Humphrey School of Public Affairs
The Hubert H. Humphrey School of Public Affairs at the University of Minnesota is one of the United States' top-ranked professional public policy and planning schools; the school is noted for equipping students to play key roles in public life at the local, state and global level and offers six distinctive master's degrees, a doctoral degree, six certificate programs. The Humphrey School ranks among the top 10 professional schools of public affairs at public universities in the country; the school is named after Hubert H. Humphrey, former Vice President of the United States and Presidential candidate; the school is located on the West Bank of the University of Minnesota, home to other top-ranking schools including the University of Minnesota Law School and Carlson School of Management in Minneapolis, MN. The program concentration in nonprofit management ranks second in the United States; the Humphrey School is accredited by the Network of Schools of Public Policy and Administration. The University of Minnesota's graduate program for public policy was founded on the East Bank campus in 1938 as the Public Administration Center.
In 1968, it achieved autonomy as a graduate school within the university and became the School of Public Affairs. The School was replaced in 1977 with the founding of the Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, named to honor former Vice President Hubert Humphrey for his contributions to improving the well-being of humanity, it was renamed the Humphrey School of Public Affairs in 2011 to better reflect its academic mission. Degrees offered at the Humphrey School include: Master of Public Policy Mid-career Master of Public Affairs Master of Urban and Regional Planning Master of Science in Science and Environmental Policy Master of Development Practice Master of Human Rights Ph. D in Public Policy Dual degrees are offered with the Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota Law School, Social Work, University of Minnesota School Public Health and the departments of Architecture and Landscape Architecture and Civil Engineering Graduate certificates are offered in Early Childhood Policy, Election Administration, Nonprofit Management, Public Affairs Leadership, Human Services Leadership, Policy Issues on Work and PayThe Humphrey School of Public Affairs offers fellowships for Peace Corps volunteers and waives the application fee for the fellowships.
The Humphrey School offers numerous opportunities for professionals in a wide variety of careers to enhance their skills and to increase their involvement with public policy issues. Humphrey Policy Fellows Program Hubert H. Humphrey Fellowship Program Wilkins Community Fellows Program Public Safety Leadership Program Minnesota Senior Leadership Institute Program Humphrey School is ranked 8th in the United States among America's top public affairs schools by U. S. News & World Report in 2016. U. S. News & World Report ranks Minnesota Humphrey as: 2nd in Non Profit Management 11th in social policy 17th in public policy analysis 18th in public management administration 19th in city management and urban policy Center for Science and Environmental Policy Center for the Study of Politics and Governance Center on Women and Public Policy Freeman Center for International Economic Policy Public and Nonprofit Leadership Center Roy Wilkins Center for Human Relations and Social Justice State and Local Policy Program Center for Integrative Leadership Human Capital Research Collaborative The Humphrey School and the wider University of Minnesota offers many ways for students to get involved with a wide array of issues and activities.
Public Affairs Student Association Humphrey Students of Color Association Humphrey International Students Association Humphrey Association for Disability and Mental Illness Planning Student Organization Gender and Policy Events Committee Cedar–Humphrey Action for Neighborhood Collaborative Engagement Interdisciplinary Perspectives on International Development Common Grounds Council of Graduate Schools Graduate and Professional Student Assembly J. Brian Atwood, former Administrator of United States Agency for International Development Robert H. Bruininks, Professor Emeritus and 15th President of the University of Minnesota Harlan Cleveland, former U. S. Ambassador to NATO James E. Jernberg, Professor Emeritus Geri M. Joseph, former U. S. Ambassador to the Netherlands Morris Kleiner, AFL-CIO Chair in Labor Policy Barbara Lukermann, pioneer in urban planning Eric Magnuson, former Chief Justice of the Minnesota Supreme Court Walter F. Mondale, 42nd Vice President of the United States Nancy Eustis, Professor Emerita and Gerontology, retired 2010, affiliated with University of Minnesota Schools of Public Health and Sociology, Co-Editor historic Aging and Disabilities, 1992 Issue of Aging Series of Generations R.
