systems alongside the Macintosh until terminating the IIGS in December 1992 and the IIe in November 1993; the last II-series Apple in production, the IIe card for Macintoshes, was discontinued on October 15, 1993. The total Apple II sales of all of its models during its 16-year production run were about 6 million units, with the peak occurring in 1983 when 1 million were sold.
The Apple II was designed to look more like a home appliance than a piece of electronic equipment. The lid popped off the beige plastic case without the use of tools, allowing access to the computer's internals, including the motherboard with eight expansion slots, an array of random access memory sockets that could hold up to 48 kilobytes worth of memory chips; the Apple II had color and high-resolution graphics modes, sound capabilities and one of two built-in BASIC programming languages. The Apple II was targeted for the masses rather than just engineers. Unlike preceding home microcomputers, it was sold as a finished consumer appliance rather than as a kit. VanLOVEs Apple Handbook and The Apple Educators Guide by Gerald VanDiver and Rolland Love reviewed more than 1,500 software programs that the Apple II series could use; the Apple dealer network used this book to emphasize the growing software developer base in education and personal use. The Apple II series had a keyboard built into the motherboard shell, with the exception of the Apple IIGS which featured an external keyboard.
The Apple II case was durable enough, according to a 1981 Apple ad, to protect an Apple II from a fire started when a cat belonging to one early user knocked over a lamp. Early II-series models were designated "Apple ]["; the first Apple II computers went on sale on June 10, 1977 with a MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor running at 1.023 MHz, 4 KB of RAM, an audio cassette interface for loading programs and storing data, the Integer BASIC programming language built into the ROMs. The video controller displayed 40 columns by 24 lines of monochrome, upper-case-only text on the screen, with NTSC composite video output suitable for display on a TV monitor, or on a regular TV set by way of a separate RF modulator; the original retail price of the computer was US$1298 and US$2638. To reflect the computer's color graphics capability, the Apple logo on the casing was represented using rainbow stripes, which remained a part of Apple's corporate logo until early 1998; the earliest Apple IIs were assembled in Silicon Valley, in Texas.
The Macintosh 512K enhanced was introduced in April 1986 as a cheaper alternative to the top-of-the-line Macintosh Plus, which had debuted three months previously. It is the same as the Macintosh 512K but with the 800K disk drive and 128K of ROM used in the Macintosh Plus. Like its predecessors, it has little room for expansion; some companies did create memory upgrades. It is the earliest Macintosh model able to run System Software 6, it is the earliest that can be used as an AppleShare server and, with a bridge Mac, communicate with modern devices. The case was identical to its predecessor, except for the model number listed on the rear bucket's agency approval label, it used the same beige-like color as well. But like the Macintosh Plus, in 1987 the 512Ke adopted the standard Apple "Platinum" color, as well as the same case-front design as the Plus, though keeping its original rear bucket. In its lifespan, the 512Ke was discounted and offered to the educational market, badged as the Macintosh ED.
The 512Ke shipped with the original short Macintosh Keyboard, but the extended Macintosh Plus Keyboard with built-in numeric keypad could be purchased optionally. A version of the 512Ke only sold outside of North America included the full keyboard and was marketed as the Macintosh 512K/800; the larger keyboard would be included as standard in North America as well. Although the 512Ke includes the same 128K ROMs and 800K disk drive as the Mac Plus, the 512Ke retains the same port connectors as the original Mac. For this reason, 512Ke users' only hard disk option is the slower, floppy-port-based Hard Disk 20, or similar products for the serial port though the 512Ke ROMs contain the "SCSI Manager" software that enables the use of faster SCSI hard disks. Apple did point users to certain third-party products which could be added to the 512Ke to provide a SCSI port. A Macintosh 512K could be upgraded to a 512Ke by purchasing and installing Apple's $299 Macintosh Plus Disk Drive Kit; this included the following: 800 KB double-sided floppy disk drive to replace the original 400 KB single-sided drive 128 KB ROM chips to replace original 64 KB ROM Macintosh Plus System Tools disk with updated system software Installation guideOne further upgrade made by Apple replaced the logic board and the rear case with those of the Macintosh Plus, providing built-in SCSI functionality and up to 4MB RAM.
