Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, debts and obligations upon the death of an individual. The rules of inheritance have changed over time. In law, an heir is a person, entitled to receive a share of the deceased's property, subject to the rules of inheritance in the jurisdiction of which the deceased was a citizen or where the deceased died or owned property at the time of death; the inheritance may be either under the terms of a will or by intestate laws if the deceased had no will. However, the will must comply with the laws of the jurisdiction at the time it was created or it will be declared invalid and the intestate laws apply. A person does not become an heir before the death of the deceased, since the exact identity of the persons entitled to inherit is determined only then. Members of ruling noble or royal houses who are expected to become heirs are called heirs apparent if first in line and incapable of being displaced from inheriting by another claim. There is a further concept of joint inheritance, pending renunciation by all but one, called coparceny.
In modern law, the terms inheritance and heir refer to succession to property by descent from a deceased dying intestate. Takers in property succeeded to under a will are termed beneficiaries, devisees for real property, bequestees for personal property, or legatees for money. Except in some jurisdictions where a person cannot be disinherited, a person who would be an heir under intestate laws may be disinherited under the terms of a will. Detailed anthropological and sociological studies have been made about customs of patrilineal inheritance, where only male children can inherit; some cultures employ matrilineal succession, where property can only pass along the female line, most going to the sister's sons of the decedent. Some ancient societies and most modern states employ egalitarian inheritance, without discrimination based on gender and/or birth order; the inheritance is patrilineal. The father —that is, the owner of the land— bequeaths only to his male descendants, so the Promised Land passes from one Jewish father to his sons.
If there were no living sons and no descendants of any living sons, daughters inherit. In Numbers 27:1-4, the daughters of Zelophehad of the tribe of Manasseh come to Moses and ask for their father's inheritance, as they have no brothers; the order of inheritance is set out in Numbers 27:7-11: a man's sons inherit first, daughters if no sons, brothers if he has no children, so on. In Numbers 36, some of the heads of the families of the tribe of Manasseh come to Moses and point out that, if a daughter inherits and marries a man not from her paternal tribe, her land will pass from her birth-tribe's inheritance into her marriage-tribe's. So a further rule is laid down: if a daughter inherits land, she must marry someone within her father's tribe; the tractate Baba Bathra, written during late Antiquity in Babylon, deals extensively with issues of property ownership and inheritance according to Jewish Law. Other works of Rabbinical Law, such as the Hilkhot naḥalot: mi-sefer Mishneh Torah leha-Rambam, the Sefer ha-yerushot: ʻim yeter ha-mikhtavim be-divre ha-halakhah be-ʻAravit uve-ʻIvrit uve-Aramit deal with inheritance issues.
The first abbreviated to Mishneh Torah, was written by Maimonides and was important in Jewish tradition. All these sources agree that the firstborn son is entitled to a double portion of his father's estate: Deuteronomy 21:17; this means that, for example, if a father left five sons, the firstborn receives a third of the estate and each of the other four receives a sixth. If he left nine sons, the firstborn receives each of the other eight receive a tenth. If the eldest surviving son is not the firstborn son, he is not entitled to the double portion. Philo of Alexandria and Josephus comment on the Jewish laws of inheritance, praising them above other law codes of their time, they agreed that the firstborn son must receive a double portion of his father's estate. The New Testament does not mention anything about inheritance rights: the only story mentioning inheritance is that of the Prodigal Son, but that involved the father voluntarily passing his estate to his two sons prior to his death; the topic is not discussed among doctrinal statements of various denominations or sects, leaving that to be a matter of secular concern.