T. Rybak, former Mayor of Minneapolis and Vice Chair of the Democratic National Committee Eric P. Schwartz, former dean of the Humphrey School of Public Affairs and former U. S. Assistant Secretary of State for Population and Migration John Brandl, former dean of the Humphrey School of Public Affairs and DFL Minnesota state senator Official website
An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, is thus a writer. More broadly defined, an author is "the person who originated or gave existence to anything" and whose authorship determines responsibility for what was created; the first owner of a copyright is the person who created the work i.e. the author. If more than one person created the work a case of joint authorship can be made provided some criteria are met. In the copyright laws of various jurisdictions, there is a necessity for little flexibility regarding what constitutes authorship; the United States Copyright Office, for example, defines copyright as "a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to authors of "original works of authorship". Holding the title of "author" over any "literary, musical, certain other intellectual works" gives rights to this person, the owner of the copyright the exclusive right to engage in or authorize any production or distribution of their work.
Any person or entity wishing to use intellectual property held under copyright must receive permission from the copyright holder to use this work, will be asked to pay for the use of copyrighted material. After a fixed amount of time, the copyright expires on intellectual work and it enters the public domain, where it can be used without limit. Copyright laws in many jurisdictions – following the lead of the United States, in which the entertainment and publishing industries have strong lobbying power – have been amended since their inception, to extend the length of this fixed period where the work is controlled by the copyright holder. However, copyright is the legal reassurance that one owns his/her work. Technically, someone owns their work from the time. An interesting aspect of authorship emerges with copyright in that, in many jurisdictions, it can be passed down to another upon one's death; the person who inherits the copyright enjoys the same legal benefits. Questions arise as to the application of copyright law.
How does it, for example, apply to the complex issue of fan fiction? If the media agency responsible for the authorized production allows material from fans, what is the limit before legal constraints from actors and other considerations, come into play? Additionally, how does copyright apply to fan-generated stories for books? What powers do the original authors, as well as the publishers, have in regulating or stopping the fan fiction? This particular sort of case illustrates how complex intellectual property law can be, since such fiction may involved trademark law, likeness rights, fair use rights held by the public, many other interacting complications. Authors may portion out different rights they hold to different parties, at different times, for different purposes or uses, such as the right to adapt a plot into a film, but only with different character names, because the characters have been optioned by another company for a television series or a video game. An author may not have rights when working under contract that they would otherwise have, such as when creating a work for hire, or when writing material using intellectual property owned by others.
In literary theory, critics find complications in the term author beyond what constitutes authorship in a legal setting. In the wake of postmodern literature, critics such as Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault have examined the role and relevance of authorship to the meaning or interpretation of a text. Barthes challenges the idea, he writes, in his essay "Death of the Author", that "it is language which speaks, not the author". The words and language of a text itself determine and expose meaning for Barthes, not someone possessing legal responsibility for the process of its production; every line of written text is a mere reflection of references from any of a multitude of traditions, or, as Barthes puts it, "the text is a tissue of quotations drawn from the innumerable centres of culture". With this, the perspective of the author is removed from the text, the limits imposed by the idea of one authorial voice, one ultimate and universal meaning, are destroyed; the explanation and meaning of a work does not have to be sought in the one who produced it, "as if it were always in the end, through the more or less transparent allegory of the fiction, the voice of a single person, the author'confiding' in us".
The psyche, fanaticism of an author can be disregarded when interpreting a text, because the words are rich enough themselves with all of the traditions of language. To expose meanings in a written work without appealing to the celebrity of an author, their tastes, vices, is, to Barthes, to allow language to speak, rather than author. Michel Foucault argues in his essay "What is an author?" that all authors are writers, but not all writers are authors. He states that "a private letter may have a signatory—it does not have an author". For a reader to assign the title of author upon any written work is to attribute certain standards upon the text which, for Foucault, are working in conjunction with the idea of "the author function". Foucault's author function is the idea that an author exists only as a fun
Kim R. Holmes is an author and former American diplomat and Assistant Secretary of State. From 2002 to 2005 he served as the United States Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs. Holmes is the current Executive Vice-President of the Heritage Foundation, having served twice as the foundation’s Vice President of Foreign and Defense Policy Studies and Director of its Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies between 1992 and 2012. Prior to joining Heritage in 1985, Holmes was a Senior Fellow at the Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis, a research institute associated with the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, was a research fellow at the Institute for European History in Mainz, Germany. Holmes first joined the Heritage Foundation in 1985. While at Heritage, he was promoted to senior policy analyst for national security affairs specializing in arms control, NATO, East-West strategic relations, he was subsequently promoted to director — and in 1992, vice president — of foreign and defense policy studies.
