The O. C. is an American teen drama television series created by Josh Schwartz that aired on the Fox network in the United States from August 5, 2003, to February 22, 2007, running a total of four seasons. "O. C." is an abbreviation of Orange County, the location in California in which the series is set. The series centers on Ryan Atwood, a troubled but gifted young man from a broken home, adopted by the wealthy and philanthropic Sandy and Kirsten Cohen. Ryan and his foster brother Seth, a awkward yet quick-witted teenager, deal with life as outsiders in the high-class world of Newport Beach. Ryan and Seth spend much time navigating their relationships with girl-next-door Marissa Cooper, Seth's childhood crush Summer Roberts, the fast-talking loner Taylor Townsend. Storylines deal with the culture clash between the idealistic Cohen family and the shallow and closed-minded community in which they reside; the series includes elements of postmodernism, functions as a mixture of melodrama and comedy.
The series premiered with high ratings and was one of the most popular new dramas of the 2003–2004 television season. It was referred to as a pop cultural phenomenon and received positive reception from critics. However, ratings declined; the low ratings led to its cancellation in early 2007 after an online petition that gained over 700,000 signatures. The O. C. has been broadcast in more than fifty countries worldwide. The series has been released on DVD, as well as on iTunes. Season 1 focuses on Ryan Atwood's arrival in Newport Beach to live with Sandy and Kirsten Cohen, who take him in after his mother kicks him out. A major theme of the first season is the culture shock Ryan feels as he adjusts from a life of domestic abuse and poverty to living in a superficial high-class society, he befriends and bonds with Seth Cohen, begins to have a romantic relationship with Marissa Cooper. Although coming from different backgrounds, Ryan soon discovers that he deals with similar issues to his new peers, such as self-identity conflict and familial alienation.
The relationship between Ryan and Marissa flourishes when he supports her through her parents' divorce. As the show progresses, Ryan takes a protective role over Marissa, showing Ryan to be a much more stable, controlled person than portrayed. Other storylines include Seth's development from a friendless loner to having two romantic choices in Summer and Anna, as well as the arrivals of Oliver Trask, a troubled teen who befriends Marissa during their coinciding therapy sessions, Theresa Diaz, Ryan's close friend and former love interest from his hometown of Chino. Meanwhile, Sandy Cohen comes into conflict with Caleb Nichol, Kirsten's father and a wealthy industrialist, said to "basically own Newport." The second season of The O. C. continues to follow the tumultuous romantic relationships between Ryan and Marissa and Summer, Sandy and Kirsten. Josh Schwartz, the show's creator, stated that in Season 2, the show would "no longer be about Ryan's past. For example, the story follows Ryan in his advanced physics class, where tension is created between him and another student, who presumes that Ryan will be useless as a lab partner, who thus prevents him from contributing to the work that must be submitted.
Ryan's character begins to grow when he stands up to Lindsay and convinces her to allow him to contribute, forcing them to work together to complete the assignment. They become involved romantically, creating extreme complications and relational shifts amongst the now "Cooper-Nichol" family; the Bait Shop becomes a prominent social destination for the teenage characters. A number of recurring characters are introduced, such as D. J. Lindsay Gardner, Zach Stevens, Alex Kelly, with whom the main characters form a variety of relationships. Ryan's brother, Trey Atwood, gets out of jail and threatens to bring Ryan's old life into his new one. Sandy and Kirsten face new conflicts after drifting apart during the summer. Season 2 ends with Marissa shooting Trey after Ryan confronts him for attempting to sexually assault Marissa. Season 3 creates many dynamic changes with regards to relationships and power within the characters' society. Firstly, Marissa is expelled from the Harbor School; the Cooper family, left with little money, is forced to move into a trailer park.
Julie Cooper-Nichol, once one of the richest women in all of Newport, struggles to put food on the table for her daughters. Marissa's life begins to spiral out of control, as she struggles with alcohol and drug abuse, as well as dealing with the loss of her close friend Johnny. Kirsten confronts her alcohol addiction and leaves rehab, only to encounter more problems when she begins business with a con artist; the other characters look towards college, with Seth and Summer competing for a spot at Brown University. Sandy's moral compass becomes imperiled when a past love interest makes her way back into his life, he takes over Caleb's old position as head of The Newport Group, pursuing a project to establish more low-income housing in Newport. Ryan attempts to resolve his individual relationships with his mother, with his childhood friend Theresa Diaz, he pursues the idea of a post-secondary education, with encouragement from both Sandy and Kirsten to visit Berkeley. Ryan's life is put on hold when, in the season 3 finale, Ryan decides to drive Marissa to the airport, they are run off the road by Kevin Volchok, Marissa's most recent love affair gone wrong.
