Virupaksha Raya II
Virupaksha Raya II was a king of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Sangama Dynasty Virupaksha Raya II succeeded his uncle, Mallikarjuna Raya, a corrupt and weak ruler who continually lost against the empire's enemies. So, Virupaksha Raya II was no more of a better ruler than his predecessor. Throughout his reign, Virupaksha was faced with rebellious nobles and officers as well as multiple enemies who began to invade the weakened kingdom, it was during this time that Virupaksha Raya II lost the Konkan coast by 1470 to Prime Minister Mahamud Gawan from the Bahamani kingdom, sent to conquer the area by the Sultan Muhammad Shah III. The Bahmani Sultan would invade Doab of Krishna and Tungabhadra, the Raja Purushottama Gajapati of Odisha invaded Tiruvannamalai; because of these losses, Virupaksha became unpopular and ignited many of the empire's provinces to rebel leading up to Virupaksha's death in the hands of his own son, Praudharaya in 1485. Praudharaya himself was not able to salvage the kingdom but an able general Saluva Narasimha took control of the empire in 1485 and helped to prevent its demise, though this change of power marked the end of the Sangama Dynasty and the beginning of the Saluva Dynasty.
Dr. Suryanath U. Kamat, Concise history of Karnataka, MCC, Bangalore, 2001 APonline Article Ourkarnataka Article Sangama Article
Rachakonda Fort is a historic fort located in Rachakonda, India. It was built by the Padmanayaka Velama King Anapotanayaka in the 14th century AD. Till that time the Padmanayakas had their capital at Anumagallu. At around 1360 AD, the capital was shifted by Anapotanayaka from Anumagallu to Rachakonda where he built a strong fort. Anapotanayaka split the Kingdom into two for administrative convenience and his brother Madanayaka ruled from Devarakonda. Devarakonda was subservient to Rachakonda; the Padmanayakas lost control of Rachakonda in 1430 AD to the Bahamanis but held onto Devarakonda till 1475 AD when the Padmanayaka kingdom was extinguished and they joined the court of Hampi Vijayanagara Kingdom. It is located only 70 km away from Hyderabad. One has to take the highway up to Choutuppal and take a diversion from there and proceed another 25 km to reach Rachakonda; the fort of Rachakonda was constructed by Recherla Anapotanayaka, son of Recherla Singamanayaka, a commander of the Kakatiya King Prataparudra.
The fort was constructed around 1360 AD. Singamanayaka attacked the Jallipalli fort in around 1358 AD. While besieging the fort he was killed by the Somakula Kshatriyas by treachery and they were abetted in their act by the Reddys and the Telugu Nayakas; when Anapotanayaka and Madanayaka, the sons of Singamanayaka came to know about this, they marshalled their forces and attacked Jallipalli fort in 1361 AD and defeated the Somakula Kshatriyas in battle. They went after the Reddy Kings and the Telugu Nayakas, they came into conflict with the Kondaveeti Reddy kings when they occupied the Srisailam area, under the Reddy Kings. Madanayaka defeated Anapota Reddy near Dharanikota but despite being victorious Dharanikota did not fall into the Padmanayakas hands. After this incident the rivalry between the Reddy and Velama Kings did not abate till the time both were consumed by the Bahamani and the Vijayanagara Empires later; the Rachakonda kingdom stretched up to Godavari in the North, Srisailam in the South, Bahamani kingdom in the West and Kondaveedu in the East.
The Rachakonda kings supported the Bahamani Kingdom but in the war between the Bahamanis and Vijayanagara kings in 1424 AD, they switched their allegiance to the Vijayanagara Kingdom. This enraged the Bhamani sultan Firoz Shah who signed a peace treaty with Vijyanagara and attacked the Rachakonda kingdom and conquered it. By the year 1433 AD, only a few forts remained in the control of kings of Rachakonda; the Rachakonda kings sought the help of Kapileswara Gajapati of Orissa and promised him large amounts of money. He sent his son Hamviradeva along with a large army to help the Rachakonda kings. By 1461 AD, the Rachakonda kings recovered all their lost forts and became kings of Orugallu with the help of Hamviradeva but in turn lost their independence and became tributaries of the Gajapatis of Orissa; the Bahamni kingdom under Nizam Shah again attacked Orugallu in 1475 AD and the Kingdom was annexed by the sultan. Thus the Rachakonda kingdom originated in 1350-60 AD and was consumed by the Bahamanis in the year 1475 AD.
