Gaston III, Count of Foix
Gaston Fébus was the eleventh count of Foix and viscount of Béarn from 1343 until his death. Gaston was born either in Orthez or Foix, the eldest son of Gaston II/IX; as the lord's eldest son, he was given Gaston. He adopted Fébus as a nickname. In its classic spelling, Phoebus, it is one of the names of the sun-god, is apt because of Gaston Fébus's golden hair, his native language was Gascon, but he was fluent in French. He wrote a treatise on hunting in French, an Occitan song, Se Canta, has been ascribed to him. One contemporary chronicler, Jean Froissart, records that he "very willingly spoke to me not in his native Gascon but in proper and elegant French". Béarn had passed to the county of Foix in 1290. Fébus paid homage to the French king for his own county, but starting in 1347 he refused to give homage for Béarn, which he claimed as an independent fief, with its chief seat his stronghold at Pau, a site, fortified by the 11th century, made the official capital of Béarn in 1464, he was succeeded as count of Foix by Mathieu of Foix-Castelbon.
The House of Béarn-Foix was engaged in a long running feud with the House of Armagnac. In 1362, a battle was fought between the two noble houses at Launac. Fébus was victorious and succeeded in capturing his chief rivals, whom he ransomed for a vast fortune of at least 600,000 florins; this money was stored in the Moncade tower in Orthez, where Fébus created a gallery of portraits and military trophies to commemorate the event. In late 1388, the chronicler, Jean Froissart, visited the County of Foix and recorded the splendour of Fébus' court at Orthez, he noted that Fébus describes the three "special delights" of his life as "arms and hunting". Fébus was one of the greatest huntsmen of his day, hunted his entire life – he died of a stroke while washing his hands after returning from a bear hunt, his Livre de chasse was written between 1387–1389 and dedicated to Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. Recorded in the book are different stages of hunting different animals, as well as describing animal behavior, offering advice to less well-off gentry about how to enjoy hunting without bankrupting themselves, is sympathetic to the peasant poacher because he too has the hunting instinct.
It is the classic treatise on Medieval hunting, was described by scholar, Hannele Klemettilä, as "one of the most influential texts of its era". Some forty-four 15th and 16th century illuminated manuscripts survive, the most famous being that held by the Bibliothèque nationale de France, which has exquisite miniatures, illustrating the hunt. Fébus married Agnès of Navarre, daughter of Joan II of Navarre and Philip III of Navarre in 1348, they had a son: Gaston, married Béatrice d'Armagnac, daughter of John II of Armagnac. He was the father of four illegitimate children: Garcia de Béarn, viscount of Ossau, husband of Anne de Lavedan; as Jean Froissart records, Fébus was betrayed by his son who bore the dynastic name and who tried to kill his father using poison given to him by Charles II of Navarre. Fébus imprisoned him. In a subsequent violent quarrel, Fébus stabbed his son. Following Gaston's death, Fébus had no legitimate descendants. In 1393, in Paris at a masquerade given by the Queen of France, Isabeau of Bavaria, one of Gaston Fébus's four recorded illegitimate sons, Yvain de Foix, was burned to death when his costume, along with the costumes of four others, caught fire from a torch at the Bal des Ardents.
Castle of Foix Château de Mauvezin
Provence is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It corresponds with the modern administrative région of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, includes the départements of Var, Bouches-du-Rhône, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence and parts of Alpes-Maritimes and Vaucluse; the largest city of the region is Marseille. The Romans made the region the first Roman province beyond the Alps and called it Provincia Romana, which evolved into the present name; until 1481 it was ruled by the Counts of Provence from their capital in Aix-en-Provence became a province of the Kings of France. While it has been part of France for more than five hundred years, it still retains a distinct cultural and linguistic identity in the interior of the region; the coast of Provence has some of the earliest known sites of human habitation in Europe. Primitive stone tools dating back 1 to 1.05 million years BC have been found in the Grotte du Vallonnet near Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, between Monaco and Menton.
