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Hard copy

In information handling, the U. S. Federal Standard 1037C defines a hard copy as a permanent reproduction, or copy, in the form of a physical object, of any media suitable for direct use by a person, of displayed or transmitted data. Examples of hard copy include teleprinter pages, continuous printed tapes, computer printouts, radio photo prints. On the other hand, physical objects such as magnetic tapes diskettes, or non-printed punched paper tapes are not defined as hard copy by 1037C. A file which can be viewed on a screen without printing it out is sometimes called a soft copy; the U. S. Federal Standard 1037C defines "soft copy" as "a nonpermanent display image, for example, a cathode ray tube display."The term "hard copy" predates the age of the digital computer. In the process of producing printed books and newspapers, hard copy refers to a manuscript or typewritten document, edited and proofread, is ready for typesetting, or being read on-air in a radio or television broadcast; this traditional meaning has been all but forgotten in the wake of the information revolution.

One often-overlooked application for dot-matrix printers is in the field of IT security. Copies of various system and server activity logs are stored on the local filesystem, where a remote attacker – having achieved their primary goals – can alter or delete the contents of the logs, in an attempt to "cover their tracks" or otherwise thwart the efforts of system administrators and security experts. However, if the log entries are output to a printer, line-by-line, a local hard-copy record of system activity is created – and this cannot be remotely altered or otherwise manipulated. Dot-matrix printers are ideal for this task, as they can sequentially print each log entry, one entry at a time, as they are added to the log; the usual dot-matrix printer support for continuous stationery prevents incriminating pages from being surreptitiously removed or altered without evidence of tampering. The hacker's Jargon File defines a dead-tree version to be a paper version of an on-line document, where "dead trees" refer to paper.

It is a dysphemism for hard copy. A saying from the Jargon File is that "You can't grep dead trees", from the Unix command grep meaning to search the contents of text files; this means that an advantage of keeping documents in digital form rather than on paper is that they can be more searched for specific contents. A yet another usage of this imagery, cited in Jargon File is "tree-killer", which may refer either to a printer or a person who wastes paper, for example marketing people who generate lots of "content-free" documentation. Dead-tree edition refers to a printed paper version of a written work, as opposed to digital alternatives such as a web page; this article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document: "Federal Standard 1037C"

Chang Tso-chi

Chang Tso-chi is a Taiwanese film director. His 2002 film The Best Of Times was entered into the 59th Venice International Film Festival, his films won Golden Horse Award for Best Feature Film two times, for The Best of Times and When Love Comes. Chang Tso-chi was born in Chiayi. Both of Chang's parents migrated to Taiwan from Guangdong, Mainland China following the Chinese Nationalists' defeat in the Chinese Civil War in 1949. Chang started his career in the film industry as an assistant photographer and assistant director, he learned his craft from renowned directors such as Tsui Hark and Yim Ho. In 1988, he worked as Hou Hsiao-hsien's first assistant director on A City of Sadness. In 1999, his second feature Darkness and Light was screened in the Directors' Fortnight section of the 52nd Cannes Film Festival, won the Grand Prix at the 12th Tokyo International Film Festival, his third feature The Best of Times was entered into the main competition section of 59th Venice International Film Festival, won Golden Horse Award for Best Feature Film.

In 2013, a female screenwriter accused him of rape after a party at his studio. Chang denied the charges, but admitted that he was drunk and blackout. After DNA evidence was produced, he was sentenced to ten months in jail, he began served his term of imprisonment on April 10, 2015. During imprisonment, he finished a short film True Emotion Behind the Wall with all the actors and other staffs were his fellow inmates in prison in 2017, this short won Taipei Film Awards for best short film. He's been released on parole on 17 August 2017. 1996: Ah Chung 1999: Darkness and Light 2002: The Best of Times 2008: Soul of a Demon 2009: How are you, Dad? 2010: When Love Comes 2013: A Time in Quchi 2015: Thanatos, Drunk 2019: Synapses 2011: Sparkles 2017: True Emotion Behind the Wall Chang Tso-chi on IMDb