The Rachakonda and Devarakonda kings supported the Bahamani Sultan’s for sometime, the Vijayanagara kings for sometime and the Gajapati’s of Orissa for sometime and fought with their respective enemies. "Andhra Vijana Sarvasvam" Telugu Samskriti Volume I, in Telugu language published by the Telugu University at Hyderabad. The article on Rachakonda Kingdom was authored by Mallampalli Somasekhara Sarma an Indian historian who wrote the "Forgotten History of Telugu Kingdoms""Velugoativari Vamsavali" a compendium of the Velugoti family of Venkatagiri from the Mackenzie collection. Best View About Rachakonda Fort
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient, non-theistic, Indian religion. Followers of Jainism are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains trace their history through a succession of 24 victorious saviours and teachers known as tirthankaras, with the first being Rishabhanatha, who according to Jain tradition lived millions of years ago, twenty-third being Parshvanatha in 8th century BC and twenty-fourth being the Mahāvīra around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism is an eternal dharma with the tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology; the main religious premises of Jainism are anekāntavāda, aparigraha and asceticism. Devout Jains take five main vows: ahiṃsā, asteya and aparigraha; these principles have impacted Jain culture in many ways, such as leading to a predominantly vegetarian lifestyle that avoids harm to animals and their life cycles.
Parasparopagraho Jīvānām is the motto of Jainism. Ṇamōkāra mantra is the most basic prayer in Jainism. Jainism has Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras; the Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras have different views on ascetic practices and which Jain texts can be considered canonical. Jain mendicants are found in all Jain sub-traditions except Kanji Panth sub-tradition, with laypersons supporting the mendicants' spiritual pursuits with resources. Jainism has between five million followers, with most Jains residing in India. Outside India, some of the largest Jain communities are present in Canada, Kenya, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Suriname and the United States. Major Jain festivals include Paryushana and Daslakshana, Mahavir Jayanti, Diwali; the principle of ahimsa is a fundamental tenet of Jainism. It believes that one must abandon all violent activity, without such a commitment to non-violence all religious behavior is worthless. In Jain theology, it does not matter how correct or defensible the violence may be, one must not kill any being, "non-violence is one's highest religious duty".
Jain texts such as Acaranga Sūtra and Tattvarthasūtra state that one must renounce all killing of living beings, whether tiny or large, movable or immovable. Its theology teaches that one must neither kill another living being, nor cause another to kill, nor consent to any killing directly or indirectly. Furthermore, Jainism emphasizes non-violence against all beings not only in action but in speech and in thought, it states that instead of hate or violence against anyone, "all living creatures must help each other". Violence negatively affects and destroys one's soul when the violence is done with intent, hate or carelessness, or when one indirectly causes or consents to the killing of a human or non-human living being; the idea of reverence for non-violence is founded in Hindu and Buddhist canonical texts, it may have origins in more ancient Brahmanical Vedic thoughts. However, no other Indian religion has developed the non-violence doctrine and its implications on everyday life as has Jainism.
The theological basis of non-violence as the highest religious duty has been interpreted by some Jain scholars not to "be driven by merit from giving or compassion to other creatures, nor a duty to rescue all creatures", but resulting from "continual self-discipline", a cleansing of the soul that leads to one's own spiritual development which affects one's salvation and release from rebirths. Causing injury to any being in any form creates bad karma which affects one's rebirth, future well being and suffering. Late medieval Jain scholars re-examined the Ahiṃsā doctrine when one is faced with external threat or violence. For example, they justified violence by monks to protect nuns. According to Dundas, the Jain scholar Jinadatta Suri wrote during a time of Muslim destruction of temples and persecution that "anybody engaged in a religious activity, forced to fight and kill somebody would not lose any spiritual merit but instead attain deliverance". However, such examples in Jain texts that condone fighting and killing under certain circumstances are rare.
The second main principle of Jainism is anekāntavāda or anekantatva, a word derived from anekānta and vada. The anekāntavāda doctrine states that reality is complex and always has multiple aspects. Reality can be experienced, but it is not possible to express it with language. Human attempts to communicate is Naya, explained as "partial expression of the truth". Language is not Truth. From Truth, according to Mahāvīra, language returns and not the other way round. One can experience the truth of a taste, but cannot express that taste through language. Any attempts to express the experience is syāt, or valid "in some respect" but it remains a "perhaps, just one perspective, incomplete". In the same way, spiritual truths are complex, they have multiple aspects, language cannot express their plurality, yet through effort and appropriate karma they can be experienced. Since reality is many-sided the great error, according to Jainism, is ekānta where some relative truth is treated as an absolute truth to the exclusion of others.
