Iowa is a state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri River and Big Sioux River to the west. It is bordered by six states. In colonial times, Iowa was a part of Spanish Louisiana. After the Louisiana Purchase, people laid the foundation for an agriculture-based economy in the heart of the Corn Belt. In the latter half of the 20th century, Iowa's agricultural economy made the transition to a diversified economy of advanced manufacturing, financial services, information technology and green energy production. Iowa is the 26th most extensive in land area and the 30th most populous of the 50 U. S states, its capital and largest city by population is Des Moines. Iowa has been listed as one of the safest states in, its nickname is the Hawkeye State. Iowa derives its name from the Ioway people, one of the many Native American tribes that occupied the state at the time of European exploration. Iowa is bordered by the Mississippi River on the east.
The southern border is the Des Moines River and a not-quite-straight line along 40 degrees 35 minutes north, as decided by the U. S. Supreme Court in Missouri v. Iowa after a standoff between Missouri and Iowa known as the Honey War. Iowa is the only state whose east and west borders are formed by rivers. Iowa has 99 counties; the state capital, Des Moines, is in Polk County. Iowa's bedrock geology increases in age from west to east. In northwest Iowa, Cretaceous bedrock can be 74 million years old. Iowa is not flat. Iowa can be divided into eight landforms based on glaciation, soils and river drainage. Loess hills lie along the western border of the state. Northeast Iowa along the Upper Mississippi River is part of the Driftless Area, consisting of steep hills and valleys which appear mountainous. Several natural lakes exist, most notably Spirit Lake, West Okoboji Lake, East Okoboji Lake in northwest Iowa. To the east lies Clear Lake. Man-made lakes include Lake Odessa, Saylorville Lake, Lake Red Rock, Coralville Lake, Lake MacBride, Rathbun Lake.
The state's northwest area has many remnants such as Barringer Slough. Iowa's natural vegetation is tallgrass prairie and savanna in upland areas, with dense forest and wetlands in flood plains and protected river valleys, pothole wetlands in northern prairie areas. Most of Iowa is used for agriculture; the Southern part of Iowa is categorised as the Central forest-grasslands transition ecoregion. The Northern, drier part of Iowa is categorised as the Central tall grasslands and is thus considered to be part of the Great Plains. There is a dearth of natural areas in Iowa; as of 2005 Iowa ranked 49th of U. S. states in public land holdings. Threatened or endangered animals in Iowa include the interior least tern, piping plover, Indiana bat, pallid sturgeon, the Iowa Pleistocene land snail, Higgins' eye pearly mussel, the Topeka shiner. Endangered or threatened plants include western prairie fringed orchid, eastern prairie fringed orchid, Mead's milkweed, prairie bush clover, northern wild monkshood.
There is little proof to suggest that the explosion in the number of high-density livestock facilities in Iowa has led to increased rural water contamination and a decline in air quality. In fact, covered manure storage in modern barns prevent that manure from washing away into surface water, as it does in open lots as snow melts and thunderstorms occur. Other factors negatively affecting Iowa's environment include the extensive use of older coal-fired power plants and pesticide runoff from crop production, diminishment of the Jordan Aquifer. Iowa has a humid continental climate throughout the state with extremes of both cold; the average annual temperature at Des Moines is 50 °F. Winters are harsh and snowfall is common. Spring ushers in the beginning of the severe weather season. Iowa averages about 50 days of thunderstorm activity per year; the 30 year annual average Tornadoes in Iowa is 47. In 2008, twelve people were killed by tornadoes in Iowa, making it the deadliest year since 1968 and the second most tornadoes in a year with 105, matching the total from 2001.
Iowa summers are known for heat and humidity, with daytime temperatures sometimes near 90 °F and exceeding 100 °F. Average winters in the state have been known to drop well below freezing dropping below −18 °F. Iowa's all-time hottest temperature of 118 °F was recorded at Keokuk on July 20, 1934. Iowa has a smooth gradient of var
Iowa Highway 175
Iowa Highway 175 is a main east–west route in the northern portion of the state. The highway has a length of 221 miles. Iowa Highway 175 enters the state by a Missouri River crossing between Decatur and Onawa; the highway continues westward as Nebraska Highway 51. Iowa 175's eastern terminus is at a T intersection with U. S. Route 63 in southwestern Black Hawk County. Despite Iowa 175's length, it only passes through small communities; the largest city on the route is Onawa, whose 2000 population was 3,091. Iowa Highway 175 begins at the east end of the Burt County Missouri River Bridge west of Onawa. At Onawa, it intersects Interstate 29. At Turin, it meets Iowa Highway 37 and turns northeast to follow an alignment which lies next to the Maple River, it meets Iowa Highway 141 in Mapleton. At Mapleton, Iowa 175 overlaps Iowa Highway 141 through town; this is a wrong-way concurrency, with eastbound Iowa 175 and westbound Iowa 141 routed on one side of the road, vice versa. It continues northeast from Mapleton through Danbury and Battle Creek and meets U.