Because Apple's official upgrades were costly, many third-party manufacturers offered add-on SCSI cards, as well as RAM upgrades, to achieve the same functionality. The new ROM allowed the computer to run application software. After June 1986, the 512Ke shipped with System 3.2. After it was discontinued, Apple changed the recommended OS for the 512Ke to System 4.1. System 6.0.8 is the maximum OS for the 512Ke. Macintosh 128K/512K technical details Inside the Macintosh 512K
Macintosh II family
The Macintosh II is a family of personal computers, designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from 1987 to 1993. The Macintosh II was the initial model, representing the high-end of the Macintosh line for the time. Over the course of the next six years, seven more models were produced, culminating with the short-lived Macintosh IIvi and Macintosh IIvx models. Apple retired the Macintosh II name. Unlike prior Macintosh models, which are "all-in-one" designs, the Macintosh II models are "modular" systems which do not include built-in monitors and are expandable. Beginning with the Macintosh II and culminating in the Macintosh IIfx, the Macintosh II family was Apple's high-end line from 1987 until the introduction of the Motorola 68040-based Macintosh Quadra computers in 1991. Expansion was provided by way of NuBus, which become the standard expansion bus for the entire Macintosh line for a decade; the Macintosh II was the first to support color displays and the first to support a screen resolution larger than 512x384.
The Macintosh II is the first to use a Motorola 68000 series processor other than the Motorola 68000. Except for the original Macintosh II which launched the line with a Motorola 68020 clocked at 16 MHz, they used the Motorola 68030 microprocessor after the Motorola 68040 was introduced. Apple would adopt the'040 with the introduction of the Quadra 700 and 900, positioning these models as high-end workstation-class machines for graphics and scientific computing, while positioning the Macintosh II family as a mainstream desktop computer. During the Macintosh II series' lifespan, they rose to become among the most powerful personal computers available. While the Macintosh II series itself was replaced by the Macintosh Centris and Quadra, the Macintosh LC and Performa families continued to use the II's 68030 technology long after the 68040 was introduced and the PowerBook continued to use the'030 into the Power Macintosh era. List of Macintosh models grouped by CPU type List of Macintosh models by case type Mac II Series Index, Low End Mac
A Compact Macintosh is an all-in-one Apple Mac computer with a display integrated in the computer case, beginning with the original Macintosh 128K. Compact Macs include the original Macintosh through to the Color Classic sold between 1984 and the mid-1990s; the larger Macintosh LC 500 series, Power Macintosh 5000 series and iMac are not described as a "Compact Mac." Apple divides these models into five form factors: The Macintosh 128K, Macintosh SE, Macintosh Classic, the modernized Macintosh Color Classic with a 10 in color screen, the different Macintosh XL. *220 V international models are appended with the letter "P" All-in-one desktop computer List of Apple Macintosh models by case type Compact Macs Index and Compact Macs Guide at lowendmac.com Early Compact "Classic" Macs at EveryMac The Vintage Mac Museum: Compact Mac -9inch/mono Display 68000-
Macintosh Quadra 840AV
The Macintosh Quadra 840AV is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from July 1993 to July 1994. It was introduced alongside the Centris 660AV, the "AV" after both model numbers signifying video input and output capabilities, as well as enhanced audio; the 840AV has the same mini tower form factor as the Quadra 800, with a faster Motorola 68040 processor. The Quadra 840AV was discontinued shortly after the introduction of the PowerPC-based Power Macintosh; the Power Macintosh 8100/80AV provided the same functionality in the same form factor, albeit at a higher price point, while the 7100/66AV was priced comparably to the 840AV but in a IIvx-style desktop case. At the time of introduction, its 40 MHz Motorola 68040 CPU and interleaved RAM made it the fastest Macintosh available, topping both the nominally higher-end Quadra 950 and the Quadra 800 by 7 MHz, it remains both the fastest Quadra and the fastest 68k Macintosh of all time, since all high-end Macintoshes were PowerPC-based Power Macintoshes.