In the last few minutes of the episode, Ryan pulls Marissa out f
Tijs Michiel Verwest OON, better known by his stage name Tiësto, is a Dutch DJ and record producer from Breda. He was named "the Greatest DJ of All Time" by Mix magazine in a poll voted by the fans. In 2013, he was voted by DJ Mag readers as the "best DJ of the last 20 years", he is regarded as the "Godfather of EDM" by many sources. In 1997, he founded the label Black Hole Recordings with Arny Bink, where he released the Magik and In Search of Sunrise CD series. Tiësto met producer Dennis Waakop Reijers in 1998. From 1998 to 2000, Tiësto collaborated with Ferry Corsten under the name Gouryella, his 2000 remix of Delerium's "Silence" featuring Sarah McLachlan exposed him to more mainstream audiences. In 2001, he released his first solo album, In My Memory, which gave him several major hits that launched his career, he was voted World No. 1 DJ by DJ Magazine in its annual Top 100 DJs readership poll consecutively for three years from 2002 to 2004. Just after releasing his second studio album Just Be he performed live at the 2004 Summer Olympics opening ceremony in Athens, the first DJ to play live on stage at an Olympics.
In April 2007 Tiësto launched his radio show Tiësto's Club Life on Radio 538 in the Netherlands and released his third studio album Elements of Life. The album reached number one on the Belgian album chart as well on "Billboard Top Electronic Albums" in the U. S. and received a nomination for a Grammy Award in 2008. Tiësto released his fourth studio album Kaleidoscope in October 2009, followed by A Town Called Paradise in June 2014, he won the Grammy Award for Best Remixed Recording, Non-Classical for his remixed version of John Legend's hit "All of Me" at the 57th Annual Grammy Awards. Tijs Michiel Verwest was born in Breda, Netherlands on 17 January 1969, he began to cultivate a passion for music from the age of twelve. At age fourteen, he intensified his commitment to the art, began DJing professionally at school parties. Between 1985 and 1994, Tiësto began a residency at several clubs in the Netherlands at the behest of his manager. At the Spock, a small club in Breda, he fine-tuned his own live style by performing from 10 p.m. until 4 a.m. on weekends.
In the beginning of his career as a DJ he played new beat and acid house. In 1994, he began releasing material on Noculan Records' sub-labels Coolman. During these years, he produced hardcore and gabber tracks under such aliases as Da Joker and DJ Limited. Tiësto was discovered by the general manager of Rotterdam-based Basic Beat Recordings. In late 1994, Tiësto signed to Basic Beat where he met Arny Bink, Tiësto released records on the sub-label Trashcan, founded by Arny, created the Guardian Angel sub-label with Arny in which they introduced the popular Forbidden Paradise series. From 1995–96 he released four extended plays on Bonzai Jumps and XTC, sub-labels of Lightning Records. In 1997, he joined his friend Yves Vandichel on his sub-label, DJ Yves, a division of the now defunct Human Resource label XSV Music. In the fall of 1997, Bink and Tiësto decided to leave Basic Beat and create their own parent label, Black Hole Recordings, Trashcan was discontinued and Guardian Angel continued releasing music until 2002.
Through Black Hole, Tiësto released the Magik series and created two major sub-labels. From 1998–99, he released music on Planetary Consciousness where he met A&R Hardy Heller and invited him to release some records on Black Hole. In 1998, Tiësto joined forces with fellow Dutch deejay Ferry Corsten to create the trance based duo of Gouryella; the first Gouryella track called Gouryella, was released in May 1999 and became a huge hit scoring various chart positions around the world, including a top fifteen position in the UK Singles Chart. Tiësto showcased this track in Magik Three: Far from Earth as well as in his set at the first ID&T Innercity party, his first major breakthrough; the next single, entitled "Walhalla" made it on the charts worldwide, peaking at No. 27 in the UK Singles Chart. Released via Ferry's Tsunami, both singles went on to be certified Gold on record sales. During these years, Tiësto collaborated with Benno de Goeij of Rank 1 under the name Kamaya Painters. In November 1999, he released the first installment of the In Search of Sunrise series.