S. Highway 59 west of Ida Grove. After passing through Ida Grove together with U. S. 59, they separate east of Ida Grove. Iowa 175 passes east through Arthur and at Odebolt, meets Iowa Highway 39. Further east, Iowa 175 meets U. S. Highway 71. Iowa 175 and U. S. 71 run east south east again concurrently through Lake View and Ulmer before separating at Auburn. Iowa 175 leaves Auburn going east passes through Lake City. After Lake City, Iowa 175 meets Iowa Highway 4; the two highways run concurrently through Lohrville before separating. Iowa 175 passes through Farnhamville and Gowrie and intersects Iowa Highway 144 before intersecting U. S. Highway 169 at Harcourt, they continue east together before separating before Dayton. After passing through Stratford, Iowa 175 meets Iowa Highway 17 at Stanhope, it leaves Stanhope going east and meets U. S. Highway 69 south of Jewell, they run together going north into Jewell before Iowa 175 turns east. After passing through Ellsworth, Iowa 175 intersects Interstate 35.
Iowa Highway 175 continues east of I-35 by passing through Radcliffe before meeting U. S. Highway 65 in Hubbard. Iowa 175 and U. S. 65 go north east, together before separating. Iowa 175 goes east through Eldora and meets Iowa Highway 14 west of Grundy Center. Iowa 175 continues east with Iowa 14 before separating in Grundy Center, it turns southeasterly while passing through Morrison and Reinbeck turns east and ends at U. S. Highway 63 south of Hudson. Iowa Highway 175 was nothing more than a short spur from U. S. grew to absorb other routes. By 1955 it had extended westward to Nebraska; the final segment of Highway 175 was commissioned in 1969, extending the highway eastward from Hubbard to its present eastern terminus. The Iowa Highways Page: Highway 175 End of Iowa 175 at Iowa Highway Ends
Hardin County Courthouse (Iowa)
The Hardin County Courthouse, located in Eldora, United States, was built in 1892. The courthouse is the third building to house county administration, it was individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1981. In 2010 it was included as a contributing property in the Eldora Downtown Historic District; the first courthouse in Hardin County was a two-story frame structure built in 1856. It was destroyed in a fire in October of the same year and a new courthouse replaced it the following year; the current courthouse opened in 1892 at a cost of $48,000. In 1921, the roof and tower were damaged by a fire which spread from the adjacent Wisner Opera House. In 1967, the state fire marshall declared the structure unsafe; the following year, voters approved a bond sale to fund repairs. Work included replacing mechanical systems and windows. County workers vacated the building in July 1969 and returned to the renewed facility in October 1970; the final cost ran to $422,000, supplemented by private donations for landscaping.
T. D. Allen, architect of the courthouses in Dickinson and Franklin counties, designed Hardin's courthouse in the Romanesque Revival style with elements of other styles; the exterior of the building is faced with St. Louis pressed brick and rests on a raised ground story covered in rusticated pink Kasota stone. A checkerboard pattern of brick and rusticated stone adorns the area just above the main entrance and the façades of the east and west gables; the same stone frames the windows in modified Gibbs surrounds. Characteristic Richardsonian arches, supported by red granite columns, frame the north and south entrances. However, the corner turrets, hipped roof, cross gables, hewn stone trim are more typical of the Queen Anne style; the building's 128-foot bell tower is reminiscent of those in Italian town centers. Statues of Justice and Liberty occupy the alcove beneath the bell tower; the semi-circular transoms on the middle east and west windows feature the seal of the State of Iowa in frosted glass.