The Quran introduced a number of different rights and restrictions on matters of inheritance, including general improvements to the treatment of women and family life compared to the pre-Islamic societies that existed in the Arabian Peninsula at the time. Furthermore, the Quran introduced additional heirs that were not entitled to inheritance in pre-Islamic times, mentioning nine relatives of which six were female and three wer
The Holkar dynasty was a Maratha clan of Dhangar origin in India. The Holkars were generals under Peshwa Baji Rao I, becane Maharajas of Indore in Central India as an independent member of the Maratha Empire until 1818, their kingdom became a princely state under the protectorate of British India. The dynasty was founded with Malhar Rao, who joined the service of the Peshwas of the Maratha Empire in 1721, rose to the ranks of Subedar; the name of the dynasty was associated with the title of the ruler, known informally as Holkar Maharaja. Malhar Rao Holkar, a Maratha chief serving Peshwa Baji Rao, established the dynasty's rule over Indore. In the 1720s, he led Maratha armies in Malwa region, in 1733 was granted 9 parghanas in the vicinity of Indore by the Peshwa; the township of Indore had existed as an independent principality established by Nandlal Mandloi of Kampel, Nandlal Mandloi was won by the Maratha force and allowed them to camp across the Khan River. In 1734, Malhar Rao established a camp called Malharganj.
In 1747, he started the construction of the Rajwada. By the time of his death, he ruled much of Malwa, was acknowledged as one of the five independent rulers of the Maratha Confederacy, he was succeeded by his daughter-in-law. She was born in the Chaundi village in Maharashtra, she moved the capital to Maheshwar, south of Indore on the Narmada River. Rani Ahilyabai was a prolific patron of Hindu temples in Maheshwar and Indore, she built temples at sacred sites outside her kingdom, from Dwarka in Gujarat east to the Kashi Vishwanath Temple at Varanasi on the Ganges. The adopted son of Malhar Rao Haolkar, Tukoji Rao Holkar succeeded Rani Ahilyabai upon her death. Tukoji Rao had been a commander under Ahilyabai for her entire rule, his son Yashwantrao Holkar succeeded him upon his death. He tried to free the Delhi Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II from the British in the unsuccessful Second Anglo-Maratha War; the grateful Shah Alam gave him the title of Maharajadiraj Rajrajeshwar Alija Bahadur in honor of his bravery.
Attempts by Yashwantrao Holkar to unite the kings failed, he was approached to sign a peace treaty with the British. The Treaty of Rajghat, signed late December 1805, recognised him as a sovereign king. In 1811, the four-year-old Maharaja Malharrao Holkar II succeeded Yashwantrao Holkar, his mother, Maharani Tulsabai Holkar, looked after the administration. However, with the help of Pathans and the British, Dharama Kunwar and Balaram Seth plotted to imprison Tulsabai and Malharrao; when Tulsabai learnt about this, she appointed Tantia Jog. As a result, Gaffur Khan Pindari secretly signed a treaty with the British on 9 November 1817 and killed Tulsabai on 19 December 1817; the treaty was signed on 6 January 1818 at Mandsaur. Bhimabai Holkar did not accept the treaty, kept attacking the British by guerilla methods. Rani Lakshmibai of Jhanshi took inspiration from Bhimabai Holkar and fought against the British. At the conclusion of the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the Holkars lost much of their territory to the British and were incorporated into the British Raj as a princely state of the Central India Agency.
The capital was shifted from Bhanpura to Indore. Malharrao Holkar III entered Indore on 2 November 1818. Tantia Jog was appointed his Diwan; as the old palace was destroyed by the army of Daulat Rao Scindia, a new palace was constructed in its place. Malharrao III was succeeded by Martandrao Holkar, who formally ascended to the throne on 17 January 1834, but he was replaced by Harirao Holkar, nephew of Yashwantrao, who ascended to the throne on 17 April 1834. He adopted Khanderao Holkar on 2 July 1841 and died on 24 October 1843. Khanderao was formally installed as the ruler on 13 November 1843, but he died on 17 February 1844. Tukojirao Holkar II was installed on the throne on 27 June 1844. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, he was loyal to the British East India Company. In October 1872, he appointed T. Madhava Rao as the Diwan of Indore, he succeeded by his eldest son, Shivajirao. Yashwantrao Holkar II ruled Indore state until shortly after India's independence in 1947, when he acceded to the Indian Government.
