Battle of Shiloh
The Battle of Shiloh was a battle in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, fought April 6–7, 1862, in southwestern Tennessee. A Union force known as the Army of the Tennessee had moved via the Tennessee River deep into Tennessee and was encamped principally at Pittsburg Landing on the west bank of the Tennessee River, where the Confederate Army of Mississippi launched a surprise attack on Grant's army from its base in Corinth, Mississippi. Johnston was mortally wounded during the fighting. Overnight, Grant was reinforced by one of his divisions stationed further north and was joined by three divisions from the Army of the Ohio; the Union forces began an unexpected counterattack the next morning which reversed the Confederate gains of the previous day. On April 6, the first day of the battle, the Confederates struck with the intention of driving the Union defenders away from the river and into the swamps of Owl Creek to the west. Johnston hoped to defeat Grant's army before the anticipated arrival of Buell and the Army of the Ohio.
The Confederate battle lines became confused during the fighting, Grant's men instead fell back to the northeast, in the direction of Pittsburg Landing. A Union position on a sunken road, nicknamed the "Hornet's Nest" and defended by the divisions of Brig. Gens. Benjamin Prentiss and William H. L. Wallace, provided time for the remainder of the Union line to stabilize under the protection of numerous artillery batteries. Wallace was mortally wounded when the position collapsed, while several regiments from the two divisions were surrounded and surrendered. Johnston was bled to death while leading an attack. Beauregard acknowledged how tired the army was from the day's exertions and decided against assaulting the final Union position that night. Tired but unfought and well-organized men from Buell's army and a division of Grant's army arrived in the evening of April 6 and helped turn the tide the next morning, when the Union commanders launched a counterattack along the entire line. Confederate forces were forced to retreat, ending their hopes of blocking the Union advance into northern Mississippi.
The Battle of Shiloh was the battle with the highest number of casualties in American history until the Battle of Stones River, surpassed by the Battle of Chancellorsville the next year and soon after, by the three-day Battle of Gettysburg, the highest-casualty battle of the war. After the losses of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson in February 1862, Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston withdrew his forces into western Tennessee, northern Mississippi, Alabama to reorganize. Johnston established his base at Corinth, the site of a major railroad junction and strategic transportation link between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mississippi River, but left the Union troops with access into southern Tennessee and points farther south via the Tennessee River. In early March, Union Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck commander of the Department of the Missouri, ordered Grant to remain at Fort Henry, on March 4 turned field command of the expedition over to a subordinate, Brig. Gen. C. F. Smith, nominated as a major general.
Smith's orders were to lead raids intended to capture or damage the railroads in southwestern Tennessee. Brig. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman's troops arrived from Paducah, Kentucky, to conduct a similar mission to break the railroads near Eastport, Mississippi. Halleck ordered Grant to advance his Army of West Tennessee on an invasion up the Tennessee River. Grant left Fort Henry and headed upriver, arriving at Savannah, Tennessee, on March 14, established his headquarters on the east bank of the river. Grant's troops set up camp farther upriver: five divisions at Pittsburg Landing, a sixth at Crump's Landing, four miles from Grant's headquarters. Meanwhile, Halleck's command was enlarged through consolidation of Grant's and Buell's armies and renamed the Department of the Mississippi. With Buell's Army of the Ohio under his command, Halleck ordered Buell to concentrate with Grant at Savannah. Buell began a march with much of his army from Nashville and headed southwest toward Savannah. Halleck intended to take the field in person and lead both armies in an advance south to seize Corinth, where the Mobile and Ohio Railroad linking Mobile, Alabama, to the Ohio River intersected the Memphis and Charleston Railroad.
The railroad was a vital supply line connecting the Mississippi River at Memphis, Tennessee to Richmond, Virginia. Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's Army of the Tennessee of 44,895 men consisted of six divisions: 1st Division: 3 brigades. Grant developed a reputation during the war for being more concerned with h
Wayne County, Tennessee
Wayne County is a county located in Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,021, its county seat is Waynesboro. The county is named after General "Mad Anthony" Wayne. Wayne County was created in 1817 from parts of Humphreys counties. Waynesboro, its county seat, was established in 1821; the city of Clifton emerged as a key river port in the mid-19th century. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 736 square miles, of which 734 square miles is land and 1.6 square miles is water. It is the second-largest county in Tennessee by area; the county lies along the southwestern Highland Rim. The Tennessee River flows along Wayne County's northwestern border with Decatur County; the Buffalo River, a tributary of the Duck River, flows through the northern part of Wayne County. The Green River, a tributary of the Buffalo, flows through Waynesboro. Perry County Lewis County Lawrence County Lauderdale County, Alabama Hardin County Decatur County Natchez Trace Parkway Arnold Hollow Wildlife Management Area Browntown Wildlife Management Area Eagle Creek Wildlife Management Area Tie Camp Wildlife Management Area As of the census of 2010, there were 17,021 people, 5,822 households, 4,321 families residing in the county.