He served in that position until 2001, again from 2005 to 2012. In 1995, Holmes and the Heritage Foundation authored a report advocating for an increase in funds towards ensuring the nation's defense against ballistic missiles, stating that "the threat of ballistic missile attack is clear and growing."Holmes served as founding editor of the Heritage Foundation/Wall Street Journal's annual Index of Economic Freedom, serving as co-editor from 1995 through 2002 and from 2006 through 2014. In September 2000, he testified before Congress on national missile defense. In 2001, Holmes served as Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs under Secretary of State Colin Powell, a position he held until 2005. In 2005, he testified before Congress about human rights issues in Cuba, U. N. peacekeeping abuses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Holmes served on presidential candidate Mitt Romney’s Foreign Policy and National Security Advisory Team in 2012. In 2012, Holmes became a Distinguished Fellow at The Heritage Foundation.
Holmes has been a member of the board of directors and executive committee for the Center for International Private Enterprise, associated with the U. S. Chamber of Commerce, since 2016, a board member since 1997. On July 23, 2018, US President Donald Trump nominated Holmes to serve on the National Council on the Humanities. Holmes, Kim R. Reshaping Europe: strategies for a post-cold war Europe. Heritage Foundation. ISBN 089195225X. Holmes, Kim R. SDI at the turning point readying strategic defenses for the beyond. Heritage Foundation. Holmes, Kim R; the NSDAP and the crisis of agrarian conservatism in lower Bavaria: national socialism and the peasants' road to modernity. Garland Pub. ISBN 0815304145. Ferrara, Peter. Issues: the candidate's briefing book. Holmes, Kim R. A safe and prosperous America: a U. S. foreign and defense policy blueprint. Heritage Foundation. ISBN 0891952306. Heritage Foundation. Defending America: a near- and long-term plan to deploy missile defenses: report of the Missile Defense Study Team.
Heritage Foundation. ISBN 0891952349. Holmes, Kim R. Restoring American leadership: a U. S. foreign and defense policy blueprint. Heritage Foundation. Holmes, Kim R. Between diplomacy and deterrence: strategies for U. S. relations with China. Heritage Foundation. ISBN 089195242X. Butler, Stuart M; the Heritage Foundation. ISBN 0891950648; the Heritage Foundation. Index of Economic Freedom. Wall Street Journal. Butler, Stuart M. Priorities for the President. Heritage Foundation. ISBN 0891950966. Heritage Foundation. Reclaiming the language of freedom at the United Nations: a guide for U. S. policymakers. The Heritage Foundation. Holmes, Kim R. Liberty's best hope: American leadership for the 21st century; the Heritage Foundation. ISBN 9780891952787. Schaefer, Brett D. Rowman & Littlefield Pub.. ISBN 9781442200067. Holmes, Kim R. Rebound: getting America back to great. Rowman et Littlefield. ISBN 9781442223806. Holmes, Kim. "Ronald Reagan's Approach to the United Nations,". In Kengor, Paul. ISBN 9780674967694. Holmes, Kim R; the closing of the liberal mind: how groupthink and intolerance define the left.
New York City, NY: Encounter Books. ISBN 1594039550. Official biography and list of publications Official biography, U. S. Department of State Articles, The Washington Times Appearances on C-SPAN
A diplomat is a person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with one or more other states or international organizations. The main functions of diplomats are: representation and protection of the interests and nationals of the sending state. Seasoned diplomats of international repute are used in international organizations as well as multinational companies for their experience in management and negotiating skills. Diplomats are diplomatic corps of various nations of the world. Diplomats are the oldest form of any of the foreign policy institutions of the state, predating by centuries foreign ministers and ministerial offices, they have diplomatic immunity. The regular use of permanent diplomatic representation began between the states of fifteenth century Italy; however the terms ‘diplomacy’ and ‘diplomat’ appeared in the French Revolution. Diplomat is derived from the Greek διπλωμάτης, the holder of a diploma, referring to diplomats' documents of accreditation from their sovereign. Diplomats themselves and historians refer to the foreign ministry by its address: the Ballhausplatz, the Quai d’Orsay, the Wilhelmstraße.