The anekāntavāda premise of the Jains is ancient, as evidenced by its mention in Buddhist texts such as the Samaññapha
Peda Venkata Raya
Venkata III, the grandson of Aliya Rama Raya became the King of Vijayanagara Empire from 1632–1642. But his paternal uncle, Timma Raja, another brother of Sriranga II, thought himself to have a better claim, seized the government at Vellore Fort, compelling Venkata III to remaining in his native place Anekonda; the Nayaks of Gingee and Madurai declared support for Venkata III, while Timma Raja got support from no-one and was looked upon as a usurper. Timma Raja made a lot of trouble and civil strife continued until his death in 1635, he was winning, until the King Peda Venkata ’s nephew, Sriranga III took to the field and defeated Timma Raja with help from the Dutch in Pulicat, compelling him to accept Venkata III’s claim. Timma Raja was allowed some territories under his control, but stirred up trouble for a second time, only to be slain by the Nayak of Gingee in 1635. Peace was restored and Peda Venkata Raya or Venkata III returned to Vellore to take charge. On 22 August 1639 Francis Day of the East India Company obtained a small strip of Land in the Coromandel Coast from Peda Venkata Raya in Chandragiri as a place to build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities.
The region was under the control of the Damerla Venkatadri Nayakudu, a Recherla Velama Nayak of Kalahasti and Vandavasi. Venkatadri Nayakudu was son of Damerla Chennappa Nayakudu; this is regarded at the founding event of the formation of the Chennai Metropolis and is to the day celebrated as Madras Day. In 1637 the Nayaks of Tanjore and Madurai, out of some complications attempted to seize Venkata III and attacked Vellore but were defeated and peace was established; the Kings loyal nephew, Sriranga III for some reasons turned against the King in 1638 and engineered an invasion from Bijapur. The Bijapur – Sriranga III combine attacked Bangalore making the King Venkata III buy peace after an expensive deal. In 1641 the same combine launched another attack and were just 12 miles from Vellore Fort, but their camp was attacked with backing by Southern Nayaks. In the following year, the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda watching the disorder, sent a huge force along the East Coast; the Golkonda army, after facing a stiff resistance near Madras by Venkata III’s army backed by Damerla Venkatadri Nayak of Kalahasti and the Gingee Nayak, marched towards the Vellore Fort.
But Venkata III, now badly under threat from all sides retreated to the Jungles of Chittoor and died October 1642. Venkata III had no son and was succeeded by his treacherous nephew Sriranga III, who came to Vellore Fort after deserting the Bijapur camp. Rao, Velcheru Narayana, David Shulman, Sanjay Subrahmanyam. Symbols of substance: court and state in Nayaka period Tamilnadu. Maps. Sathianathaier, R. History of the Nayaks of Madura by R. Sathyanatha Aiyar. K. A. Nilakanta Sastry, History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, 1955, OUP, ISBN 0-19-560686-8
Dabhol known as Dabul, is a small seaport town in the Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra in India. It is located on the northern and southern sides of the Vashishthi river that flows by Chiplun town; the Dabhol LNG power plant, set up by Enron is located on the Southern side of Dabhol, between the villages of Veldur and Ranavi. Hardly a trace remains of the once-flourishing port of Dabhol, on the north bank of the mouth of the Vashishti River in the Konkan region of India. However, a larger Dabhol LNG terminal, unrelated to the ancient port is located on the Southern side of Vashishthi river. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Dabul was an opulent Muslim trade centre, first under the Bahmani under the Adilshahi sultans of Bijapur; as the port with most convenient access to the Bahmani sultanate's capital at Bidar, Dabul's fortunes ascended with that dynasty. At its height, it was arguably the most important port between Goa, it was the prominence of Dabul as a Muslim trade centre and port that led it to be bombarded and razed by a Portuguese expeditionary force under Francisco de Almeida in December, 1508, in a prelude to the famous Battle of Diu.