More sophisticated tools, worked on both sides of the stone and dating to 600,000 BC, were found in the Cave of Escale at Saint Estėve-Janson, tools from 400,000 BC and some of the first fireplaces in Europe were found at Terra Amata in Nice. Tools dating to the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic were discovered in the Observatory Cave, in the Jardin Exotique of Monaco; the Paleolithic period in Provence saw great changes in the climate. Two ice ages came and went, the sea level changed dramatically. At the beginning of the Paleolithic, the sea level in western Provence was 150 meters higher than today. By the end of the Paleolithic, it had dropped to 100 to 150 metres below the sea level today; the cave dwellings of the early inhabitants of Provence were flooded by the rising sea or left far from the sea and swept away by erosion. The changes in the sea level led to one of the most remarkable discoveries of signs of early man in Provence. In 1985, a diver named Henri Cosquer discovered the mouth of a submarine cave 37 metres below the surface of the Calanque de Morgiou near Marseille.
The entrance led to a cave above sea level. Inside, the walls of the Cosquer Cave are decorated with drawings of bison, auks and outlines of human hands, dating to between 27,000 and 19,000 BC; the end of the Paleolithic and beginning of the Neolithic period saw the sea settle at its present level, a warming of the climate and the retreat of the forests. The disappearance of the forests and the deer and other hunted game meant that the inhabitants of Provence had to survive on rabbits and wild sheep. In about 6000 BC, the Castelnovian people, living around Châteauneuf-les-Martigues, were among the first people in Europe to domesticate wild sheep, to cease moving from place to place. Once they settled in one place they were able to develop new industries. Inspired by pottery from the eastern Mediterranean, in about 6000 BC they created the first pottery made in France. Around 6000 BC, a wave of new settlers from the east, the Chasséens, arrived in Provence, they were farmers and warriors, displaced the earlier pastoral people from their lands.
They were followed about 2500 BC by another wave of people farmers, known as the Courronniens, who arrived by sea and settled along the coast of what is now the Bouches-du-Rhône. Traces of these early civilisations can be found in many parts of Provence. A Neolithic site dating to about 6,000 BC was discovered in Marseille near the Saint-Charles railway station, and a dolmen from the Bronze Age can be found near Draguignan. Between the 10th and 4th century BC, the Ligures were found in Provence from Massilia as far as modern Liguria, they were of uncertain origin. Strabo distinctly states they were not of a different race from the Gauls, they did not have their own alphabet, but their language remains in place names in Provence ending in the suffixes -asc, -osc. -inc, -ates, -auni. The ancient geographer Posidonios wrote of them: "Their country is dry; the soil is so rocky. The men compensate for the lack of wheat by hunting... They climb the mountains like goats." They were warlike. Traces of the Ligures remain today in the dolmens and other megaliths found in eastern Provence, in the primitive stone shelters called'Bories' found in the Luberon and Comtat, in the rock carvings in the Valley of Marvels near Mont Bégo in the Alpes-Maritimes, at an altitude of 2,000 meters.
Between the 8th and 5th centuries BC, tribes of Celtic peoples coming from Central Europe began moving into Provence. They had weapons made of iron, which allowed them to defeat the local tribes, who were still armed with bronze weapons. One tribe, called the Segobriga, settled near modern-day Marseille; the Caturiges and Cavares settled to the west of the Durance river. Celts and Ligurians spread throughout the area and the Celto-Ligures shared the territory of Provence, each tribe in its own alpine valley or settlement along a river, each with its own king and dynasty, they built hilltop forts and settlements given the Latin name oppida. Today the traces 165 oppida are found in the Var, as many as 285 in the Alp
Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres southwest of Paris. It is the capital of the Loiret department and of the Centre-Val de Loire region. Orléans is located on the Loire River. In 2015, the city had 114,644 inhabitants, the population of the urban area was 433,337. Île d'Orléans, Orléans and New Orleans, Louisiana are named after the city. Orléans is located in the northern bend of the Loire. Orléans belongs to the vallée de la Loire sector between Sully-sur-Loire and Chalonnes-sur-Loire, in 2000 inscribed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site; the capital of Orléanais, 120 kilometres southwest of Paris, is bordered to the north by the Beauce region, more the Orléans Forest and Orléans-la-Source neighbourhood, the Sologne region to the south. Five bridges in the city cross the Loire River: Pont de l'Europe, Pont du Maréchal Joffre, Pont George-V, Pont René-Thinat and Pont de Vierzon. To the north of the Loire is to be found a small hill which rises to 125 m at la Croix Fleury, at the limits of Fleury-les-Aubrais.