Since he performed monthly as a resident at Gatecrasher in Sheffield, played a 12-hour set, his longest, in Amsterdam. On 31 December 1999, he performed at Trance Energy 2000, a special party held by ID&T for the turn of the millennium. Together with Armin van Buuren, Tiësto created two projects in 2000. After the release of "Tenshi" in September 2000, Tiësto decided to concentrate on his solo work and left Ferry Corsten to take on the Gouryella project as his own. Through his first compilations and the "In Trance We Trust" series, he ended up introducing Armin van Buuren and Johan Gielen to the mainstream. Summerbreeze marked Tiësto's U. S. debut, a mix album that showcased his remix of Delerium's "Silence", which spent four weeks in the UK's Top Ten chart and reached number three in the Billboard dance chart. In Search of Sunrise 2 was released in November 2000. In 2001, Tiësto created a new sub-label, Magik Muzik, released his first solo album, In My Memory, which contained 5 major hits.
Las Vegas Strip
The Las Vegas Strip is a stretch of South Las Vegas Boulevard in Clark County, Nevada, known for its concentration of resort hotels and casinos. The Strip is 4.2 miles in length, located south of the Las Vegas city limits in the unincorporated towns of Paradise and Winchester. However, the Strip is referred to as being in Las Vegas. Many of the largest hotel and resort properties in the world are located on the Strip; the boulevard's cityscape is highlighted by its use of contemporary architecture, a wide variety of attractions. Its hotels, restaurants, residential high-rises, entertainment offerings, skyline have established the Strip as one of the most popular and iconic tourist destinations in the world. Most of the Strip has been designated as an All-American Road and is considered a scenic route at night; the casinos that were not in Downtown Las Vegas along Fremont Street were limited to outside the city limits on Las Vegas Boulevard. In 1959, the Welcome to Fabulous Las Vegas sign was constructed 4.5 miles outside the city limits.
The sign is today located in the median just south of Russell Road, across from the now-demolished Klondike Hotel & Casino, about 0.4 miles south of the southernmost entrance to Mandalay Bay. In the strictest sense, "the Strip" refers only to the stretch of Las Vegas Boulevard, between Sahara Avenue and Russell Road, a distance of 4.2 miles. However, the term is used to refer not only to the road but to the various casinos and resorts that line the road, to properties that are not on the road but are in proximity to it. Phrases such as Strip Area, Resort Corridor or Resort District are sometimes used to indicate a larger geographical area, including properties 1 mile or more away from Las Vegas Boulevard, such as the Hard Rock, Rio and Hooters casinos. A long-standing definition considers the Strip's northern terminus as the SLS, though travel guides extend it to include the Stratosphere 0.4 miles to the north. Mandalay Bay, located just north of Russell Road, is the southernmost resort considered to be on the Strip.
Because of the number and size of the resorts, the resort corridor can be quite wide. Interstate 15 runs parallel and 0.5 to 0.8 miles to the west of Las Vegas Boulevard for the entire length of the Strip. Paradise Road runs to the east in a similar fashion, ends at St. Louis Avenue; the eastern side of the Strip is bounded by McCarran International Airport south of Tropicana Avenue. North of this point, the resort corridor can be considered to extend as far east as Paradise Road, although some consider Koval Lane as a less inclusive boundary. Interstate 15 is sometimes considered the western edge of the resort corridor from Interstate 215 to Spring Mountain Road. North of this point, Industrial Road serves as the western edge. Newer hotels and resorts such as South Point, Grandview Resort, M Resort are on Las Vegas Boulevard South as distant as 8 miles south of the "Welcome to Fabulous Las Vegas" sign. Marketing for these casinos states that they are on southern Las Vegas Boulevard and not "Strip" properties.
