A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Central Savannah River Area
The Central Savannah River Area is a trading and marketing region in the U. S. states of Georgia and South Carolina, spanning thirteen counties in Georgia and eight in South Carolina. The term was coined in 1950 by C. C. McCollum, the winner of a $250 contest held by The Augusta Chronicle to generate the best name for the area. Today the initialism is so used that the full name is not known to all residents; the region is located on and named after the Savannah River, which forms the border between the two states. The largest cities within the CSRA are Augusta and Aiken, South Carolina; the total population of the CSRA is 768,402 in 2010. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the seven-county Augusta-Richmond County Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated population of 580,270 in 2013, making it the second most populous in the state of Georgia. Augusta-Richmond County, Georgia Pop: 197,872 Martinez, Georgia Pop: 35,795 Aiken, South Carolina Pop: 29,884 Evans, Georgia Pop: 29,011 North Augusta, South Carolina Pop: 21,873 Grovetown, Georgia Pop: 12,210 Thomson, Georgia Pop: 6,718 Belvedere, South Carolina Pop: 5,792 Waynesboro, Georgia Pop: 5,816 Sandersville, Georgia Pop: 5,912 CSRA Regional Commission CSRA Economic Opportunity Authority, Inc. Savannah River Site: CSRA Regional Science and Engineering Fair Regional science fair competition for science projects winning first-place at their respective schools Columbia County outpaces state population gains
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Thomson is a city in McDuffie County, United States. The population was 6,778 at the 2010 census; the city is the county seat of McDuffie County. Thomson's nickname is "The Camellia City of the South", in honor of the thousands of camellia plants throughout the city. Thomson was founded in 1837 as a depot on the Georgia Railroad, it was renamed in 1853 for railroad official John Edgar Thomson and incorporated February 15, 1854 as a town and in 1870 as a city. It is part of the Augusta – Richmond County Metropolitan Statistical Area. Thomson called Slashes, was founded in 1837 as a depot on the Georgia Railroad, it was renamed in 1853 for railroad official John Edgar Thomson. In 1870, Thomson was designated seat of the newly formed McDuffie County, it was incorporated as a town in 1854 and as a city in 1870. The Old Rock House, built in 1785, is said to be one of Georgia's oldest documented houses with its original design intact. Built by Thomas Ansley, the home is said to be the home of ancestors of former president Jimmy Carter.
Thomson is located at 33°28′2″N 82°29′58″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.95 square miles, all land. Thomson is considered part of the Central Savannah River Area geographical designation; as of the census of 2000, there were 6,828 people, 2,609 households, 1,792 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,726.9 people per square mile. There were 2,895 housing units at an average density of 732.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 42.38% White, 56.28% African American, 0.07% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, 0.72% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.27% of the population. There were 2,609 households out of which 36.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.7% were married couples living together, 28.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.3% were non-families. 28.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.05. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.6% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 15.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 81.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 73.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $23,179, the median income for a family was $30,015. Males had a median income of $25,882 versus $20,607 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,976. 27.6% of the population and 23.8% of families were below the poverty line. 1.7% of those under the age of 18 and 100% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Rock House – Oldest stone residence in Georgia Hickory Hill – Home of US senator Thomas E. Watson, noted author and lawyer; the district has 262 full-time teachers and over 4,312 students. Dearing Elementary School Maxwell Elementary School Norris Elementary School Thomson Elementary School Thomson Middle School Thomson High School McDuffie County Achievement Center Zebedee Armstrong - Outsider artist Casper Brinkley - Former Defensive End for the NFL's Carolina Panthers Jasper Brinkley - Linebacker for the NFL's New York Giants Vonteego Cummings - Former professional basketball guard, played in the NBA and the Euroleague Darius Eubanks - Linebacker for the NFL'S Dallas Cowboys Ray Guy - NFL punter for the Oakland Raiders and namesake of the Ray Guy Award, presented each year to college football's top punter.
He is the only punter admitted to the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Richard E. Hawes - Navy admiral, World War II hero, namesake of guided missile frigate USS Hawes Eddie Lee Ivery - Running back for the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets and the Green Bay Packers Millie Jackson - R & B singer Franklin Langham - PGA Tour golfer Dr. Wendell Logan - American jazz composer and Guggenheim Fellowship recipient. Dr. Logan established the jazz department at the Oberlin Conservatory of Music Jerry Mays - Running back for the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets and the San Diego Chargers Blind Willie McTell - Singer and blues musician, wrote"Statesboro Blues". Thomson sponsors an annual blues festival in his honor Chris Mohr - NFL punter for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Buffalo Bills and Atlanta Falcons. Ken Roberson - Broadway choreographer noted for his work in the 2004 Tony Award-winning "Avenue Q" and "All Shook Up. S. Senator, Populist Party leader, renowned orator of the late 19th century. Noted for establishing Rural Free Delivery, which set up rural mail service for the nation Thomson website
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Oliver Norvell Hardy was an American comic actor and one half of Laurel and Hardy, the double act that began in the era of silent films and lasted from 1927 to 1955. He appeared with his comedy partner Stan Laurel in 107 short films, feature films, cameo roles, he was credited with his first film Outwitting Dad in 1914. In most of his silent films before joining producer Hal Roach, he was billed on screen as "Babe Hardy." Oliver Hardy was born Norvell Hardy in Georgia. His father Oliver was a Confederate veteran, wounded at the Battle of Antietam on September 17, 1862 and was a recruiting officer for Company K, 16th Georgia Regiment; the elder Oliver Hardy assisted his father in running the vestiges of the family cotton plantation following the Civil War. He bought a share in a retail business and was elected full-time Tax Collector for Columbia County, Georgia. Hardy's mother Emily Norvell was the daughter of Thomas Benjamin Norvell and Mary Freeman, descended from Captain Hugh Norvell of Williamsburg, Virginia.