Indore became a district of Madhya Bharat state, merged into Madhya Pradesh state in 1956. Malhar Rao Holkar I. Born 16 March 1693, died 20 May 1766 Male Rao Holkar. Born 1745, died 5 April 1767 Ahilya Bai Holkar. Born 1725, died 13 August 1795 Tukoji Rao Holkar I. Born 1723, died 15 August 1797 Kashi Rao Holkar Born before 1776, died 1808 Khande Rao Holkar Born in 1798, died 1807 Yashwant Rao Holkar I. Born 1776, died 27 October 1811 Malhar Rao Holkar II Born 1806, died 27 October 1833 Marthand Rao Holkar. Born 1830, died 2 June 1849 Hari Rao Holkar. Born 1795, died 24 October 1843 Khande Rao Holkar II. Born 1828, died 17 March 1844 Tukoji Rao Holkar II. Born 3 May 1835, died 17 June 1886 Shivaji Rao Holkar. Born 11 November 1859, died 13 October 1908 Tukoji Rao Holkar III. Born 26 November 1890, died 21 May 1978 Yashwant Ra
The Maratha are an Indian caste of Marathi-speaking peasant-warriors. They established the Maratha Empire in 1674 and were the dominant power on the subcontinent for much of the following century before their downfall in 1818, they were champions of Hinduism in the face of the Islamic Mughal Empire. The term Maratha is used in three overlapping senses: within the Marathi-speaking region it refers to the single dominant Maratha caste or to the group of Maratha and Kunbi castes; the "Maratha group of castes" is a rural class of peasant cultivators and soldiers."According to the Maharashtrian historian, B. R. Sunthankar, scholars such as Rajendra Vora, the "Maratha caste" is a "caste of peasants" which formed the bulk of the Maharashtrian society together with the other Kunbi peasant caste. Vora adds that the Maratha caste is the largest caste of India and dominate the power structure in Maharashtra in the rural society. According to Jeremy Black, British historian at the University of Exeter, "Maratha caste is a coalescence of peasants, ironworkers, etc. as a result of serving in the military in the 17th and 18th century".
According to one scholar, Marathas are dominant in rural areas and constitute the landed peasantry. As of 2018, 80% of the members of the Maratha caste were farmers. Robert Vane Russell, an untrained ethnologist of the British Raj period, basing his research on Vedic literature, wrote that the Marathas are subdivided into 96 different clans, known as the 96 Kuli Marathas or Shahānnau Kule The general body of lists are at great variance with each other; the term "Maratha" referred to the speakers of the Marathi language. In the 17th century, it emerged as a designation for peasants from Deccan who served as soldiers in the armies of Muslim rulers and in the armies of Shivaji Maharaj, thus the term'Maratha' became a marker of an endogamous caste. A number of Maratha warriors, including Shivaji's father, Shahaji served in those Muslim armies. By the mid-1660s, Shivaji had established an independent Maratha kingdom. After Shivaji's death, Marathas defeated Aurangzeb in the war of 27 years, it was further expanded into a vast empire by the Maratha Confederacy including Peshwas, stretching from central India in the south, to Peshawar on the Afghanistan border in the north, with expeditions to Bengal in the east.
By the 19th century, the empire had become a confederacy of individual states controlled by Maratha chiefs such as Gaikwad's of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore, the Scindias of Gwalior, the Puars of Dhar and Dewas, Bhonsles of Nagpur. The Confederacy remained the pre-eminent power in India until their defeat by the British East India Company in the Third Anglo-Maratha War. By 19th century, the term Maratha had several interpretations in the British administrative records. In the Thane District Gazetteer of 1882, the term was used to denote elite layers within various castes: for example, "Maratha-Agri" within Agri caste, "Maratha-Koli" within Koli caste and so on. In the Pune District, the words Kunbi and Maratha had become synonymous, giving rise to the Maratha-Kunbi caste complex; the Pune District Gazetteer of 1882 divided the Kunbis into two classes: Marathas and other Kunbis. The 1901 census listed three groups within the Maratha-Kunbi caste complex: "Marathas proper", "Maratha Kunbis" and Konkan Maratha.