The first casino to be built on Highway 91 was the Pair-o-Dice Club in 1931, but the first resort on what is the Strip was the El Rancho Vegas, opening on April 3, 1941, with 63 rooms. That casino/ resort stood for 20 years before being destroyed by a fire in 1960, its success spawned a second hotel on what would become the Strip, the Hotel Last Frontier in 1942. Organized crime figures such as New York's Bugsy Siegel took interest in the growing gaming center leading to other resorts such as the Flamingo, which opened in 1946, the Desert Inn, which opened in 1950; the funding for many projects was provided through the American National Insurance Company, based in the notorious gambling empire of Galveston, Texas. Las Vegas Boulevard South was called Arrowhead Highway, or Los Angeles Highway; the Strip was named by Los Angeles police officer and businessman Guy McAfee, after his hometown's Sunset Strip. Caesars Palace was established in 1966. In 1968, Kirk Kerkorian purchased the Flamingo and hired Sahara Hotels Vice President Alex Shoofey as President.
Alex Shoofey brought along 33 of Sahara's top executives. The Flamingo was used to train future employees of the International Hotel, under construction. Opening in 1969, the International Hotel, with 1,512 rooms, began the era of mega-resorts; the International is known as Westgate Las Vegas today. The first MGM Grand Hotel and Casino a Kerkorian property, opened in 1973 with 2,084 rooms. At the time, this was one of the largest hotels in the world by number of rooms; the Rossiya Hotel built in 1967 in Moscow, for instance, had 3,200 rooms. On November 21, 1980, the MGM Grand suffered the worst resort fire in the history of Las Vegas as a result of electrical problems, killing 87 people, it reopened eight months later. In 1986, Kerkorian sold the MGM Grand to Bally Manufacturing, it was renamed Bally's; the Wet'n Wild water park was located on the south side of the Sahara hotel. It closed at the end of the 2004 season and was demolished; the opening of The Mirage in 1989 set a new level to the Las Vegas experience, as smaller hotels and casinos made way for the larger mega-resorts.
The Rio and the Excalibur opened in 1990. These huge facil
The Fender Stratocaster is a model of electric guitar designed in 1954 by Leo Fender, Bill Carson, George Fullerton, Freddie Tavares. The Fender Musical Instruments Corporation has continuously manufactured the Stratocaster from 1954 to the present, it is a double-cutaway guitar, with an extended top "horn" shape for balance. Along with the Gibson Les Paul and Fender Telecaster, it is one of the most-often emulated electric guitar shapes. "Stratocaster" and "Strat" are trademark terms belonging to Fender. Guitars that duplicate the Stratocaster by other manufacturers are called S-Type or ST-type guitars; the Stratocaster is a versatile guitar, usable for most styles of music and has been used in many genres, including country, rock, folk, soul and blues, jazz and heavy metal. The Fender Stratocaster was the first guitar to feature three pickups and a spring tension vibrato system, as well as being the first Fender with a contoured body; the Stratocaster's sleek, contoured body shape differed from the flat, slab-like design of the Telecaster.
The Stratocaster's double cutaways allowed players easier access to higher positions on the neck. Starting in 1954, the Stratocaster was offered with a solid contoured ash body, a 21-fret one-piece maple neck with black dot inlays, Kluson tuning machines; the color was a two color sunburst pattern, although custom color guitars were produced. In 1956, Fender began using alder for most custom color Stratocaster bodies. In 1960, the available custom colors were standardized, many of which were automobile lacquer colors from DuPont available at an additional 5% cost. A unique single-ply, 8-screw hole white pickguard held all electronic components except the recessed jack plate—facilitating easy assembly. Original Stratocasters were manufactured with five tremolo springs, allowing the bridge set up to "float". In the floating position, players can move the bridge-mounted tremolo arm up or down to modulate the pitch of the notes being played. Hank Marvin, Jeff Beck and Ike Turner have used the Stratocaster's floating vibrato extensively in their playing.