The significance of the courthouse is derived from its association with county government, the political power and prestige of Eldora as the county seat
Story County, Iowa
Story County is a county in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 89,542; the county seat is Nevada. Story County comprises the Ames, IA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Des Moines-Ames-West Des Moines, IA Combined Statistical Area; the county is home to Iowa State University in Ames. The land that today is known as Story County was prairie with the exception of some groves along the larger streams in the area. In 1846 the boundaries of Story County were established; the County is square in shape. The county was named after Joseph Story, a preeminent United States Supreme Court Justice, in 1853; the first settlers to the area came from Indiana from the New England states of New York and Pennsylvania. Many Norwegians and Danes came directly from overseas and inhabited the area; the first large population influx occurred during the 1850s. Story County was not mentioned in the Federal Census in 1850, but figures from the State of Iowa put the population at 214 in 1852.
By 1860 the population had increased to 4,501. Three commissioners were appointed by the Iowa legislature to determine the county seat location. On June 27, 1853, they announced Nevada as their choice. Nevada was named after the Sierra Nevada mountain range in California. Like many Midwestern towns and counties, many prominent locations from the newly explored West and Mexican–American War of the late 1840s inspired the naming of towns and counties in Iowa during this period. Railroad construction did more to develop Story County than any other single factor; the first railroad came to the county in 1864. Railroads were such a decisive factor in determining the location of towns that several communities in Story County moved to be closer to the rail line; some flourishing little towns that were bypassed by the railroad soon disappeared. Although Nevada was long the population center of the county, Ames was the most known of the towns because of the busy railroad depot where travelers would transfer to their next train.
Story County has had five courthouses. The first, a two-level frame building, was erected in 1856. Fire destroyed it in 1863, it was replaced by a similar structure, replaced by a larger three-level building in 1877, situated on the town square; this building's tower served. The fourth courthouse was built in 1967 and placed in service on May 18, 1968; that building is still in use as offices for the Board of Supervisors, Treasurer, Assessor, Information Technology, Facilities Management and Planning & Development Offices. A cannon from the Civil War rests on the lawn; the current courthouse, the Story County Justice Center, opened in 2002. It houses the Justice Center, comprising the law enforcement and judicial aspects of Story County Government; the Story County Sheriff's Office and Clerk of Court are all housed in this building. Story County consists of 16 townships and 15 incorporated cities, 4 unincorporated towns; the population of 79,981 in the 2000 census consisted of 71,114 in urban areas and 8867 in rural areas.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 574 square miles, of which 573 square miles is land and 0.8 square miles is water. The geographical center of Iowa lies in Story County, 5 miles northeast of Ames. Hamilton County Hardin County Marshall County Jasper County Polk County Boone County I-35 I-35 Business Loop US 30 US 65 US 69 Iowa 210 Iowa 330 Iowa 930 Story County is home to the Ames Municipal Airport, on the south side of Ames; the nearest large airport is the Des Moines International Airport, on the south side of Des Moines, some 30 miles from Story County. Story County contains all controlled by the Union Pacific Railroad Company; the Overland Route runs east–west on its route from Chicago to California, passing near Ames and Nevada in Story County. The Spine Line runs north–south on its route from Minneapolis to Kansas City, passing near McCallsburg and Cambridge; the third line in Story County runs near Gilbert and Story City. The following Story County statistics were gathered by the 2010 U.
S. Census. Population Story County had a population of a 12 % increase from the 2000 Census. Of that number, 17.8% of those people are under the age of 18, 10% are over the age of 65, 95.1% of those people are high school graduates, 45.4% hold at least a bachelor's degree. Commuting time Story County workers age 16 and older spent an average of 16.6 minutes traveling to work between 2005 and 2009. Workforce data There were 45,010 individuals working in Story County and 81.5% of those people live in Story County. The remaining percentages break down as follows: 6.8% live in Boone County 4.2% live in Polk County 2.1% live in Hamilton County 1.2% live in Hardin County 1.1% live in Marshal County. There were 43,839 working individuals who lived in Story County and worked anywhere, 83.7% of those people worked in Story County. Household data According to the 2010 U. S. Census, the median household income in 2009 was $48,165, with an average of 2.41 people per household between 2005 and 2009. The per capita income in the past 12 months between 2005 and 2009 was $24,202.