Conversely, the south has a gentle depression to about 95 m above sea level between the Loire and the Loiret, designated a "zone inondable". At the end of the 1960s, the Orléans-la-Source neighbourhood was created, 12 kilometres to the south of the original commune and separated from it by the Val d'Orléans and the Loiret River; this quarter's altitude varies from about 100 to 110 m. In Orléans, the Loire is separated by a submerged dike known as the dhuis into the Grande Loire to the north, no longer navigable, the Petite Loire to the south; this dike is just one part of a vast system of construction that allowed the Loire to remain navigable to this point. The Loire was an important navigation and trading route. With the increase in size of ocean-going ships, large ships can now navigate the estuary only up to about Nantes. Boats on the river were traditionally flat-bottomed boats, with large but foldable masts so the sails could gather wind from above the river banks, but the masts could be lowered in order to allow the boats to pass under bridges.
These vessels are known as gabarre, so on, may be viewed by tourists near pont Royal. The river's irregular flow limits traffic on it, in particular at its ascent, though this can be overcome by boats being given a tow. An Inexplosible-type paddle steamer owned by the mairie was put in place in August 2007, facing Place de la Loire and containing a bar; every two years, the Festival de Loire recalls the role played by the river in the commune's history. On the river's north bank, near the town centre, is the Canal d'Orléans, which connects to the Canal du Loing and the Canal de Briare at Buges near Montargis; the canal is no longer used along its whole length. Its route within Orléans runs parallel to the river, separated from it by a wall or muret, with a promenade along the top, its last pound was transformed into an outdoor swimming pool in the 1960s filled in. It was reopened in 2007 for the "fêtes de Loire." There are plans to install a pleasure-boat port there. Orléans experiences an oceanic climate, similar to much of central France.
See Cenabum, Aureliana Civitas. Cenabum was a Gallic stronghold, one of the principal towns of the tribe of the Carnutes where the Druids held their annual assembly; the Carnutes were massacred and the city was destroyed by Julius Caesar in 52 BC a new city was built on its ruins by settlers from the gens Aurelia who named the city, civitas Aurelianorum, after themselves. The name evolved into Orléans. In 442 Flavius Aetius, the Roman commander in Gaul, requested Goar, head of the Iranian tribe of Alans in the region to come to Orleans and control the rebellious natives and the Visigoths. Accompanying the Vandals, the Alans crossed the Loire in 408. One of their groups, under Goar, joined the Roman forces of Flavius Aetius to fight Attila when he invaded Gaul in 451, taking part in the Battle of Châlons under their king Sangiban. Goar established his capital in Orléans, his successors took possession of the estates in the region between Orléans and Paris. Installed in Orléans and along the Loire, they resented by the local inhabitants.
Many inhabitants around the present city have names bearing witness to the Alan presence – Allaines. Many places in the region bear names of Alan origin. In the Merovingian era, the city was capital of the Kingdom of Orléans following Clovis I's division of the kingdom under the Capetians it became the capital of a county duchy held in appanage by the house of Valois-Orléans; the Valois-Orléans family acceded to the throne of France via Louis XII Francis I. In 1108, one of the few consecrations of a French monarch to occur outside of Reims occurred at Orléans, when Louis VI of France was consecrated in Orléans cathedral by Daimbert, archbishop of Sens; the city was always a strategic point on the Loire, for it was sited at the river's most northerly point, thus its closest point to Paris. There were few bridges over the dangerous river Loire, b
Crisis of the Late Middle Ages
The crisis of the Late Middle Ages was a series of events in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that brought centuries of European prosperity and growth to a halt. Three major crises led to radical changes in all areas of society: demographic collapse, political instabilities and religious upheavals. A series of famines and plagues, beginning with the Great Famine of 1315–17 and the Black Death of 1347-1351, reduced the population by half or more as the Medieval Warm Period came to a close and the first century of the Little Ice Age began, it took 150 years for the European population to regain the levels of 1300. Popular revolts in late-medieval Europe and civil wars between nobles within countries such as the Wars of the Roses were common—with France fighting internally nine times—and there were international conflicts between kings such as France and England in the Hundred Years' War; the unity of the Roman Catholic Church was shattered by the Western Schism. The Holy Roman Empire was in decline.