According to Steele, in the early 19th century, who were agriculturists and the Marathas who claimed Rajput descent and Kshatriya status - were distinguished by their customs related to widow remarriage. The Kunbis allowed it and the higher status Marathas prohibited it. However, there is no statistical evidence for this; as per academic scholars the Maratha population was more than 31% in Maharashtra and the Kunbi was 7%, whereas the upper castes - Brahmins and Prabhus were earlier only about 4% of the population although modern values show that the percentage of Brahmins in Maharashtra is now close to 10%. The Other Backward Class population was 27% while the population of the Mahars was 12%; the term Maratha came to denote an endogamous caste. From 1900 onwards, the Satyashodhak Samaj movement defined the Marathas as a broader social category of non-Brahmin groups; these non-Brahmins gained prominence in Indian National Congress during the Indian independence movement. In independent India, these Marathas became the dominant political force in the newly-formed state of Maharashtra.
The caste hierarchy in Maharashtra is led by the Brahmins - Deshasthas, Karhades and the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus. The Maratha are ranked lower than the Pathare Prabhus, CKPs, Brahmins etc. in the caste hierarchy but are considered higher than the Kunbi, backward castes and castes that were considered ritually impure. Modern research has revealed that the Marathas and Kunbi have the same origin - although the two are treated as two different communities on a social level. Most the Kunbi origin of the Maratha has been explained in detail by Professor Richard Eaton from the University of Arizona and Professor Stewart Gordon; the Kunbis who served the Muslim rulers and over time adopted different customs like different dressing styles, started identifying as Maratha and caste boundaries solidified between them. In the nineteenth century, economic prosperity rather than marital service to the Muslims replaced the mobility into Maratha identity. Eaton gives an example of the Holkar family that belonged to the Dhangar caste but was given a Maratha or
Indore is the most populous and the largest city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It serves as the headquarters of both Indore Indore Division, it is considered as an education hub of the state and first city to have campuses of both the Indian Institute of Technology and the Indian Institute of Management. Located on the southern edge of Malwa Plateau, at an average altitude of 550 meters above sea level, it has the highest elevation among major cities of Central India; the city is 190 km west of the state capital of Bhopal. Indore had a census-estimated 2011 population of 1,994,397 and 2,170,295; the city is distributed over a land area of just 530 square kilometres, making Indore the most densely populated major city in the central province. It comes under Tier 2 cities in India. Indore traces its roots to its 16th century founding as a trading hub between the Delhi; the city and its surroundings came under Hindu Maratha Empire on 18 May 1724 after Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao I assumed the full control of Malwa.
During the days of the British Raj, Indore State was a 19 Gun Salute princely state ruled by the Maratha Holkar dynasty, until they acceded to the Union of India. Indore served as the capital of the Madhya Bharat from 1950 until 1956. Indore's financial district, based in central Indore, functions as the financial capital of Madhya Pradesh and is home to the Madhya Pradesh Stock Exchange, India's third-oldest stock exchange. Indore has been selected as one of the 100 Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under the Smart Cities Mission, it qualified the first round of Smart Cities Mission and was selected as one of the first twenty cities to be developed as Smart Cities. Indore has been elected as the cleanest city of India three years in a row as per the Swachh Survekshan 2017, the Swachh Survekshan 2018 and 2019; the city is named after its Indreshwar Temple. By 1720, the headquarters of the local pargana were transferred from Kampel to Indore, due to the increasing commercial activity in the city.
On 18 May 1724, the Nizam accepted the rights of the Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao I to collect chauth from the area. In 1733, the Peshwa assumed the full control of Malwa, appointed his commander Malhar Rao Holkar as the Subhedar of the province. Nandlal Chaudhary accepted the suzerainty of the Marathas. On 29 July 1732, Bajirao Peshwa-I granted Holkar State by merging 28 and one-half parganas to Malhar Rao Holkar, the founding ruler of Holkar dynasty, his daughter-in-law Ahilyabai Holkar moved the state's capital to Maheshwar in 1767, but Indore remained an important commercial and military centre In 1818, the Holkars were defeated by the British during the Third Anglo-Maratha War, in the Battle of Mahidpur by virtue of which the capital was again moved from Maheshwar to Indore. A residency with British resident was established at Indore, but Holkars continued to rule Indore State as a princely state due to efforts of their Dewan Tatya Jog. During that time, Indore was established the headquarters of British Central Agency.