Although the city's fort was not taken, it was only the first of several times, in the course of the next few decades, that the Portuguese tried to destroy Dabul. By the time of the last recorded attack, in 1571, there was little left to sack; the break-up of the Bahmani state into several smaller Deccan sultanates had accelerated Dabul's decline. As new capitals for these statelets were erected, Dabul's geographic position was no longer as fortuitous as it had been before, alternative, more convenient ports were cultivated. In the course of the 16th century, a lot of commerce was redirected away from Dabul and towards the rising new port of Rajapur further south; the Dabhol port boasts of centuries old history. Dabhol was of great importance in the 15th and 16th centuries, it used to be the principal port of South Konkan region, carrying on trade with ports in the Mediterranean, the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. During 13th to 15th centuries this port was ruled by the Bahamani dynasty and was known as Mustafabad.
On it was Hamjabad and it was Dabhol. Due to this confluence of Hindus and Muslims, Dabhol contains a number of religious places of both Hindus and Muslims. There is a fine mosque called Shahi Masjid with dome and minarets standing close to the port, built in Adilshah’s Regime by Aisha Bibi in 1659-60 by the builder Kamil Khan, it is said that Adilshah’s Begum spent around 1.5 million rupees for the construction of this mosque. Shahi Masjid is an excellent example of Muslim architecture. During that time, Dabhol was said to be famous, but subsequently met with ruin due to wars and decreased trade. Dabul was annexed to the new Maratha kingdom; the erection of the Maratha fort of Anjnavel right across the river eclipsed whatever role remained for Dabul, the once-great port city evaporated and disappeared from the maps. Attempts to locate the historic port have sometimes led historians to mistakenly identify historic Dabul with modern Dapoli, an interior town several miles north of Dabhol. Sadly, Dabhol's name was revived in the 1990s in association with the infamous Dabhol Power Station erected near the site by the Enron company.
Chandika Devi Mandir - Temple of Goddess Chandika, situated in a cave. The temple is believed to be a part of the ancient Dabhol fort. Remains of the fort wall can found at the entrance of temple premises. Dabhol Jetty - Until 80's this jetty was being used for a boat service from Mumbai. Now it is used by for ferry services between Dabhol - Veldur, Dabhol-Govalkot. Shahi Mosque - Also locally known as'Anda Masjid'. A beautiful mosque built in dressed black trap stone; the mosque was built in 1659 by princess of Bijapur. The Mosque is classified as heritage building by archaeological department. Shahi Masjid, one of the oldest masjid in Kokan region, built by a Bijapur princess Aisha Bibi, the builder name was Kamil Khan; the masjid was built in A. H. 1070. Sai Baba Mandir - The temple of god Sai Baba, located in Dhorsai. Dabhol is broadly divided into three parts i.e. Kumbharwadi, Banme Mohalla, Kharwadi,Bhandarwada, Bajarpeth & Varcha Mohalla; the Interior of Varcha Mohalla is further divided into many Mahullas, Such as Bamne Mahulla, Vankar Mahulla, Tamdi Mahulla, etc.
The Bamne's are believed to be the Bahamani people. Over a period of time name changed from Bahamani to Bamne, it has mix population of Hindus & Muslims. People live a simple life, with majority of them having occupations like fishing, supply of Alphonso Mangoes, Cashew Nuts, etc; as of now 2012, it has good population. Nowadays due to proper job openings from Companies like Bharati Shipyard, the living standard has risen significantly. Dabhol is situated around 27 km from Dapoli. State Transport buses / private shared jeeps, rickshaws run between Dabhol. You can drive down. Rented jeeps / cars are available. One can reach Dabhol through Ferry boat service from Dhopave, village across the creek which has connectivity to Guhaghar & Chiplun. Directions from Dapoli to Dabhol: From Dapoli Bus Stand, take the second left at'Kelaskar Naka' towards Dabhol Continue on the straight road to Dabhol Dames, M. L. "Introduction" in An Account Of The Countries Bordering On The Indian Ocean And Their Inhabitants, Vol. 1, 2005 reprint, New Delhi: Asian Education Services.
Krishnadevaraya was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire who reigned from 1509–1529. He is the third ruler of the Tuluva Dynasty. Presiding over the empire at its zenith, he is regarded as an icon by many Indians. Krishna Deva Raya earned the titles Andhra Bhoja and Mooru Rayara Ganda, he became the dominant ruler of the peninsula of India by defeating the Sultans of Bijapur, the Bahmani Sultanate and the Gajapatis of Odisha, was one of the most powerful Hindu rulers in India. Indeed, when the Mughal Emperor Babur was taking stock of the potentates of north India, Krishnadevaraya was rated the most powerful and had the most extensive empire in the subcontinent. Portuguese travellers Domingo Paes and Fernao Nuniz visited the Vijayanagara Empire during his reign. Krishna Deva Raya benefited from the able prime minister Timmarusu, regarded by the emperor as a father figure and was responsible for his coronation. Krishna Deva Raya was the son of Tuluva Narasa Nayaka, an army commander under Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya, who took control of the empire to prevent its disintegration and became the founder of the Tuluva Dynasty, the third Hindu Dynasty to rule Vijayanagara.