As of the census of 2000, there were 79,981 people, 29,383 households, 17,042 families residing in the county. The population density was 140 people per square mile. There were 30,63
Iowa Highway 57
Iowa Highway 57 is a state highway that runs from west to east in northern Iowa. Its western terminus is at U. S. Route 65 northeast of Iowa Falls, its eastern terminus is at an intersection with U. S. Highway 218, Iowa Highway 27, Iowa Highway 58 in Cedar Falls, it follows much of U. S. Highway 20's old route from Cedar Falls to Iowa Falls. Iowa Highway 57 begins at US 65 northeast of Iowa Falls and runs eastward along the Hardin County/Franklin County border, it goes through Ackley turns north shortly to go through Austinville. It runs through Aplington before meeting Iowa 14 in Parkersburg, it continues east through New Hartford after a brief south turn, turns east to go through Cedar Falls. In the eastern part of Cedar Falls, near George Wyth Memorial State Park, Iowa Highway 57 ends when it meets US 218, Iowa 27, Iowa 58. At the time of designation, the highway went from Grundy Center northward to Cedar Falls. In August 1932, the segment from Grundy Center to Parkersburg was renumbered as Iowa 14. in 1986, when U.
S. Highway 20 was expanded to four lanes to the Black Hawk/Grundy County line, Iowa 57 assumed 20's old route from Cedar falls to Parkersburg; when the final four lane segment of U. S. 20 through the Iowa River Greenbelt opened on August 22, 2003, Iowa 57 was extended to cover the remainder of U. S. 20's old route to U. S. 65. West end of Iowa 57 at Iowa Highway Ends East end of Iowa 57 at Iowa Highway Ends
Iowa's 4th congressional district
Iowa's 4th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Iowa that covers its northwestern part. The district includes Sioux City, Mason City, Fort Dodge and Carroll. Since the 1880s, there have been major changes in the location or nature of Iowa's 4th Congressional District. From 1886 until 1941, the district was made up of rural counties in northeastern Iowa, including the easternmost five counties in the northernmost two rows. During that era, the district included areas from Mason City east to the Mississippi River. In 1941, Iowa's 5th Congressional District was renumbered as Iowa's 4th Congressional District, counties in the old 4th District were placed in the 3rd District and the 2nd District.. From 1941 until 1960 the 4th Congressional District included the central five counties of each of the two southernmost tiers, plus four counties between Des Moines and Iowa City. 5th District incumbent Republican U. S. Representative Karl M. LeCompte was reelected in the reconfigured 4th District in 1942, was reelected in the next seven races.
In 1958, when LeCompte did not run for reelection, Democrat Steven V. Carter defeated Republican John Kyl. A recurrence of cancer would claim Carter's life before the end of his only term, Kyl won the special election and next general election. In 1961 the 4th Congressional District was expanded to include five central Iowa counties - Warren, Marshall and Benton - but retained its rural character. Kyl held this seat until he was swept out in the massive Democratic landslide of 1964. However, he regained his old seat in 1966, was reelected two more times; the rural character of the district was changed when most of its territory was merged with the Des Moines-based 5th District of Democratic incumbent Neal Smith after the 1970 census. Polk County was added. Smith defeated Kyl in the 1972 congressional election; the district became less rural in 1981, when Story County was added, other rural counties were taken out. The district was altered after the 1990 census, when it was reconfigured to take in the southwest quadrant of the state from Des Moines to Council Bluffs.
Smith defeated in 1994 by Republican Greg Ganske. The 2001 remap made the 4th district a north-central Iowa district, it could not be said to be the successor of any of the previous districts. It was a rural district, though it included Ames and Mason City, it did not include any of the state's nine largest cities, only four of the twenty largest Iowa cities. The plan went into effect in 2003 for the 108th U. S. Congress; the 5th's incumbent congressman, Tom Latham, had his home in Alexander drawn into the 4th, was elected from this district five times. For the 2012 elections, the Iowa Legislature passed a plan that went into effect in 2013 for the 113th U. S. Congress; the district now covers the northwest corner of the state, merged the northern half of the old 5th District with the western third of the old 4th. The new map placed Latham and 5th District incumbent Steve King in the same district. Although the new 4th was geographically more Latham's district, he opted to move to the redrawn 3rd District, leaving King to take the seat.
NOTE: Jim Hennager ran on the Earth Federation Party platform on the ballot. As of May 2015, four former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Iowa's 4th congressional district are alive. Iowa's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Twister (1996 film)
Twister is a 1996 American epic action disaster film directed by Jan de Bont from a screenplay by Michael Crichton and Anne-Marie Martin. Its executive producers were Walter Parkes, Laurie MacDonald and Gerald R. Molen; the film stars Helen Hunt, Bill Paxton, Jami Gertz and Cary Elwes, depicts a group of storm chasers researching tornadoes during a severe outbreak in Oklahoma. Twister was the second-highest-grossing film of 1996 domestically, with an estimated 54,688,100 tickets sold in the US; the film was met with a mixed critical reception. The film received Academy Award nominations for Best Sound Mixing. In June 1969 Oklahoma, young Jo Thornton and her family are awoken by an approaching F5 tornado; the family seeks refuge in their storm cellar, but the tornado rips the cellar door off, sucking Jo's father to his death while her mother holds Jo back. The next morning, they find their farmhouse was destroyed. In the present day, the National Severe Storms Laboratory is predicting a record outbreak of tornadoes in Oklahoma over a 24 hour period.