The population density was 23 people per square mile. There were 6,701 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.3% White, 5.7% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.19% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. 1.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,936 households out of which 31.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.10% were married couples living together, 10.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.20% were non-families. 24.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.40% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 31.70% from 25 to 44, 24.20% from 45 to 64, 13.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years.
For every 100 females there were 121.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 125.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,576, the median income for a family was $30,973. Males had a median income of $27,879 versus $19,034 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,472. About 12.90% of families and 16.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.60% of those under age 18 and 19.60% of those age 65 or over. The religious affiliations of the people of Wayne County, Tennessee are: Christian Southern Baptist Convention United Methodist Church Independent Free Will Baptist Associations Churches of Christ Church of God National Association of Free Will Baptists Cumberland Presbyterian Church Presbyterian Church International Pentecostal Holiness Church Catholic Church Church of God of Prophecy Christian Church Seventh-day Adventist Church Church of the Nazarene Other Baha'i Wayne County is one of the most staunchly Republican leaning counties in Tennessee as well as the country when it comes to presidential elections.
In the 20th century, the county was an enclave of the Republican Party in Middle Tennessee, one of few outside Eastern Tennessee in a state, up until Democratic. No Democratic presidential candidate has carried the county since Samuel J. Tilden in the controversial 1876 election. On rare occasions, the county has voted for Democratic candidates for U. S. Senate and state governor. Al Gore carried Wayne County in his run for the U. S. Senate in 1984 and his 1990 reelection bid, though he never carried in either 1992 or 1996 as Bill Clinton's vice presidential running mate or his campaign for the presidency in 2000, in which he lost his home state. Aside from Gore, Jim Sasser carried the county in his last successful reelection bid for the Senate in 1988, Ned McWherter carried it in his 1990 reelection bid for governor, Phil Bredesen carried it in his 2006 gubernatorial reelection bid. Columbia State Community College in Clifton Wayne County Adult Education Center Frank Hughes School Waynesboro Elementary School Waynesboro Middle School Wayne County High School Wayne County Technology Center Collinwood High School Collinwood Middle School Collinwood Elementary School AM 930 WWON Waynesboro, Tennessee FM 94.9 WMSR-FM Collinwood, Tennessee FM 106.5 WLVS-FM Clifton, Tennessee FM 89.9 W210BE Waynesboro, Tennessee FM 100.7 WWON-FM Waynesboro, Tennessee The Wayne County News Singing on the Farm – Cypress Inn Tour De Wayne Bicycle Ride Fireworks Show – Waynesboro Fourth of July in the Park – Waynesboro Wayne County History and Craft Fair – Waynesboro Old Timer's Day – Collinwood Horseshoe Riverbend Festival – Clifton Clifton Collinwood Iron City Waynesboro Lon A. Scott – member of the United States House of Representatives for the 8th congressional district of Tennessee Thetus W. Sims – politician and a member of the United States House of Representatives for the 8th congressional district of Tennessee National Register of Historic Places listings in Wayne County, Tennessee Official website Chamber of Commerce Wayne County News Wayne County at Curlie
McNairy County, Tennessee
McNairy County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 26,075, its county seat is Selmer. McNairy County is located along Tennessee's border with the state of Mississippi. Sheriff Buford Pusser, whose story was told in the Walking Tall series of movies, was the sheriff of McNairy County from 1964 to 1970. McNairy County is the location of the Coon Creek Science Center, a notable fossil site that preserves Late Cretaceous marine shells and vertebrate remains. McNairy County was formed in 1823 from parts of Hardin County, was named for Judge John McNairy. Purdy was the county seat of McNairy County until 1890. Since Selmer has been the county seat. Buford Pusser served as the sheriff of McNairy County from 1964 to 1970; the courthouse and jail in Selmer were his base of operations. He gained prominence for his fight against illegal distilleries, gambling establishments, corruption in the county, his story has been made famous in the Walking Tall series of movies starring Joe Don Baker, Bo Svenson, Brian Dennehy, Dwayne Johnson, in numerous documentaries and books.