Ujjain was the commercial centre of Malwa. But the British administrators such as John Malcolm decided to promote Indore as an alternative to Ujjain, because the merchants of Ujjain had supported anti-British elements. In 1906 electric supply was started in the city, fire brigade was established in 1909 and in 1918, first master-plan of city was made by noted architect and town planner, Patrick Geddes. During the period of Maharaja Tukoji Rao Holkar II efforts were made for the planned development and industrial development of Indore. With the introduction of Railways in 1875, the business in Indore flourished during the reigns of Maharaja Shivaji Rao Holkar, Maharaja Tukoji Rao Holkar III and Maharaja Yeshwant Rao Holkar. After India's independence in 1947, Holkar State, along with a number of neighbouring princely states, acceded to Indian Union. In 1948, with the formation of Madhya Bharat, Indore became the summer capital of the state. On 1 November 1956, when Madhya Bharat was merged into Madhya Pradesh, the state capital was shifted to Bhopal.
Indore, a city today of nearly 2.1 million residents, has transformed from a traditional commercial urban centre into a modern dynamic commercial capital of the state. Indore is the most populous city in the Madhya Pradesh. Indore is the largest metropolitan city in Central India. According to the 2011 census of India, the population of Indore city is 1,994,397; the population of the Indore metropolis is 2,170,295. In 2011, the city had a population density of 25,170 people per square mile, rendering it the most densely populated of all municipalities with over 100,000 population in the Madhya Pradesh; as per 2011 census, the city of Indore has an average literacy rate of 87.38%, higher than the national average of 74%. Male literacy was 91.84%, female literacy was 82.55% In Indore, 12.72% of the population is under 6 years of age. The average annual growth rate of population is around 2.85% as per the statistics of census 2001. Religion-wise, according to the 2011 census reports, Hindus constitute the majority, 80.18% of Indore's total population, while Muslims are 14.09%, Jains 3.25%, others 2.48%.
Hindi is the official language of the Indore city, is spoken by majority of the population. The populace of Indore converse in Hindi. A number of Hindi dialects such as Bundeli and Nimadi are spoken in significant numbers. Other languages with substantial number of speakers include Marathi, Urdu
A Resident, or in full Resident Minister, is a government official required to take up permanent residence in another country. A representative of his government, he has diplomatic functions which are seen as a form of indirect rule; this full style occurred as a diplomatic rank for the head of a mission ranking just below envoy reflecting the low status of the states of origin and/or residency, or else difficult relations. On occasion, the Resident Minister's role could become important, as when in 1806 the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV fled his Kingdom of Naples, Lord William Bentinck, the British Resident, authored a new and liberal constitution. Residents could be posted with shadowy governments. For instance, the British sent Residents to the Mameluk Beys who ruled Baghdad province as an autonomous state in the north of present-day Iraq, until the Ottoman sultans regained control over it and its Wali. After the Congress of Vienna restored the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in 1815, the British posted a "mere" Resident to Florence.
As international relations developed, it became customary to give the highest title of diplomatic rank - ambassador - to the head of all permanent missions in any country, except as a temporary expression of down-graded relations or where representation was an interim arrangement. Some official representatives of European colonial powers, while in theory diplomats, in practice exercised a degree of indirect rule; some such Residents were former military officers, rather than career diplomats, who resided in smaller self-governing protectorates and tributary states and acted as political advisors to the rulers. A trusted Resident could become the de facto prime minister to a native ruler. In other respects they acted as an ambassador of their own government, but at a lower level, since large and rich native states were seen as inferior to Western nations. Instead of being a representative to a single ruler, a Resident could be posted to more than one native state, or to a grouping of states which the European power decided for its convenience.