As string gauges have changed, players have experimented with the number of tremolo springs, as the average gauge has decreased over the years, modern Stratocasters are equipped with three springs as a stock option in order to counteract the reduced string tension. While the floating bridge has unique advantages, the functionality of the "floating" has been accepted and disputed by many musicians; as the bridge floats, the instrument has a tendency to go out of tune during double-stop string bends. Many Stratocaster players opt to tighten the tremolo springs so that the bridge is anchored against the guitar body: in this configuration, the tremolo arm can still be used to slacken the strings and therefore lower the pitch, but it cannot be used to raise the pitch; some players, such as Eric Clapton and Ronnie Wood, feel that the floating bridge has an excessive propensity to detune guitars and so inhibit the bridge's movement with a chunk of wood wedged between the bridge block and the inside cutout of the tremolo cavity, by increasing the tension on the tremolo springs.
Some Stratocasters have a fixed bridge in place of the tremolo assembly. There is considerable debate about the effects on tone and sustain of the material used in the vibrato system's'inertia bar' and many aftermarket versions are available; the Stratocaster features three single coil pickups, with the output selected by a 3-way switch. Guitarists soon discovered that by jamming the switch in between the first and second position, both the bridge and middle pickups could be selected, the middle and neck pickups could be selected between the 2nd and 3rd position; when two pickups are selected they are wired in parallel which leads to a slight drop in output as more current is allowed to pass to the ground. However, since the middle pickup is always wired in reverse, this configuration creates a spaced humbucking pair, which reduces 50/60 cycle hum. In 1977 Fender introduced a 5-way selector making such pickup combinations more stable; the "quacky" tone of the middle and bridge pickups, popularized by players such as Jimi Hendrix, Stevie Ray Vaughan, David Gilmour, Rory Gallagher, Mark Knopfler, Bob Dylan, Scott Thurston, Ronnie Wood, John Mayer, Ed King, Eric Clapton and Robert Cray, can be obtained by using the pickup selector in positions 2 and 4.
This setting's characteristic tone is not caused by any electronic phenomenon—early Stratocasters used identical pickups for all positions. This "in between" tone is caused by phase cancellation due to the physical position of the pickups along the vibrating string; the neck and middle pickups are each wired to a tone control that incorporates a single, shared tone capacitor, whereas the bridge pickup, slanted towards the high strings for a more trebly sound, has no tone control for maximum brightness. On many modern Stratocasters, the first tone control affects the neck pickup.
The Real World: Las Vegas (2011 season)
The Real World: Las Vegas is the twenty-fifth season of MTV's reality television series The Real World, which focuses on a group of diverse strangers living together for several months in a different city each season, as cameras follow their lives and interpersonal relationships. It is the third season to be filmed in the Mountain States region of the United States in Nevada; the season featured a total of eight cast members over the course of the season, as one cast member was evicted and replaced. It is the fifth season to take place in a city that had hosted a previous season, as the show's twelfth season was set in 2002. Las Vegas was first reported as the location for the 25th season by the website Vevmo on September 8, 2010. Pre-production started in August 2010, Production began from October to December 2010 at the Hard Rock Hotel and Casino; the season premiered on March 2011, consisting of 13 episodes. Director of the Nevada Film Office Charlie Geocaris commented, "The Nevada Film Office is excited to have MTV’s The Real World return to Las Vegas.
The first time here proved to be excellent exposure for the city and the NFO is always happy to assist any MTV production that visits our state."Motocross racer Carey Hart has a guest appearance in Episode 3. Most seasons of The Real World, beginning with its fifth season, have included the assignment of a season-long group job or task to the housemates, continued participation in, mandatory to remain part of the cast since the Back to New York season. In this season, the cast interns with a charity called the Athlete Recovery Fund, doing weekly assignments, such as working at motorbike events. A custom suite was built at Casino in Las Vegas, where the cast resided. Hard Rock President and Chief Executive Officer Joseph Magliarditi commented, "We are excited to partner with MTV and their hit reality show series The Real World for the 25th season in Las Vegas... We look forward to hosting the new cast." The penthouse suite for the cast has a large set living room, four bedrooms, built-in bowling alley.