The oldest existing business in McNairy County is its newspaper, the Independent Appeal, founded in 1902. It is located in Selmer. In 2009, Tom Evans, a former reporter and photographer for the Independent Appeal, formed his own weekly newspaper, The McNairy County News. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 564 square miles, of which 563 square miles is land and 0.8 square miles is water. The major highways U. S. Route 64 and U. S. Route 45 pass through intersect in Selmer. Between the late 1990s and mid 2010s, both highways were upgraded to four lane divided highways, giving the county quicker access to the surrounding areas. McNairy County's position on Route 64 places it on the historic Lee Highway, which stretches from New York to San Francisco. State Highways 22 and 57 pass through the county. SR 22 along the eastern portion intersecting with US 64 in Adamsville, SR 57 through the southern portion intersecting with US 45 in Eastview. Chester County Hardin County Alcorn County, Mississippi Hardeman County Big Hill Pond State Park As of the census of 2000, there were 24,653 people, 9,980 households, 7,135 families residing in the county.
The population density was 44 people per square mile. There were 11,219 housing units at an average density of 20 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.22% White, 6.23% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.24% from other races, 0.98% from two or more races. 0.93% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 9,980 households out of which 29.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.00% were married couples living together, 9.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.50% were non-families. 25.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.89. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.60% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 26.70% from 25 to 44, 25.60% from 45 to 64, 15.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 94.20 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,154, the median income for a family was $36,045. Males had a median income of $30,028 versus $21,450 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,385. About 11.80% of families and 15.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.00% of those under age 18 and 20.80% of those age 65 or over. McNairy County is the site of 5,000-acre Big Hill Pond State Park, forested with timberland and hardwood bottomland; the county is the location of the Coon Creek Science Center, a notable fossil site, located in Leapwood over the Coon Creek Formation, which preserves Late Cretaceous marine shells and vertebrate remains left there 70 million years ago. McNairy County is home to one of the most successful rural arts organizations in the state, AiM. AiM pushes for arts recognition in the county and surrounding area through theatre productions, exhibits of local artists, the bi-annual Artisan Trail.
Finger Ramer National Register of Historic Places listings in McNairy County, Tennessee Official site McNairy County Chamber of Commerce McNairy County at Curlie McNairy County at TNGenWeb Arts in McNairy Homepage McNairy Central High School Reminiscences of the Early Settlement and Early Settlers of McNairy County, Tennessee Let’s Call It Finger: A History of North McNairy County and Finger and Its Surrounding Communities A History of Mount Carmel Cemetery and Meeting House, McNairy County, Tennessee
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Shelby County, Tennessee
Shelby County is a county in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 927,644, it is the state's largest county both in terms of population and geographic area. Its county seat is Memphis, a port on the Mississippi River and the second most populous city in Tennessee; the county was named for Governor Isaac Shelby of Kentucky. Shelby County is part of TN-MS-AR Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is bordered on the west by the Mississippi River. Located within the Mississippi Delta, the county was developed as a center of cotton plantations in the antebellum era, cotton continued as an important commodity crop well into the 20th century; the economy has become more diversified. This area along the Mississippi River valley was long occupied by varying cultures of indigenous peoples. In historic times, the Chickasaw controlled much of this area, they are believed to be descendants of the important Mississippian culture, which established fortified and complex cities. The largest of these was Cahokia, active from about 950CE into the 15th century.
It was developed on the east side of the Mississippi in present-day southern Illinois. The Shelby County area was part of the lands acquired by the United States government from the Chickasaw as part of the Jackson Purchase of 1818. Shelby County was established by European-American migrants in 1819 and named for Isaac Shelby, the former governor of Kentucky who had helped negotiate the land acquisition. From 1826 to 1868, the county seat was located at Tennessee on the Wolf River. After the American Civil War, in recognition of the growth of Memphis and its importance to the state economy, the seat was moved there; the lowlands in the Mississippi Delta, closest to the Mississippi River, were developed for large cotton plantations. Well before the American Civil War, the population of the county was majority black, most of whom were slaves. Memphis developed with many brokers. After the war, many freedmen stayed on the land by working as sharecroppers. Tennessee had competitive politics; the eastern part of the state supported the Republican Party.