For imperial Russia to 1917 it was the Choristers’ Bridge. The Italian ministry was called "the Consulta." Though any person can be appointed by the state's national government to conduct said state's relations with other states or international organisations, a number of states maintain an institutionalised group of career diplomats—that is, public servants with a steady professional connection to the country's foreign ministry. The term career diplomat is used worldwide in opposition to political appointees. While posted to an embassy or delegation in a foreign country or accredited to an international organisation, both career diplomats and political appointees enjoy the same diplomatic immunities. Ceremonial heads of state act as diplomats on behalf of their nation following instructions from their head of Government. Whether being a career diplomat or a political appointee, every diplomat, while posted abroad, will be classified in one of the ranks of diplomats as regulated by international law.
Diplomats can be contrasted with consuls and attachés, who represent their state in a number of administrative ways, but who don't have the diplomat's political functions. Diplomats in posts collect and report information that could affect national interests with advice about how the home-country government should respond. Once any policy response has been decided in the home country's capital, posts bear major responsibility for implementing it. Diplomats have the job of conveying, in the most persuasive way possible, the views of the home government to the governments to which they are accredited and, in doing so, of trying to convince those governments to act in ways that suit home-country interests. In this way, diplomats are part of the beginning and the end of each loop in the continuous process through which foreign policy develops. In general, it has become harder for diplomats to act autonomously. Diplomats have to seize secure communication systems and mobile telephones can be tracked down and instruct the most reclusive head of mission.
The same technology in reverse gives diplomats the capacity for more immediate input about the policy-making processes in the home capital. Secure email has transformed the contact between the ministry, it is less to leak, enables more personal contact than the formal cablegram, with its wide distribution and impersonal style. The home country will send instructions to a diplomatic post on what foreign policy goals to pursue, but decisions on tactics – who needs to be influenced, what will best persuade them, who are potential allies and adversaries, how it can be done - are for the diplomats overseas to make. In this operation, the intelligence, cultural understanding, energy of individual diplomats become critical. If competent, they will have developed relationships grounded in trust and mutual understanding with influential members of the country in which they are accredited, they will have worked hard to understand the motives, thought patterns and culture of the other side. The diplomat should be an excellent negotiator but, above all, a catalyst for peace and understanding between peoples.
The diplomat's principal role is to foster peaceful relations between states. This role takes on heightened importance. Negotiation must continue – but within altered contexts. Most career diplomats have university degrees in international relations, political science, economics, or law. Diplomats have been considered members of an exclusive and prestigious profession; the public image of diplomats has been described as "a caricature of pinstriped men gliding their way around a never-ending global cocktail party". J. W. Burton has noted that "despite the absence of any specific professional training, diplomacy has a high professional status, due to a degree of secrecy and mystery that its practitioners self-consciously promote." The state supports the high status and self-esteem of its diplomats in order to
David Dean Rusk was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. Rusk is one of the longest serving U. S. Secretaries of State, behind only Cordell Hull. Born in Cherokee County, Rusk taught at Mills College after graduating from Davidson College. During World War II, Rusk served as a staff officer in the China Burma India Theater, he was hired by the United States Department of State in 1945 and became Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs in 1950. In 1952, Rusk became president of the Rockefeller Foundation. After winning the 1960 presidential election, Kennedy asked Rusk to serve as Secretary of State, he supported diplomatic efforts during the Cuban Missile Crisis and, though he expressed doubts about the escalation of the U. S. role in the Vietnam War, became known as one of its strongest supporters. Rusk served for the duration of the Kennedy and Johnson administrations before retiring from public office in 1969.
After leaving office, he taught international relations at the University of Georgia School of Law. David Dean Rusk was born in a rural district of Cherokee County, Georgia, to Robert Hugh Rusk and Frances Elizabeth Rusk, he was educated in Atlanta's public schools, graduated from Boys High School in 1925, spent two years working for an Atlanta lawyer before working his way through Davidson College. Rusk was coached in football by William "Monk" Younger and was a member of the Kappa Alpha Order Sigma chapter, the national military honor society Scabbard and Blade becoming a Cadet Lieutenant Colonel commanding the Reserve Officers' Training Corps battalion, he graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1931. While studying in England as a Rhodes Scholar at St. John's College, Oxford, he received the Cecil Peace Prize in 1933. Rusk married the former Virginia Foisie on June 9, 1937, they had three children: David and Peggy Rusk. Rusk taught at Mills College in Oakland, from 1934 to 1949, he earned an LL. B. degree at the University of California, Berkeley in 1940.
