Harley-Davidson, Inc. or Harley, is an American motorcycle manufacturer, founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1903. One of two major American motorcycle manufacturers to survive the Great Depression, the company has survived numerous ownership arrangements, subsidiary arrangements, periods of poor economic health and product quality, as well as intense global competition, to become one of the world's largest motorcycle manufacturers and an iconic brand known for its loyal following. There are events worldwide as well as a company-sponsored brand-focused museum. Noted for a style of customization that gave rise to the chopper motorcycle style, Harley-Davidson traditionally marketed heavyweight, air-cooled cruiser motorcycles with engine displacements greater than 700 cm³ and has broadened its offerings to include its more contemporary VRSC and middle-weight Street platforms. Harley-Davidson manufactures its motorcycles at factories in Pennsylvania. Construction of a new plant in Thailand is scheduled to begin in late 2018.
The company markets its products worldwide. Besides motorcycles, the company licenses and markets merchandise under the Harley-Davidson brand, among them apparel, home decor and ornaments, accessories and scale figures of its motorcycles, video games based on its motorcycle line and the community. In 1901, 20-year-old William S. Harley drew up plans for a small engine with a displacement of 7.07 cubic inches and four-inch flywheels. The engine was designed for use in a regular pedal-bicycle frame. Over the next two years and his childhood friend Arthur Davidson worked on their motor-bicycle using the northside Milwaukee machine shop at the home of their friend, Henry Melk, it was finished in 1903 with the help of Walter Davidson. Upon testing their power-cycle and the Davidson brothers found it unable to climb the hills around Milwaukee without pedal assistance, they wrote off their first motor-bicycle as a valuable learning experiment. Work began on a new and improved second-generation machine.
This first "real" Harley-Davidson motorcycle had a bigger engine of 24.74 cubic inches with 9.75 inches flywheels weighing 28 lb. The machine's advanced loop-frame pattern was similar to the 1903 Milwaukee Merkel motorcycle; the bigger engine and loop-frame design took it out of the motorized bicycle category and marked the path to future motorcycle designs. The boys received help with their bigger engine from outboard motor pioneer Ole Evinrude, building gas engines of his own design for automotive use on Milwaukee's Lake Street; the prototype of the new loop-frame Harley-Davidson was assembled in a 10 ft × 15 ft shed in the Davidson family backyard. Most of the major parts, were made elsewhere, including some fabricated at the West Milwaukee railshops where oldest brother William A. Davidson was toolroom foreman; this prototype machine was functional by September 8, 1904, when it competed in a Milwaukee motorcycle race held at State Fair Park. It was placed fourth; this is the first documented appearance of a Harley-Davidson motorcycle in the historical record.
In January 1905, small advertisements were placed in the Automobile and Cycle Trade Journal offering bare Harley-Davidson engines to the do-it-yourself trade. By April, complete motorcycles were in production on a limited basis; that year, the first Harley-Davidson dealer, Carl H. Lang of Chicago, sold three bikes from the five built in the Davidson backyard shed. Years the original shed was taken to the Juneau Avenue factory where it would stand for many decades as a tribute to the Motor Company's humble origins until it was accidentally destroyed by contractors cleaning the factory yard in the early 1970s. In 1906, Harley and the Davidson brothers built their first factory on Chestnut Street, at the current location of Harley-Davidson's corporate headquarters; the first Juneau Avenue plant was a 40 ft × 60 ft single-story wooden structure. The company produced about 50 motorcycles that year. In 1907, William S. Harley graduated from the University of Wisconsin–Madison with a degree in mechanical engineering.
That year additional factory expansion came with a second floor and with facings and additions of Milwaukee pale yellow brick. With the new facilities production increased to 150 motorcycles in 1907; the company was incorporated that September. They began selling their motorcycles to police departments around this time, a market, important to them since. In 1907 William A. Davidson, brother to Arthur and Walter Davidson, quit his job as tool foreman for the Milwaukee Road railroad and joined the Motor Company. Production in 1905 and 1906 were all single-cylinder models with 26.84 cubic inch engines. In February 1907 a prototype model with a 45-degree V-Twin engine was displayed at the Chicago Automobile Show. Although shown and advertised few V-Twin models were built between 1907 and 1910; these first V-Twins produced about 7 horsepower. This gave about double the power of the first singles. Top speed was about 60 mph. Production jumped from 450 motorcycles in 1908 to 1,149 machines in 1909. By 1911, some 150 makes of motorcycles had been built in the United States – although just a handful would survive the 1910s.