This could create an artificial geographical unit, as in Residency X in some parts of the British Indian Empire. Similar positions could carry alternative titles, such as Resident Commissioner. In some cases, the intertwining of the European power with the traditional native establishment went so far that members of the native princely houses became Residents, either in other states or within their own state, provided that they were unlikely to succeed as ruler of the state. A Resident's real role varied enormously, depending upon the underlying relationship between the two parties and upon the personalities of the Resident and the ruler; some residents were little more than observers and diplomats, others were seen as the "face of the oppressor" and were treated with hostility, while some won enough trust from the ruler that they were able to exercise great influence. In French protectorates, such as those of Morocco and Tunisia, the resident or resident general was the effective ruler of the territory.
In 1887, when both Boers and gold prospectors of all nationalities were overrunning his country, the Swazi Paramount chief Umbandine asked for a British resident, seeing this as a desirable and effective form of protection. His request was refused; the Residents of the governments of the United Kingdom and the dominions to a variety of protectorates include: In the Sultanate of Zanzibar, the second'homeland' of the Omani dynasty, since 1913. From 1913 to 1961 the Residents were the Sultan's vizier. There were Consuls and Consuls-general until 1963. In present-day Kenya, in the Sultanate of Witu, after the British took over the protectorate from the German Empire, which had itself posted a Resident. In British Cameroon, since 1916, in 1949 restyled Special Resident for Edward John Gibbons, who stayed on in October 1954 as first Commissioner when it became an autonomous part of Nigeria. In Southern Africa: when the military party sent from Cape Colony to occupy Port Natal on behalf of Great Britain was recalled in 1839, a British Resident was appointed among the Fingo and other tribes in Kaffraria until the definite establishment of British rule in Natal and its 1845 organization as an administrative entity, when the incumbent Shepstone was made Agent for the native tribes.
In kwaZulu, which since 1843 was under a British protectorate, after it became the Zulu "Native" Reserve or Zululand Province on 1 September 1879: two British Residents. Thereafter there were Resident Commissioners until Zululand was incorporated into the crown colony of Natal as British Zululand on 1 December 1897. in 1845 the resident'north of the Orange river' chose his residency at Bloemfontein, which became the capital of the Orange River Sovereignty in 1848. In 1854 the British abandoned the Sovereignty, the independent Boer republic of the Orange Free State was established in the Boer republic of Transvaal at Pretoria with the Matabele chief at Bulawayo in Ghana, with the rulers of the Asanteman Confederation, since it became in 1896 a British protectorate.
A zamindar, zomidar, or jomidar, in the Indian subcontinent was an aristocrat. The term means land owner in Persian. Hereditary, zamindars held enormous tracts of land and control over their peasants, from whom they reserved the right to collect tax on behalf of imperial courts or for military purposes, their families carried titular suffixes of lordship. In the 19th and 20th centuries, with the advent of British imperialism, many wealthy and influential zamindars were bestowed with princely and royal titles such as Maharaja and Nawab. During the Mughal Empire, zamindars belonged to the nobility and formed the ruling class. Emperor Akbar granted them mansabs and their ancestral domains were treated as jagirs. Under British colonial rule in India, the permanent settlement consolidated what became known as the zamindari system; the British rewarded supportive zamindars by recognizing them as princes. Many of the region's princely states were pre-colonial zamindar holdings elevated to a greater protocol.
However, the British reduced the land holdings of many pre-colonial aristocrats, demoting their status to a zamindar from higher ranks of nobility. The system was abolished during land reforms in East Bengal in 1950, India in 1951 and West Pakistan in 1959; the zamindars played an important role in the regional histories of the subcontinent. One of the most notable examples is the 16th century confederation formed by twelve zamindars in the Bhati region, according to the Jesuits and Ralph Fitch, earned a reputation for successively repelling Mughal invasions through naval battles; the confederation was led by a zamindar-king, Isa Khan, included both Muslims and Hindus, such as Pratapaditya. The zamindars were patrons of the arts; the Tagore family produced India's first Nobel laureate in literature in 1913, Rabindranath Tagore, based at his estate. The zamindars promoted neoclassical and Indo-Saracenic architecture. Before Mughal rule in India, the aristocracy collected and retained revenue from land and production.