During World War II, Rusk joined the infantry as a reserve captain and served as a staff officer in the China Burma India Theater. At war's end he was a colonel, decorated with the Legion of Merit with Oak Leaf Cluster. Rusk returned to America to work for the War Department in Washington, he joined the Department of State in February 1945, worked for the office of United Nations Affairs. In the same year, he suggested splitting Korea into spheres of U. S. and of Soviet influence at the 38th parallel north. After Alger Hiss left State in January 1947, Rusk succeeded him, according to Max Lowenthal. In 1949, he was made Deputy Under Secretary of State. In 1950, Rusk was made Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, he played an influential part in the US decision to become involved in the Korean War, in Japan's postwar compensation for victorious countries, such as the Rusk documents. Rusk always sought international support. Rusk and his family moved to Scarsdale, New York, while he served as a Rockefeller Foundation trustee from 1950 to 1961.
In 1952 he succeeded Chester L. Barnard as president of the foundation. On December 12, 1960, Democratic President-elect John F. Kennedy nominated Rusk to be Secretary of State. According to historian and former Special Assistant to President Kennedy Arthur Schlesinger Jr. Rusk was not Kennedy's first choice, but rather the "lowest common denominator", as Kennedy's first choice, J. William Fulbright, proved too controversial. David Halberstam described Rusk as "everybody's number two". Rusk was sworn in on January 21, 1961; as Secretary of State he believed in the use of military action to combat communism. Despite private misgivings about the Bay of Pigs invasion, he remained noncommittal during the Executive Council meetings leading up to the attack and never opposed it outright. During the Cuban Missile Crisis he supported diplomatic efforts. A careful review by Sheldon Stern, Head of the JFK Library, of Kennedy's audio recordings of the EXCOMM meetings suggests that Rusk's contributions to the discussions averted a nuclear war.
Early in his tenure, he had strong doubts about US intervention in Vietnam, but his vigorous public defense of US actions in the Vietnam War made him a frequent target of anti-war protests. Outside of his work against communism, he continued his Rockefeller Foundation ideas of aid to developing nations and supported low tariffs to encourage world trade. Rusk drew the ire of supporters of Israel after he let it be known that he believed the USS Liberty incident was a deliberate attack on the ship, rather than an accident. On March 24, 1961, Rusk released a brief statement saying his delegation was to travel to Bangkok and the SEATO nations' responsibility should be considered if peace settlements were not realized; as he recalled in his autobiography, As I Saw It, Rusk did not have a good relationship with President Kennedy. The president was irritated by Rusk's reticence in advisory sessions and felt that the State Department was "like a bowl of jelly" and that it "never comes up with any new ideas".
Special Counsel to the President Ted Sorensen believed that Kennedy, being well versed and practiced in foreign affairs, acted as his own Secretary of State. Sorensen said that the president expressed impatience with Rusk and felt him under-prepared for emergency meetings and crises. Rusk offered his resignation, but it was never accepted. Rumors of Rusk's dismissal leading up to the 1964 election abounded prior to President Kennedy's trip to Dallas in 1963. Shortly after
Esther Diane Brimmer is an American foreign policy expert and former Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs. In June 2013, she returned to academia. In January 2017, she became the executive director and CEO of NAFSA. From October 2013 to January, 2017, she served as the J. B. and Maurice C. Shapiro Professor of International Affairs at the George Washington University's Elliott School of International Affairs, she received a B. A. in International Relations from Pomona College in Claremont, California, USA. and a M. A. and D. Phil. in International Relations from the University of Oxford, UK. Brimmer has served in international affairs think tanks. From 1999-2001 she was a Member of the Office of Policy Planning at the U. S. Department of State working on the European Union, Western Europe, the United Nations, multilateral security issues. From 1995-1999 she managed projects as a Senior Associate at the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, she served as a Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs and as a Legislative Analyst at the Democratic Study Group in the United States House of Representatives.