The 840AV is the only Mac to use the 40 MHz-clocked 68040. It sports a faster 66.7 MHz AT&T DSP 3210 Digital Signal Processor chip, compared with the 55 MHz variant in the 660AV. The on-board DSP was intended to speed up audio/video processing, although few Mac programs made use of this due to the complexity of programming it; the 840AV and its relative, the Centris/Quadra 660AV, marked a number of firsts for the Macintosh family. They were the first Macintoshes to include on-board 16-bit 48 kHz stereo audio playback and recording capability, as well as S-Video and composite video input and output. To improve video playback, two separate frame buffers were used: one for standard graphics, one for video; this enabled the live video input to be displayed as a scalable "window" within the Macintosh user interface. They were the first personal computers that supported speech recognition out-of-the-box; the Apple GeoPort Telecom Adapter Kit introduced with the AV Macs added many DSP-based telecommunication functions, such as modem and telephony.
The Quadra 840AV came in a similar case to the earlier Macintosh Quadra 800. Internally, the 840AV is different. Apart from the faster processor, the logic board lacks the 800's Processor Direct Slot and second ADB port, but has a DAV slot and the new GeoPort. Unlike the 800's 8 MiB of fixed RAM, all of the 840AV's memory is in SIMMs; the way in which the 840AV deals with its memory is different to the other machines of its generation in that 4, 8, 16, or 32 MB 72-pin 60ns SIMMs may be installed up to 128 MB and sizes can be mixed. However, the Quadra 840AV does not support 2 MB, or 64 MB SIMMs; the 840AV and 660AV are the first Macintosh computers to operate in 32-bit mode at all times, cannot be toggled back to 24-bit mode, which may be useful for using early Nubus cards that conform to the 24-bit addressing. The new AV machines were some of the first to ship standard with an internal CD-ROM drive; the operating system installation package came on CD-ROM rather than a series of floppy disks whenever the CD-ROM drive was included.
A hidden QuickTime video included on the original Quadra 840AV/Centris 660AV "Install Me First" CD-ROM, shows the jubilant Cyclone / Tempest design team in the midst of celebrating their accomplishment. In this video, a Cyclone prototype logic board is shown; the logic board is fitted with a 25 MHz 68040, a number of rework wires, most conspicuously, a daughter card nicknamed "Karma", on which the audio and video input/output ports are located. Notably, the audio and video ports on the card are front-facing, positioned as though they would protrude from an opening in the lower front of the case, where they are more accessible to the user. According to a member of the team, the "AV on a card" feature was omitted, because there was not enough room for it in the case. Coinciding with the introduction of both AV Macs, Apple introduced the Apple AudioVision 14 Display, featuring accessible audio input, audio output and video input ports of its own, which could be fed by an ADC adapter cable connected with the rear AV ports of the AV Macs.
The Power Macintosh 6100, 7100, 8100 returned to the "AV on a card" concept, abandoned with the 7500/8500 series machines, re-introduced with the "Wings" AV "personality card" of the Power Macintosh G3 "Gossamer" / "Artemis" machines. Stored inside spare ROM space are two JPEG images of the Quadra 840AV development team. Early Quadra 840AV logic boards featured a 2 MB ROM SIMM slot located below the RAM SIMM slots, it was planned that the 840AV ROM would contain a bootable image of System 7 within a larger 4 MB ROM space, but Apple dropped this idea before the 840AV shipped. Revisions of the 840AV logic board included all 2 MB of ROM soldered onto the logic board. New Mac Blazes Technology Trails review from BYTE Magazine Quadra 840AV at apple-history.com Quadra 840AV profile at Low End Mac Quadra 840AV at EveryMac.com