This season, the capacity of the cast returns to a roster of seven, the first season to do so since the Hollywood season. Table key FEAT = Cast Member is featured on this episode. REM. = Cast Member is removed from the house. REP. = Cast Member replaces another cast member. Notes The Real World: Las Vegas Reunion aired on June 8, 2011, was hosted by Maria Menounos, featuring the entire cast, as they discussed their time during filming and their lives since the show ended. Since filming, Leroy returned to his sanitation job in Dallas, while Heather returned to Monmouth University to pursue a major in TV communications. Naomi returned to Buffalo State College to pursue TV journalism, keeps in touch with Nany, who returned to Jamestown, New York, where she works as a waitress, hopes to pursue opportunities elsewhere. Cooke began working at a nuclear power plant in North Carolina, where she started a relationship with a man named Jacob. Michael returned to College Park and hopes to attend grad school for agricultural development, while Dustin returned to Louisiana, stays active with his friends, physical activities and rides his motorcycle.
Cooke discussed her rough first impressions with her housemates when she moved into the suite, including a kiss with Dustin, instigated by Leroy, which caused jealousy on Heather's part. An argument occurred when Mike accused Dustin of homophobia, after Dustin’s past in gay porn was discussed. Heather stated. Dustin tried to offer a friendship to Mike, but was met with resistant by Mike, stating narcissism on Dustin’s part. Leroy’s promiscuity was discussed, with opinions by Naomi on his ability to maintain future relationships, though Leroy’s "bromance" with Mike resulted in friendship bracelets. Discussed were the Twitter wars amongst the housemates, with a preview of The Challenge: Rivals closing out the reunion. Following the reunion, it was revealed that Heather had begun to live together. Dustin and Heather continued their relationship when appearing on The Challenge: Battle of the Exes, were cast members on the third season of Couples Therapy, in which they sought counseling for problems in their relationship stemming from issues of commitment and Dustin's past in gay pornography.
In July 2013, Dustin was arrested on suspicion of sexual battery inside a Lafayette, Louisiana nightclub. In 2014, Michael has since gotten married. Adam, Leroy and Nany were in attendance at his wedding; the rest of the castmates who couldn't attend send. Challenges in bold indicate. Official site at MTV.com Cast biography page at MTV.com The Real World seasons at MTV.com
Harveys Lake Tahoe
Harveys Lake Tahoe is a hotel and casino located in Stateline, Nevada. It has 740 rooms and suites as well as six restaurants and a casino with 87,500 square feet of space, it has a video arcade, wedding chapel, convention center and a full-service health club. It is operated by Caesars Entertainment. Harvey's was opened in 1944 and operated by Sacramento meat wholesaler Harvey Gross and his wife Llewellyn, they opened the first high rise tower and an 11-story, 197-room hotel in Nevada just across the state line from Lake Tahoe, California in 1963. The hotel suffered an explosion from a 1,000-pound bomb on August 27, 1980, that left a crater three stories deep when it was detonated by the FBI; the bomb was placed by John Birges, a in-debt Fresno landscaper who had lost at least $1 million at casinos in Stateline and was hoping to extort $3 million from the bomb threat. He was convicted and sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole, where he died from liver cancer in 1996. In 1983, Harvey Gross died at the age of 78.
In 1985, Harveys sold northeast of Stateline, which reopened as the Lakeside Inn. The 18-story, $74 million, glass "Lake Tower" opened in 1986, the same year the trademark "Wagon Wheel" was replaced on the 11-story tower with the current Harveys brand. In early 1992, Harveys entered a bidding war with Hilton Hotels Corporation over the right to buy Bally’s Reno, which opened on May 3, 1978, as MGM Grand Reno. Harveys announced an agreement on a $71 million deal, only to see Hilton up the ante to $73 million and assumption of Bally's debt. Several weeks after considering higher bids, a federal bankruptcy court settled the matter by approving Hilton’s final $83 million offer. After going public on February 15, 1994, Harveys began new projects including a joint venture with Hard Rock America for an $80 million casino in Las Vegas, which it sold its interest in 1997 and a casino resort in Central City, Colorado. A riverboat casino-convention center in Council Bluffs, Iowa followed in early 1996.