From 1989-1991 she was a management consultant with McKinsey. From September 2005 on Brimmer was a visiting professor at the College of Europe, she was nominated to the post of Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs by President Barack Obama on March 11, 2009, was confirmed by the United States Senate on April 2, 2009. Dr. Brimmer served as Deputy Director and Director of Research at the Center for Transatlantic Relations at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University, Washington, D. C, she is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and Women in International Security. She left her post at the State Department in June 2013 to resume her position in academia. Brimmer is the daughter of Andrew Brimmer, the first African American to have served as governor of the Federal Reserve System, her husband is author Steven Beller. They have one son Nathaniel, she has, inter alia, edited Transforming Homeland Security: U. S. and European Approaches, The Strategic Implications of European Union Enlargement, The EU’s Search for a Strategic Role: ESDP and Its Implications for Transatlantic Relations and The European Union Constitutional Treaty: A Guide for Americans, she is the author of The United States, the European Union and International Human Rights Issues
Richard Milhous Nixon was an American politician who served as the 37th president of the United States from 1969 to 1974. He had served as the 36th vice president of the United States from 1953 to 1961, prior to that as both a U. S. representative and senator from California. Nixon was born in California. After completing his undergraduate studies at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law, he and his wife Pat moved to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government. He subsequently served on active duty in the U. S. Navy Reserve during World War II. Nixon was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and to the Senate in 1950, his pursuit of the Hiss Case established his reputation as a leading anti-communist and elevated him to national prominence. He was the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party presidential nominee in the 1952 election. Nixon served for eight years as Vice President, becoming the second-youngest vice president in history at age 40.
He waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, lost a race for governor of California to Pat Brown in 1962. In 1968, he ran for the presidency again and was elected, defeating incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey. Nixon ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam in 1973 and brought the American POWs home, ended the military draft. Nixon's visit to China in 1972 led to diplomatic relations between the two nations and he initiated détente and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union the same year, his administration transferred power from Washington D. C. to the states. He imposed wage and price controls for ninety days, enforced desegregation of Southern schools, established the Environmental Protection Agency and began the War on Cancer. Nixon presided over the Apollo 11 moon landing, which signaled the end of the moon race, he was reelected in one of the largest electoral landslides in U. S. history in 1972 when he defeated George McGovern.
In his second term, Nixon ordered an airlift to resupply Israeli losses in the Yom Kippur War, resulting in the restart of the Middle East peace process and an oil crisis at home. The Nixon administration supported a coup in Chile that ousted the government of Salvador Allende and propelled Augusto Pinochet to power. By late 1973, the Watergate scandal escalated. On August 9, 1974, he resigned in the face of certain impeachment and removal from office—the only time a U. S. president has done so. After his resignation, he was issued a controversial pardon by Gerald Ford. In 20 years of retirement, Nixon wrote nine books and undertook many foreign trips, helping to rehabilitate his image into that of an elder statesman, he suffered a debilitating stroke on April 18, 1994 and died four days at the age of 81. Richard Milhous Nixon was born on January 9, 1913 in Yorba Linda, California, in a house, built by his father, his parents were Francis A. Nixon, his mother was a Quaker, his father converted from Methodism to the Quaker faith.
Nixon was a descendant of the early American settler, Thomas Cornell, an ancestor of Ezra Cornell, the founder of Cornell University, as well as of Jimmy Carter and Bill Gates. Nixon's upbringing was marked by evangelical Quaker observances of the time, such as refraining from alcohol and swearing. Nixon had four brothers: Harold, Donald and Edward. Four of the five Nixon boys were named after kings who had ruled in legendary Britain. Nixon's early life was marked by hardship, he quoted a saying of Eisenhower to describe his boyhood: "We were poor, but the glory of it was we didn't know it"; the Nixon family ranch failed in 1922, the family moved to Whittier, California. In an area with many Quakers, Frank Nixon opened a grocery gas station. Richard's younger brother. At the age of twelve, a spot was found on Richard's lung, with a family history of tuberculosis, he was forbidden to play sports; the spot was found to be scar tissue from an early bout of pneumonia. Young Richard attended East Whittier Elementary School, where he was president of his eighth-grade class.
His parents believed that attending Whittier High School had caused Richard's older brother Harold to live a dissolute lifestyle before he fell ill of tuberculosis, so they sent Richard to the larger Fullerton Union High School. He had to ride a school bus for an hour each way during his freshman year, he received excellent grades, he lived with an aunt in Fullerton during the week. He played junior varsity football, missed a practice though he was used in games, he had greater success as a debater, winning a number of championships and taking his only formal tutelage in public speaking from Fullerton's Head of English, H. Lynn Sheller. Nixon remembered Sheller's words, "Remember, speaking is conversation... don't shout at people. Talk to them. Converse with them." Nixon stated. At the start of his junior year beginning in September 1928, Richard's parents permitted him to transfer to Whittier High School. At Whittier High, Nixon suffered his first electoral defeat, for student body president, he rose at 4 a.m. to drive the family truck into Los Angeles and purchase vegetables at the market.
He drove to the store to wash and display them, befo