In 1911, an improved V-Twin model was introduced. The new engine had me
A motorcycle called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycle design varies to suit a range of different purposes: long distance travel, cruising, sport including racing, off-road riding. Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle and related social activity such as joining a motorcycle club and attending motorcycle rallies. In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. In 2014, the three top motorcycle producers globally by volume were Honda and Hero MotoCorp. In developing countries, motorcycles are considered utilitarian due to lower prices and greater fuel economy. Of all the motorcycles in the world, 58% are in the Asia-Pacific and Southern and Eastern Asia regions, excluding car-centric Japan. According to the US Department of Transportation the number of fatalities per vehicle mile traveled was 37 times higher for motorcycles than for cars; the term motorcycle has different legal definitions depending on jurisdiction.
There are three major types of motorcycle: street, off-road, dual purpose. Within these types, there are many sub-types of motorcycles for different purposes. There is a racing counterpart to each type, such as road racing and street bikes, or motocross and dirt bikes. Street bikes include cruisers, sportbikes and mopeds, many other types. Off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as motocross and are not street legal in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the dual-sport style are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal and comfortable on the street as well; each configuration offers either specialised advantage or broad capability, each design creates a different riding posture. In some countries the use of pillions is restricted; the first internal combustion, petroleum fueled. It was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, Germany in 1885; this vehicle was unlike either the safety bicycles or the boneshaker bicycles of the era in that it had zero degrees of steering axis angle and no fork offset, thus did not use the principles of bicycle and motorcycle dynamics developed nearly 70 years earlier.
Instead, it relied on two outrigger wheels to remain upright while turning. The inventors called their invention the Reitwagen, it was designed as an expedient testbed for their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle. The first commercial design for a self-propelled cycle was a three-wheel design called the Butler Petrol Cycle, conceived of Edward Butler in England in 1884, he exhibited his plans for the vehicle at the Stanley Cycle Show in London in 1884. The vehicle was built by the Merryweather Fire Engine company in Greenwich, in 1888; the Butler Petrol Cycle was a three-wheeled vehicle, with the rear wheel directly driven by a 5⁄8 hp, 40 cc displacement, 2 1⁄4 in × 5 in bore × stroke, flat twin four-stroke engine equipped with rotary valves and a float-fed carburettor and Ackermann steering, all of which were state of the art at the time. Starting was by compressed air; the engine was liquid-cooled, with a radiator over the rear driving wheel. Speed was controlled by means of a throttle valve lever.
No braking system was fitted. The driver was seated between the front wheels, it wasn't, however, a success, as Butler failed to find sufficient financial backing. Many authorities have excluded steam powered, electric motorcycles or diesel-powered two-wheelers from the definition of a'motorcycle', credit the Daimler Reitwagen as the world's first motorcycle. Given the rapid rise in use of electric motorcycles worldwide, defining only internal-combustion powered two-wheelers as'motorcycles' is problematic. If a two-wheeled vehicle with steam propulsion is considered a motorcycle the first motorcycles built seem to be the French Michaux-Perreaux steam velocipede which patent application was filled in December 1868, constructed around the same time as the American Roper steam velocipede, built by Sylvester H. Roper Roxbury, Massachusetts. Who demonstrated his machine at fairs and circuses in the eastern U. S. in 1867, Roper built about 10 steam cars and cycles from the 1860s until his death in 1896.