An adult Jo, now a meteorologist, is reunited with her estranged husband, Bill Harding, a former weather researcher and storm chaser, who has since become a popular television weather reporter. He has a brand new Dodge Ram pickup truck and is planning to marry reproductive therapist Melissa Reeves, but cannot do so until Jo signs her long overdue divorce papers. Jo has built four identical tornado research devices called DOROTHY, designed by Bill, which contain hundreds of sensors that, if picked up by a tornado, will create revolutionary breakthroughs in meteorology research. Before Jo can finish the paperwork, her team rushes to intercept a nearby forming F1 tornado, forcing Bill and Melissa to chase after her. However, Bill encounters Dr. Jonas Miller, a corporate-funded meteorologist and long-time rival storm chaser; when Bill learns that Jonas has created a device called DOT-3, a blatant copy of DOROTHY, he vows to help Jo deploy DOROTHY before Jonas can deploy DOT-3 and claim credit for the idea.
In an attempt to deploy DOROTHY and get back to his regular life as soon as possible, Bill maneuvers Jo's Jeep Gladiator off-road into a muddy ditch towards the growing tornado. The tornado approaches and they are unable to drive out of the ditch, they are directly in front of the incoming tornado. As they take cover under the bridge, Jo's truck and DOROTHY I are both picked up and destroyed by the tornado. Soon after, a second tornado is spotted in another part of Oklahoma, they continue on in Bill's Dodge with Melissa, forced to tag along in the backseat; however and his team are intercepting the storm cell, which has grown into an F2 tornado. Bill guesses that the tornado will shift towards another direction and chances going in what seems to be the wrong way, but his guess is correct, which enrages Jonas; the team is lead off-road hanging back as the storm cell worsens, Bill, Jo, Melissa have a dangerous encounter with two waterspouts that leaves Melissa traumatized. The rest of the team, however, is ecstatic about the encounter and convince Jo to let them go visit Jo's Aunt Meg in the nearby town of Wakita for food and rest.
The team arrives in Wakita. While there, the team discusses Bill’s past as an alcoholic and they inform Melissa about Jo's backstory, explaining that Jo has since become obsessed with ensuring nobody else suffers the same fate. Jo, realizing she is falling in love with Bill again, isolates herself from the rest of the group and is confronted by Aunt Meg, who tells her that no matter what happens, they will always end up together, they learn an F3 tornado is forming in a neighboring county, forcing them to end dinner prematurely and hit the road once again. As the team attempt to intercept the F3, the tornado is invisible to them as they begin to drive blindly through thick hail, they go up a hill, dubbed "Twister Hill”, try to deploy DOROTHY II, but the tornado forms on top of them and damages their truck, destroying DOROTHY II in the process. Jo has an emotional breakdown over the situation, admitting. While trying to motivate her, Bill accidentally tells her that he's still in love with her, not realizing that Melissa has been listening to their entire conversation over their CB radio.
That night, the team stays in a hotel next to a drive-in cinema. Jo decides to fill out the remaining divorce papers but is soon interrupted when an F4 tornado forms, forcing everybody present to take shelter; the theater, a repair shop, much of the team’s equipment is destroyed. Traumatized by the near-death experiences and recognizing the re-blossoming love between Bill and Jo, Melissa ends her relationship with Bill and makes her own way home; the tornado continues on to Wakita, devastating the town and injuring Aunt Meg while flattening her house. Aunt Meg's injuries are not serious, but she is taken to the hospital and inspires Jo to never give up; the team hears that an F5 is forming close by. Inspecting Aunt Meg's windchimes, Jo has an idea of how to deploy DOROTHY; the next morning, the team sets out to intercept the F5 tornado, which has grown to be over a mile wide. Bill and Jo lay the newly-altered DOROTHY III directly in the F5's path, but it is destroyed by an uprooted tree, which briefly traps them in the tornado's path.
Meanwhile, Jonas attempts to deploy DOT-3 in a similar fashion, ignoring Bill's repeated warnings that his team is too close and that the tornado is shifting direct