In the late'90s, Bill Cosby was signed on as the spokesman for Harveys. This include putting the actor on several of the casino chips and recording several specials at the casino. In 1999, Colony Capital bought a controlling interest in Harveys Casino Resorts. Harveys announced on April 24, 2001, that it would be acquired by Harrah's Entertainment for $625 million. In October 2017, ownership of the property was transferred to Vici Properties as part of a corporate spin-off, it was leased back to Caesars Entertainment. List of Caesars Entertainment properties List of casinos in Nevada Ferchland, William. "Harvey's bombing changed casinos forever". Tahoe Daily Tribune. "25th anniversary of Harveys bombing". Reno Gazette-Journal. August 2005. Official website Media related to Harveys Lake Tahoe Resort and Casino at Wikimedia Commons
Professional wrestling is a form of performance art and entertainment that combines athletics with theatrical performance. It takes the form of events, held by touring companies; the unique form of sport portrayed is fundamentally based on classical and "catch" wrestling, with modern additions of striking attacks, strength-based holds and throws and acrobatic maneuvers. Much of these derive from the influence of various international martial arts. An additional aspect of combat with improvised weaponry is sometimes included to varying degrees; the matches have predetermined outcomes to heighten entertainment value and all combative maneuvers are executed with the full cooperation of those involved and performed in specific manners intended to lessen the chance of actual injury. These facts were once kept secret but are now a accepted open secret. To promote and sustain the willing suspension of disbelief by maintaining an aura of verisimilitude, the performing company avoids discussing the true nature of the performance in official media.
Fan communications by individual wrestlers and promotions through outside media directly acknowledge the dramatic and "fixed" nature of the spectacle. Originating as a popular form of entertainment in 19th-century Europe and as a sideshow exhibition in North American traveling carnivals and vaudeville halls, professional wrestling grew into a standalone genre of entertainment with many diverse variations in cultures around the globe, is now a billion dollar entertainment industry. Since the 1980s, local forms have declined in Europe, wrestling from North America has experienced several different periods of prominent cultural popularity during its century and a half of existence and has been exported back to Europe to fill the cultural gap left by the aforementioned decline of local versions; the advent of television gave professional wrestling a new outlet, wrestling was instrumental in making pay-per-view a viable method of content delivery. Show wrestling has become prominent in Central/North America and Europe.
In Brazil, there was a popular wrestling television program from the 1960s to the early 1980s called Telecatch. High-profile figures in the sport have become celebrities or cultural icons in their native or adopted home countries. Although professional wrestling started out as small acts in sideshows, traveling circuses and carnivals, today it is a billion-dollar industry. Revenue is drawn from ticket sales, network television broadcasts, pay-per-view broadcasts, branded merchandise and home video. Pro wrestling was instrumental in making pay-per-view a viable method of content delivery. Annual shows such as WrestleMania, Bound for Glory, Wrestle Kingdom and Starrcade are among the highest-selling pay-per-view programming each year. In modern day, internet programming has been utilized by a number of companies to air web shows, internet pay per views or on-demand content, helping to generate internet-related revenue earnings from the evolving World Wide Web. Home video sales dominate the Billboard charts Recreational Sports DVD sales, with wrestling holding anywhere from 3 to 9 of the top 10 spots every week.
Due to its persistent cultural presence and to its novelty within the performing arts, wrestling constitutes a recurring topic in both academia and the media. Several documentaries have been produced looking at professional wrestling, most notably, Beyond the Mat directed by Barry W. Blaustein, Wrestling with Shadows featuring wrestler Bret Hart and directed by Paul Jay. There have been many fictional depictions of wrestling; the largest professional wrestling company worldwide is the United States-based WWE, which bought out many smaller regional companies in the late 20th century, as well as its primary US competitors World Championship Wrestling and Extreme Championship Wrestling in early 2001. Other prominent professional wrestling companies worldwide include the US-based Impact Wrestling known as Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, Ring of Honor; when talking about professional wrestling, there are two levels: the "in-show" happenings that are presented through the shows, happenings which are outside the scope of performance but have implications on the performance, such as performer contracts, legitimate injuries, etc.
Because actual events are co-opted by writers for incorporation into storylines for the performers, the lines are blurred and become confused. Special care must be taken; the actions of the character should be considered fictional events, wholly separate from the life of the performer. This is similar to other entertainers; some wrestlers would incorporate elements of their real-life personalities into their characters if they and their in-ring persona have different names. Historians are unsure at what point wrestling changed from competitive catch wrestling into worked entertainment; those who participated felt that maintenance of a constant and complete illusion for all who were not involved was necessary to keep audience interest. For decades, wrestlers lived their public lives; the pra