Blacks in the west supported the Republican Party. Most conservative whites supported the Democrats. From 1877-1950, there were 20 lynchings of blacks by whites in Shelby County, the highest number of any county in the state. Most blacks were disenfranchised around the turn of the century when the state passed laws raising barriers to voter registration. Blacks were closed out of the political system for more than six decades. In the 20th century, mechanization of agriculture reduced the need for farm workers at a time when industries and railroads in the North were recruiting workers; the Great Migration resulted in many African Americans moving from rural areas into Memphis or out of state to northern cities for work and social and political opportunities. After World War II, highways were constructed that led to development of much new housing on the outskirts of Memphis where land was cheap. Suburbanization, with retail businesses following new residents, took place in the county, drawing population out of the city.
With continued residential and suburban development, the population of the metropolitan area became majority white. Six towns in the county have become incorporated. Residents enjoy many parks in the area as well as attractions in the city of Memphis. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 785 square miles, of which 763 square miles is land and 22 square miles is water, it is the largest county in Tennessee by area. The lowest point in the state of Tennessee is located on the Mississippi River in Shelby County, where the river flows out of Tennessee and into Mississippi. Loosahatchie River Mississippi River Nonconnah Creek Wolf River Tipton County Fayette County Marshall County, Mississippi DeSoto County, Mississippi Crittenden County, Arkansas As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 927,644 people residing in the county. 52.1% were Black or African American, 40.6% White, 2.3% Asian, 0.2% Native American, 3.3% of some other race and 1.4 of two or more races.
5.6% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 897,472 people, 338,366 households, 228,735 families residing in the county; the population density was 1,189 people per square mile. There were 362,954 housing units at an average density of 481 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 48.56% Black, or African American, 47.34% White, 0.20% Native American, 1.64% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.20% from other races, 1.02% from two or more races. 2.60% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 338,366 households out of which 34.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.80% were married couples living together, 20.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.40% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.18. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.20% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 31.10% from 25 to 44, 21.00% from 45 to 64, 10.00% who were 65 years
Henderson County, Tennessee
Henderson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 27,769, its county seat is Lexington. The county was founded in 1821 and named for James Henderson, a soldier in the War of 1812. Henderson County was established in 1821. Henderson is said to have served in earlier conflicts such as the Creek Indian war, which took place during the same overall time period as the War of 1812. After the Battle of New Orleans, Major General William Carroll's Tennessee brigade, the largest single force under General Andrew Jackson's command in Louisiana, established their outgoing camp upriver from New Orleans and named it Camp Henderson. General Carroll's first term as Governor of Tennessee began the same year that Henderson County was established, it was he who proposed naming the new county after his fallen officer James Henderson. The county seat, was laid out in 1822. Like many Tennessee counties, Henderson was divided during the Civil War. Confederate sentiment was strongest in the western half of the county, while Union support was strongest in the hilly eastern half.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 526 square miles, of which 520 square miles is land and 5.8 square miles is water. The county straddles the Tennessee Valley Divide, with waters east of the divide flowing into the Tennessee River, waters west of the divide flowing into the Mississippi River. Primary streams include the Beech River, which flows through the county's largest lake Beech Lake, the Forked Deer River. Carroll County Decatur County Hardin County Chester County Madison County Natchez Trace State Forest Natchez Trace State Park I-40 US 70 US 412 SR 22 SR 22A SR 104 As of the census of 2000, there were 25,522 people, 10,306 households, 7,451 families residing in the county; the population density was 49 people per square mile. There were 11,446 housing units at an average density of 22 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.45% White, 8.00% Black or African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.33% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races.
0.97% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,306 households out of which 32.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.90% were married couples living together, 11.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.70% were non-families. 24.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.90. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.30% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 28.80% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, 14.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 92.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,057, the median income for a family was $38,475. Males had a median income of $28,598 versus $21,791 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,019.
About 9.20% of families and 12.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.60% of those under age 18 and 14.50% of those age 65 or over. The Beech River Regional Airport is a public-use airport located five nautical miles northwest northwest of the central business district of Parsons, a city in Decatur County; the airport is located in Tennessee. Lexington Parkers Crossroads Sardis Scotts Hill Chesterfield Darden A unionist county, Henderson County has not voted for a Democratic candidate since Samuel Tilden in the 1876 election, the last time it didn't vote Republican was in 1912, when the county supported Progressive candidate Theodore Roosevelt. National Register of Historic Places listings in Henderson County, Tennessee Official site Henderson County Chamber of Commerce Henderson County, TNGenWeb - free genealogy resources for the county Henderson County at Curlie James Henderson on Find a Grave
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c