The Mughals appointed people to act as tax officers, sending them around the country to oversee collection of revenue and remit it to the capital city of Delhi. These people were known as the zamindari and they collected revenue from the Ryots The zamindari system was more prevalent in the north of India because Mughal influence in the south was less apparent. Primary and secondary zamindars were a landowning class with superior rights in the land, but working as part of the Mughal administration for the collection of land revenue; the third category was of semiautonomous rulers. These hereditary rulers were known by various names such as Rais, Rajas and Rawals; the zamindari system ensured proper collection of taxes in a period when the power and influence of the Mughal emperors were in decline. With the Mughal conquest of Bengal, "zamindar" became a generic title embracing people with different kinds of landholdings and responsibilities ranging from the autonomous or semi-independent chieftains to the peasant-proprietors.
All categories of zamindars under the Mughals were required to perform certain police and military duties. Zamindars under the Mughals were, in fact, more the public functionaries than revenue collecting agents. Although zamindaris were allowed to be held hereditarily, the holders were not considered to be the proprietors of their estates; the territorial zamindars had judicial powers also. This conferred status with attendant power, which made them the lords of their domains, they held regular courts, called zamindari adalat. The courts gave them not only power and status but some income as well by way of fines and perquisites; the petty zamindars had some share in the dispensation of criminal justice. Many zamindars had authority to deal with the complaints of debts and petty quarrels and to impose paltry fines; the British colonists of India adopted the extant zamindari system of revenue collection in the north of the country. They recognised the zamindars as landowners and proprietors as opposed to Mughal government and in return required them to collect taxes.
Although some zamindars were present in the south, they were not so in large numbers and the British administrators used the ryotwari method of collection, which involved selecting certain farmers as being land owners and requiring them to remit their taxes directly. The Zamindars of Bengal were influential in the development of Bengal, they played pivotal part during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Unlike the autonomous or frontier chiefs, the hereditary status of the zamindar class was circumscribed by the Mughals, the heir depended to a certain extent on the pleasure of the sovereign. Heirs were set by descent or a times adoption by religious laws. Under the British Empire, the zamindars were to be subordinate to the crown and not act as hereditary lords, but at times family politics was at the heart of naming an heir. At times, a cousin could be named an heir with closer family relatives present; the zamindari system was abolished in independent India soon after its creation with the first amendment to the constitution of India which amended the right to property as shown in Articles 19 and 31.
This allowed the states to make their own "Zamindari Abolition Acts". In Bangladesh, the East Bengal State Acquisition and Tenancy Act of 1950 had a similar effect of ending the system. Indian feudalism Indian honorifics Maratha titles Jagirdar Mankari List of amendments of the Constitution of India Zamindars of Bengal Zamindars of Bihar
Vithoji Rao Holkar
Shrimant Sardar Vithoji Rao Holkar, was the fourth son of Sardar Tukoji Rao Holkar. He known as Vithoba. Vithoji was a part of the Holkar clan in the service of the Maratha Empire; when his elder brother Malhar Rao Holkar was killed by the Scindia in September 1797, Vithoji escaped from Poona to Kolhapur. To acquire more resources, Yashwant Rao Holkar started freebooting campaign towards the north, whereas Vithoji started a campaign of plunder and rapine towards the south, he plundered the Peshwa's territories. Baji Rao II sent Balaji Bapu Gokhale to arrest Vithoji. In April 1801, Vithoji was taken to Pune. On the advice of Balaji Kunjar, Vithoji was sentenced to death by being trampled under the feet of an elephant, his sentence was carried out on orders of the Peshwa Baji Rao II, at Poona on 16 April 1801. This caused animosity between Baji Rao Yashwant Rao. Holkar