The expression "Crisis of the Late Middle Ages" is used in western historiography in English and German, somewhat less among other western European scholarship to refer individually or collectively to different crises besetting Europe in the 14th and 15th centuries. The expression carries a modifier to refer more to one or another aspect of Late Middle Age crisis, such as the Urban Crisis of the Late Middle Ages, or the Cultural, Religious, Economic, Intellectual, or Agrarian crisis of the Late Middle Ages, or a national or regional modifier, e.g. Catalan or French crisis, it is sometimes pluralized but more is found in the singular as a collective term for the various crises. By 1929, French historian Marc Bloch was writing about the effects of the crisis of the Late Middle Ages, by mid-century there were academic debates being held about it. In his 1981 article Late Middle Age Agrarian Crisis or Crisis of Feudalism?, Peter Kriedte reprises some of the early works in the field from historians writing in the 1930s, including Marc Bloch, Henri Pirenne, Wilhelm Abel, Michael Postan.
Referred to in Italian as the "Crisis of the 14th Century", Giovanni Cherubini alluded to the debate that by 1974 had been going on "for several decades" in French, British and German historiography. Arno Borst says that it "is a given that fourteenth century Latin Christianity was in a crisis", goes on to say that the intellectual aspects and how universities were affected by the crisis is underrepresented in the scholarship hitherto: "When we discuss the crisis of the Late Middle Ages, we consider intellectual movements beside religious and economic ones", gives some examples; some question whether "crisis" is the right expression for the period at the end of the Middle Ages and the transition to Modernity. In his 1981 article The End of the Middle Ages: Decline, Crisis or Transformation? Donald Sullivan addresses this question, claiming that scholarship has neglected the period and viewed it as a precursor to subsequent climactic events such as the Renaissance and Reformation. In his "Introduction to the History of the Middle Ages in Europe", Mitre Fernández wrote in 2004 that "o talk about a general crisis of the Late Middle Ages is a commonplace in the study of medieval history."
Heribert Müller, in his 2012 book on the religious crisis of the late Middle Ages, discussed whether the term itself was in crisis, saying,No doubt the thesis of the crisis of the late Middle Ages has itself been in crisis for some time now, hardly anyone considered an expert in the field would still profess it without some ifs and buts, so in the case of German Medieval historians. In his 2014 historiographical article about the crisis in the Middle Ages, Peter Schuster quotes historian Léopold Genicot's 1971 article "Crisis: From the Middle Ages to Modern Times" where Genicot wrote, "Crisis is the word which comes to the historian's mind when he thinks of the fourteenth and the fifteenth centuries." Some scholars contend. By the 14th century frontiers had ceased to expand and internal colonization was coming to an end, but population levels remained high; the Medieval Warm Period ended sometime towards the end of the 13th century, bringing the "Little Ice Age" and harsher winters with reduced harvests.
In Northern Europe, new technological innovations such as the heavy plough and the three-field system were not as effective in clearing new fields for harvest as they were in the Mediterranean because the north had poor, clay-like soil. Food shortages and inflating prices were a fact of life for as much as a century before the plague. Wheat, oats and livestock, were all in short supply, their scarcity resulted in malnutrition, which increases susceptibility to infections due to weakened immune systems. In the autumn of 1314, heavy rains began to fall, which were the start of several years of cold and wet winters; the weak harvests of the north suffered and the seven-year famine ensued. In the years 1315 to 1317 a catastrophic famine, known as the Great Famine, struck much of North West Europe, it was arguably the worst in European history reducing the population by more than 10%. Most governments instituted measures that prohibited exports of foodstuffs, condemned black market speculators, set price controls on grain and outlawed large-scale fishing.
At best, they proved unenforceable and at worst they cont
Philip the Bold
Philip the Bold was Duke of Burgundy and jure uxoris Count of Flanders and Burgundy. The fourth and youngest son of King John II of France and his wife, Bonne of Luxembourg, Philip was the founder of the Burgundian branch of the House of Valois, his vast collection of territories made him the undisputed premier peer of the kingdom of France and made his successors formidable subjects, sometimes rivals, of the kings of France. Born in Pontoise in 1342, Philip gained his cognomen the Bold at the age of 14, when he fought beside his father at the Battle of Poitiers of 1356 and they were captured by the English, he remained in the custody with his father until the terms of their ransom were agreed to in the Treaty of Brétigny of 1360. He was created Duke of Touraine in 1360, but in 1363, he returned this title to the crown to receive instead the Duchy of Burgundy in apanage from his father as a reward for his courage at the Battle of Poitiers, his father had been the ruler of the duchy since the death of Duke Philip I in 1361.