The elder Hardy and Norvell married March 12, 1890. The family moved to Georgia in 1891 before Norvell's birth, he was born in Harlem, though some sources say that his birth occurred in Covington, his mother's hometown. His father died less than a year after his birth. Hardy was the youngest of five children, his older brother Sam drowned in the Oconee River. As a child, Hardy was sometimes difficult, he was sent to Georgia Military College in Milledgeville as a youngster. He was sent to Young Harris College in north Georgia in the 1905 fall semester when he was 13, he had little interest in formal education, although he acquired an early interest in music and theater. He joined a theatrical group and ran away from a boarding school near Atlanta to sing with the group, his mother recognized his talent for singing and sent him to Atlanta to study music and voice with singing teacher Adolf Dahm-Petersen. He skipped some of his lessons to sing in the Alcazar Theater for $3.50 a week. As a teenager Hardy began styling himself "Oliver Norvell Hardy", adding the first name "Oliver" as a tribute to his father.
He appeared as "Oliver N. Hardy" in the 1910 U. S. census, he used "Oliver" as his first name in all subsequent legal records, marriage announcements, etc. Hardy was initiated into Freemasonry at Solomon Lodge No. 20 in Florida. He was inducted into the Grand Order of Water Rats along with Stan Laurel. In 1910, The Palace, a motion picture theater, opened in Hardy's hometown of Milledgeville, he became the projectionist, ticket taker and manager, he soon became obsessed with the new motion picture industry and was convinced that he could do a better job than the actors that he saw. A friend suggested that he move to Jacksonville, where some films were being made, which he did in 1913, he worked in Jacksonville as a cabaret and vaudeville singer at night, at the Lubin Manufacturing Company during the day. It was at this time that he met Madelyn Saloshin, a pianist whom he married on November 17, 1913 in Macon, Georgia; the next year, he made his first movie Outwitting Dad for the Lubin studio, billed as O. N. Hardy.
In his personal life, he was known as "Babe" Hardy, he was billed as "Babe Hardy" in many of his films at Lubin. He was a big man, standing 6-foot 1-inch and weighing up to 300 pounds, his size placed limitations on the roles that he could play, he was most cast as the villain, but he had roles in comedy shorts, his size complementing the character. By 1915, Hardy had made 50 short one-reel films at Lubin, he moved to New York and made films for the Pathé, Edison Studios, he returned to Jacksonville where he made films for the Vim Comedy Company. That studio closed, he worked for the King Bee studio, which bought Vim, worked with Billy Ruge, Billy West, comedic actress Ethel Burton Palmer. He continued playing the villains for West well into the early 1920s imitating Eric Campbell to West's Chaplin. In 1917, Hardy moved to Los Angeles, working freelance for several Hollywood studios, he made more than 40 films for Vitagraph between 1918 and 1923 playing the "heavy" for Larry Semon. In 1919, he separated from his wife, ending with a provisional divorce in November 1920, finalized on November 17, 1921.
On November 24, 1921, he married actress Myrtle Reeves. This marriage was unhappy, Reeves was said to have become an alcoholic. In 1921, he appeared in the movie The Lucky Dog produced by Broncho Billy Anderson and starring Stan Laurel. Hardy played the part of a robber trying to hold up Stan's character, they did not work together again for several years. In 1924, Hardy began working at Hal Roach Studios with Charley Chase. In 1925, he starred as the Tin Man in the Wizard of Oz; that year he was in the film Yes, Nanette!, starring Jimmy Finlayson and directed by Stan Laurel. He continued playing supporting roles in films featuring Clyde Cooke and Bobby Ray. In 1926, Hardy was to appear in Get'Em Young, but he was unexpectedly hospitalised after being burned by a hot leg of lamb. Laurel had been working as a gag man and a director at Roach Studios, so he was recruited to fill in. Laurel continued to act and appeared in 45 Minutes from Hollywood with Hardy, although they did not share any scenes together.
In 1927, Laurel and Hardy began sharing screen time together