The emperor's coronation took place on the birthday of Hindu God Krishna. He built; the king was of medium height, had a cheerful disposition, was reputed to be respectful to foreign visitors, ruthless in maintaining the law, prone to fits of anger. He maintained himself to a high level of physical fitness through daily exercises. Travelogues indicate that the king was not only an able the administrator but an excellent general, leading from the front in battle and attending to the wounded; the south Indian poet Muku Timmana praised him as the destroyer of the Turkics. The rule of the king Krishna Deva Raya marks a period of much military success in Vijayanagara history. On occasion, the king was known to change battle plans abruptly and turn a losing battle into victory; the first decade of his rule was one of the long sieges, bloody conquests, victories. His main enemies were the Bahamani Sultans, the Gajapatis of Odisha, involved in constant conflict since the rule of Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya and the Portuguese, a rising maritime power which controlled much of the sea trade.
The feudal chiefs of Ummattur and Kammas of Dharanikota who rebelled against Vijayanagar rule were conquered and subdued. The annual affair of the raid and plunder of Vijayanagar towns and villages by the Deccan sultans came to an end during the Raya's rule. In 1509 Krishnadevaraya's armies clashed with the Sultan of Bijapur at Diwani and the Sultan Mahmud was injured and defeated. Yusuf Adil Khan was killed and the Raichur Doab was annexed. Taking advantage of the victory and the disunity of the Bahamani Sultans, the Raya invaded Bidar and Bijapur and earned the title "establisher of the Yavana kingdom" when he released Sultan Mahmud and made him de facto ruler; the Sultan of Golconda Sultan Quli Qutb Shah was defeated by Timmarusu, the prime minister of Sri Krishnadevaraya. He defeated many local rulers like Dharanikota Kammas who were the feudatory of Gajapati kings of Odisha and seized lands up to the Krishna river. Ganga Raja, the Ummatur chief, was defeated; the chief drowned in the Kaveri in 1512.
The region was made a part of the Srirangapatna province. In 1516-1517, he pushed beyond the Godavari river; the Surya Vamsi Gajapatis of Odisha ruled a vast land comprising Odisha. Krishna Deva Raya's success at Ummatur provided the necessary impetus to carry his campaign into Coastal Andhra region, in control of Gajapati Prataparudra Deva; the Vijayanagar army laid siege to the Udayagiri fort in 1512. The campaign lasted for a year. Krishna Deva Raya offered prayers at Tirupati thereafter along with his wives Tirumala Devi and Chinnama Devi; the Gajapati army was met at Kondaviduraju where the armies of Vijayanagara, after establishing a siege for a few months and heavy with initial defeats began to retreat, until Timmarusu upon discovering a secret entrance to the unguarded eastern gate of the fort launched a night attack culminating with the capture of the fort and the imprisonment of the greatest swordsman of his time, Prince Virabhadra, the son of Gajapati Emperor of Kalinga-Utkal, Gajapati Prataprudra Deva.
Saluva Timmarasa took over as governor of Kondavidu thereafter. The Vijayanagar army accosted the Adapa Kamma dynasty army allies to Gajapatis at Kondapalli area and laid another siege. Krishnadevaraya planned for an invasion of mainland Kalinga-Utkal but the Gajapati Emperor, privy of this plan had built up a strategy to rout the Vijayanagara army and along with it its king, Krishnadevaraya; the confrontation was to happen at the fort of Kalinganagar. But the wily Timmarusu secured the information by bribing a Telugu deserter under the service of the mighty Prataprudra deva. Prataprudra was driven to Cuttack, the capital of the Gajapati empire and surrendered to Vijaynagar, giving his daughter Princess Annapurna Devi in marriage to Sri Krishna Deva Raya; as per treaty, the Krishna river became boundary of Odisha Kingdom. Krishna Deva Raya established friendly relations with the Portuguese, who set up the Portuguese Dominion of India in Goa in 1510; the Emperor obtained Arabian horses from the Portuguese merchants.
He utilized Portuguese expertise in
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who