In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. Excelsior Motor Company a bicycle manufacturing company based in Coventry, began production of their first motorcycle model in 1896; the first production motorcycle in the US was the Orient-Aster, built by Charles Metz in 1898 at his factory in Waltham, Massachusetts. In the early period of motorcycle history, many producers of bicycles adapted their designs to accommodate the new internal combustion engine; as the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers increased. Many of the nineteenth century inventors who worked on early motorcycles moved on to other inventions. Daimler and Roper, for example, both went on to develop automobiles. At the turn of the 19th century the first major mass-production firms were set up. In 1898, Triumph Motorcycles in England began producing motorbikes, by 1903 it was producing over 500 bikes.
Other British firms were Royal Enfield and Birmingham Small Arms Company who
Muscular Dystrophy Association
The Muscular Dystrophy Association is an American organization, formed in 1950, which combats muscular dystrophy and diseases of the nervous system and muscular system in general by funding research, providing medical and community services, educating health professionals and the general public. MDA had worked with comedian and filmmaker Jerry Lewis, through his work serving as its national chairman from 1956 to 2011 and hosting its live annual telethon each Labor Day from 1966 to 2010; the partnership of MDA and Lewis lasted for 60 years. Other stars and entertainers have supported the Muscular Dystrophy Association over the years, including Wayne Newton, Frank Sinatra, The Jackson 5, Sammy Davis, Jr. Don Rickles, Ed McMahon, Milton Berle, Norm Crosby, Don Francisco, Johnny Carson, Tony Orlando, Aretha Franklin, Maureen McGovern and Diana Ross. MDA's national office is in Illinois; the organization was founded in 1950 by a group with personal connections to muscular dystrophy. Known as the Muscular Dystrophy Associations of America, it was renamed to its present name in the 1970s.
Each year, a child affected by a muscle disease is chosen to be the MDA's "National Goodwill Ambassador", until the 1980s, were referred to as "poster children". In 1952, the MDA inaugurated Michael Danna as its first Poster Child. One of the most well-known ambassadors was Mattie Stepanek, the National Goodwill Ambassador from 2002 until his death in 2004, notable for his best-selling Heartsongs series of poetry books, his appearances on The Oprah Winfrey Show and Good Morning America. More recent National Goodwill Ambassadors have been 12-year-old Bryson Foster of Concord, N. C., affected by duchenne muscular dystrophy and 9-year-old Reagan Imhoff of New Berlin, Wisconsin. Since 1954, MDA has partnered with the International Association of Fire Fighters for the annual Fill the Boot Drive, where firefighters around the country ask those passing to donate to MDA via one of their boots. In 2016, over 100,000 firefighters from 1,507 different IAFF locals participated, raising over $24 million.
Debuting in 1966 and held annually on Labor Day weekend until 2014, the telethon was hosted by veteran film and television star Jerry Lewis, who served as the MDA's national chairman since its inception in 1950 and hosted the show until 2010. In 2005, the MDA made the unprecedented decision to pledge $1 million of the telethon's money raised to Hurricane Katrina disaster relief, making the donation to the Salvation Army. In 2008, the annual televised fundraiser raised a record $65,031,393. Broadcast for up to 21½ hours from 1966 to 2010, the event was cut back to six hours in 2011; the 2011 edition of the telethon was announced to have been Lewis' last as host, with him continuing his role as national chairman. However, in 2016, one year before his death, Lewis broke a five-year silence in a video endorsing MDA's redesigned web site and brand, declaring that the work to end muscular dystrophy be continued. Additionally, Lewis' support has been so ironclad over the years that children and adults assisted by MDA are referred to as Jerry's Kids.
From 2012 to 2014, the show was known as the MDA Show of Strength. In 2014, the organization announced; every summer, for one week, thousands of children from across the country who have been diagnosed with one of the forty-three muscle diseases covered in MDA's program are able to attend a camp designated for only them. There is a one counselor to one camper ratio and the entire week the children, ages 6–17, are paired with an adult volunteer, they get to stay overnight. The camps are different weeks throughout the months of May through August; the entire camp staff are volunteer members and are required to interview and apply with good recommendations. The cost of the camp for the campers and volunteers is covered by the many fundraisers the MDA does each year. Started in 2010, the MDA Muscle Walk is an annual 1 to 3.1 mile lap event held in over 150 communities across the United States to raise money for research and patient services. MDA's Lock-Up event stages local community leaders as "locked up" behind bars and requires a certain amount of money to "bail" them out.