Philip would rule the duchy as Philip II until his death. He was the stepbrother of Philip I of Burgundy, whose mother Joan was married to King John II of France, Philip the Bold's father, as his second wife. On 19 June 1369, Philip married the 19-year-old Margaret of Dampierre, daughter of Louis II, Count of Flanders, who would become the heiress of the County of Flanders, the Duchy of Brabant, the County of Artois, the Free County of Burgundy after the death of her brother in 1376. Margaret became the widow of Philip's stepbrother Duke Philip I of Burgundy while still a child of about 11; as her father's eventual heiress, Margaret would bring rich possessions to Philip the Bold and his children. From 1379 to 1382, Philip helped his father-in-law Louis II put down revolts in Flanders in Ghent, by organising an army against Philip van Artevelde; the revolts were ended in 1385, following the death of Louis II, with the Peace of Tournai. As jure uxoris Count of Flanders, he would keep in mind the economic interests of the Flemish cities, which made their money from weaving and spinning.
He was aided in this by the expansion of the Three Members – a parliament consisting of representatives from the towns of Bruges and Ypres – to the Four Members through the addition of the rural area Franc of Bruges In 1390, Philip became the Count of Charolais, a title used by Philip the Good and Charles the Bold as the heirs of Burgundy. Philip was active at the court of France after the death in 1380 of his brother King Charles V, whose successor Charles VI became king at the age of 11. During Charles' minority, a council of Regents was set up to govern France, made up of four of his uncles: Louis, Duke of Anjou, Duke of Berry, Philip himself from his father's side, from his mother's side, Louis II, Duke of Bourbon. Among Philip's acts while regent was the suppression of a tax revolt in 1382 known as the Harelle; the regency lasted until 1388, always with Philip assuming the dominant role: Louis of Anjou spent much effort fighting for his claim to the Kingdom of Naples after 1382 and died in 1384, John of Berry was interested in the Languedoc and not interested in politics, Louis of Bourbon was an unimportant figure due to his personality and his status.
However, along with John of Berry and Louis of Bourbon, lost most of their power at court in 1388, when Charles VI chose to favour the advice of the Marmousets, his personal advisors, over that of his uncles when he attained his majority. In 1392, events conspired to allow Philip to seize power once more in France. Charles VI's friend and advisor Olivier de Clisson had been the target of an assassination attempt by agents of John V, Duke of Brittany; the would-be assassin, Pierre de Craon, had taken refuge in Brittany. Charles, outraged at these events, determined to punish Craon, on 1 July 1392 led an expedition against Brittany. While travelling to Brittany, the king overwrought by the slow progress, was shocked by a madman who spent half-an-hour following the procession to warn the king that he had been betrayed; when a page dropped a lance, the king reacted by killing several of his knights and had to be wrestled to the ground. Philip, present assumed command and appointed himself regent, dismissing Charles' advisors.
He was the principal ruler of France until 1402. His seizure of power, had disastrous consequences for the unity of the House of Valois and of France itself; the king's brother Louis, Duke of Orléans, resented his uncle taking over as regent instead of himself. In particular, both quarrelled over royal funds, which each desired to appropriate for his own ends: Louis to fund his extravagant lifestyle, Philip to further his expansionist ambitions in Burgundy and the Low Countries; this struggle only served to enhance the reputation of Philip, since he appeared to be a sober and honest reformer in comparison to the profligate and irresponsible Louis. Although Charles VI confirmed his brother as regent in 1402 in a rare moment of sanity, Louis's misrule allowed Philip to regain control of France as regent in 1404, shortly before his death. In 1395, Philip the Bold outlawed cultivation of the Gamay grape in favour of Pinot Noir in an early example of agricultural regulation related to wine quality.
Philip died in Halle, County of Hainaut, on 27 April 1404. His territories were bequeathed to his eldest son
Burgundy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France. It takes its name from the Burgundians, an East Germanic people who moved westwards beyond the Rhine during the late Roman period. "Burgundy" has referred to numerous political entities, including kingdoms and duchies spanning territory from the Mediterranean to the Low Countries. Since January 2016, the name Burgundy has referred to a specific part of the French administrative region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, an entity comprising four departments: Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, Nièvre; the first recorded inhabitants of the area that became Burgundy were Celts, who were incorporated in the Roman Empire as Gallo-Romans. During the 4th century, the Burgundians, a Germanic people, who may have originated in Bornholm, settled in the western Alps, they founded the Kingdom of the Burgundians, conquered in the 6th century by another Germanic tribe, the Franks. Under Frankish dominion, the Kingdom of Burgundy continued for several centuries.