Ken Hatfield

Kenneth Wahl Hatfield is a former American football player and coach. He served as the head football coach at the United States Air Force Academy, the University of Arkansas, Clemson University, Rice University, compiling a career college football record of 168–140–4. Hatfield is a graduate of the University of Arkansas, where he starred at defensive back for the 1964 team that won a share of the national championship. Among his teammates were future Dallas Cowboys head coach Jimmy Johnson and future Dallas Cowboys owner Jerry Jones, he is a member of the Sigma Chi fraternity. Hatfield began his college head coaching career at the United States Air Force Academy from 1979 to 1983, he rebuilt a program that had struggled through most of the 1970s and laid the foundation for its success in the 1980s and early 1990s under his offensive coordinator and successor, Fisher DeBerry. By his final year, the Falcons were ranked 13th in the country by the Coaches' Poll and 15th in the AP Poll—their first appearance in a final poll since 1970.

Hatfield moved to his alma mater, where he compiled a 55–17–1 record from 1984 to 1989. His teams won two straight Southwest Conference titles in 1988 and 1989, a feat that the Razorbacks had not accomplished since his playing days. On January 2, 1989, Hatfield became the first former player to coach his alma mater in the Cotton Bowl Classic. Arkansas's Southwest Conference championship in 1989 is the program's last conference title to date. Hatfield had a somewhat frosty relationship with longtime Arkansas athletic director Frank Broyles though Broyles had been his coach during his playing days. Broyles had a reputation for being hands-on with the football program he had built into a national power as head coach from 1958 to 1976; as good as Hatfield's last two Razorback teams had been, he lost several recruits after 1987 when rival coaches claimed he was in Broyles' doghouse. When Broyles signed a new five-year contract in early 1990, Hatfield left for Clemson University without visiting the campus.

When Hatfield was asked if Broyles had been a factor in his abrupt departure from Fayetteville, he replied, "His name is on the building down there. Let that be my answer." The coach Hatfield succeeded at Clemson, Danny Ford, would become the Razorbacks' coach in 1993. Hatfield coached at Clemson from 1990 to 1993, he did much to clean up the program's image in the aftermath of sanctions from the Ford era. In his second season, 1991, he led the Tigers to their last ACC title in the pre-championship game era. However, Hatfield was never accepted by Clemson's fans. A common saying among Tiger fans during this time was "Howard built it. Ford filled it. Hatfield killed it." Due to this discontent, school officials refused to grant him a one-year extension on his contract after the 1993 season though the Tigers had rebounded from 5–6 in 1992 to a solid 8–3 record that year and a Peach Bowl appearance. Angered at what he saw as a lack of support, Hatfield resigned at the end of the regular season. Soon afterward, Hatfield was hired at Rice University, where he compiled a 55–78–1 record before resigning on November 30, 2005 following a 1–10 season.

He only had three winning seasons in 12 years. Although the Owls were bowl-eligible in those three winning seasons, they weren't invited to a bowl in part because of the school's small alumni and fan base. Rice is the second-smallest school in Division I FBS and had to play schools 10 times its size or more, a major reason why he wasn't as successful as he had been at his previous stops. In his first year, despite a losing overall record, he managed to lead the Owls to a share of the Southwest Conference title and a victory over the rival Texas Longhorns on national TV. One of the few remaining proponents of the conservative triple-option offense in college football, Hatfield compiled a 168–140–4 record as a head coach. On November 25, 2014 It was announced that Hatfield was chosen as the recipient of the 2015 Amos Alonzo Stagg Award. Notable players that Hatfield coached include: RB Barry Foster S Steve Atwater DE Wayne Martin S Brian Dawkins DE N. D. Kalu LB Larry Izzo A story in the November 1, 2002 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education quoted Hatfield saying that he "would not kick a player off the team for being gay, he would think hard about it."

In the article, he cited his religious beliefs as the motivation for his stance. Soon after the publication, the Rice University faculty unanimously voted to repudiate Hatfield's comments, Hatfield apologized for his comments, he continued to coach the Owls until 2005. List of NCAA major college football yearly punt and kickoff return leaders List of presidents of the American Football Coaches Association Media related to Ken Hatfield at Wikimedia Commons