The region was divided between the Duchy of Burgundy and the Free County of Burgundy. The Duchy of Burgundy is the better-known of the two becoming the French province of Burgundy, while the County of Burgundy became the French province of Franche-Comté meaning free county. Burgundy's modern existence is rooted in the dissolution of the Frankish Empire. In the 880s, there were four Burgundies, which were the Kingdom of Upper and Lower Burgundy, the duchy and the county. During the Middle Ages, Burgundy was home to some of the most important Western churches and monasteries, including those of Cluny, Cîteaux, Vézelay. Cluny, founded in 910, exerted a strong influence in Europe for centuries; the first Cistercian abbey was founded in 1098 in Cîteaux. Over the next century, hundreds of Cistercian abbeys were founded throughout Europe, in a large part due to the charisma and influence of Bernard of Clairvaux; the Abbey of Fontenay, a UNESCO World Heritage site, is today the best-preserved Cistercian abbey in Burgundy.
The Abbey of Vezelay a UNESCO site, is still a starting point for pilgrimages to Santiago de Compostela. Cluny was totally destroyed during the French Revolution. During the Hundred Years' War, King John II of France gave the duchy to his youngest son, Philip the Bold; the duchy soon became a major rival to the crown. The court in Dijon outshone the French court both economically and culturally. In 1477, at the battle of Nancy during the Burgundian Wars, the last duke Charles the Bold was killed in battle, the Duchy itself was annexed by France and became a province; however the northern part of the empire was taken by the Austrian Habsburgs. With the French Revolution in the end of the 18th century, the administrative units of the provinces disappeared, but were reconstituted as regions during the Fifth Republic in the 1970s; the modern-day administrative region comprises most of the former duchy. The region of Burgundy is both larger than the old Duchy of Burgundy and smaller than the area ruled by the Dukes of Burgundy, from the modern Netherlands to the border of Auvergne.
Today, Burgundy is made up of the old provinces: Burgundy: Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, southern half of Yonne. This corresponds to the old duchy of Burgundy. However, the old county of Burgundy is not included inside the Burgundy region, but it makes up the Franche-Comté region. A small part of the duchy of Burgundy is now inside the Champagne-Ardenne region. Nivernais: now the department of Nièvre; the northern half of Yonne is a territory, not part of Burgundy, was a frontier between Champagne, Île-de-France, Orléanais, being part of each of these provinces at different times in history. The climate of this region is oceanic, with a continental influence; the regional council of Burgundy was the legislative assembly of the region, located in the capital city Dijon at 17 boulevard de la Trémouille until its merger to form the regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Burgundy is one of France's main wine producing areas, it is well known for both its red and white wines made from Pinot noir and Chardonnay grapes although other grape varieties can be found, including Gamay, Pinot blanc, Sauvignon blanc.
The region is divided into the Côte-d'Or, where the most expensive and prized Burgundies are found, Beaujolais, the Côte Chalonnaise and Mâcon. The reputation and quality of the top wines, together with the fact that they are produced in small quantities, has led to high demand and high prices, with some Burgundies ranking among the most expensive wines in the world. With regard to cuisine, the region is famous for the Burgundian dishes coq au vin, beef bourguignon, époisses de Bourgogne cheese. Tourist sites of Burgundy include the Rock of Solutré, the Tournus cathedral, Brancion, the castles of Cormatin and Couches, the palace of the dukes of Burgundy in Dijon, the Pézanin Arboretum, Vézelay Abbey. Earlier, the southeastern part of Burgundy was industrial, with coal mines near Montceau-les-Mines and iron foundries and crystal works in Le Creusot; these industries declined in the second half of the twentieth century, Le Creusot has tried to reinvent itself as a tourist town. Lecomte, Bernard.
Burgundy, What a Story!. ISBN 978-2-902650-02-6. Davies, Norman. "Ch.3: Burgundia: Five, Six or Seven Kingdoms (c. 411-1