The Shamrock program, focused around Saint Patrick's Day, includes over 125,000 local retail stores participating. For each donation made at the store, a green shamrock is posted inside the store. MDA targets the following muscle-affecting diseases: The organization targets muscle diseases due to deficiencies in carnitine and the following enzymes: The MDA supported the Newborn Screening Saves Lives Reauthorization Act of 2013, a bill that would amend the Public Health Service Act to reauthorize grant programs and other initiatives to promote expanded screening of newborns and children for heritable disorders; the MDA argued that "many of the drug therapies under development for MDA's community will be of most benefit if administered either presymptomatically or early in the progression of the disease. Thus, for some of the diseases in MDA's program, the availability of a newborn screening program at the time of treatment availability presents the best opportunity for impacting optimal and potential lifesaving treatment outcomes."The MDA supported the Paul D. Wellstone Muscular Dystrophy Community Assistance and Education Amendments of 2013, a bill that would a
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Colors are the insignia, or "patches", worn by motorcycle club members on cut-off vests to identify membership of their club and territorial location. Club patches have been worn by many different groups since the 1960s, they are regarded by many to symbolize an elite amongst motorcyclists and the style has been copied by other subcultures and commercialized. Colors are considered to represent "significant markers of the socialization" of new members to clubs and present a dominant symbol of identity and marked with related symbolism, they can be embroidered patches sewn onto clothing or stenciled in paint, the primary symbol being the back patch of club's insignia or logo and remain the property of the club. Wearing such clothing is referred to as "flying one's colors"; the term has its roots in military history, originating with regimental colours. Colors identify the rank of members within clubs from new members, from "prospects" to full members known as "patch-holders", consist of a top and bottom circumferential badge called a rocker, due to the curved shape, with the top rocker stating the club name, the bottom rocker stating the location or territory, a central logo of the club's insignia, with a fourth, smaller badge carrying the initials "MC" standing for "motorcycle club".
The badges are used to create a social bond and boundaries and belong to the clubs involved rather than the individual wearing them. The wearing of them can lead individuals to be refused service at related businesses and bars, some biker bars have a "no colors" policy, to reduce conflict. Claiming territory by wearing a bottom rocker can lead to violent conflict with a rival club, such as in the 2015 Waco shootout, caused by a club wearing a "Texas" bottom rocker. Many motorcyclists wearing colors are from "family oriented" motorcycling clubs chartered by the American Motorcyclist Association and wear one-piece patches to differentiate themselves from three piece patches of outlaw bikers; these do not state a territorial location. The motorcycle manufacturer Harley-Davidson notably adopted the style in its branding and community-building effort, the Harley Owners Group; as with outlaw motorcycle clubs visual identification of a member of a club is indicated by a specific large club patch or set of patches located in the middle of the back of a vest or jacket.
The patch may contain the name of the club and other chapter identification. In most motorcycle clubs the patch representing membership in the organization is referred to as "the club colors" or "the colors"; each club has rules on when it is proper to wear them. Well structured clubs have bylaws dictating the behavior of its members and thus the proper use of their colors. Tattoos may come under the category of club colors. Gang colors Media related to Motorcycle club colors at Wikimedia Commons
Outline of motorcycles and motorcycling
The following outline is provided as an overview of motorcycles and motorcycling: Motorcycle — two-wheeled, single-track motor vehicle. Other names include: motorbike and cycle. Motorcycling — act of riding a motorcycle, around which a variety of subcultures and lifestyles have built up. Legal definition of motorcycle – a'powered two-wheel motor vehicle'. Most countries distinguish between mopeds up to 49 cubic centimetres and the more powerful, vehicles known as motorcycles. Scooters do not count as a separate category, are deemed to be "motorcycles"; some motorcycles have paired rear wheels, three in all. Motorized tricycles and sidecar outfits are deemed "motorcycles". Most jurisdictions do not consider three-wheeled cars to be motorcycles. Motorcycles can be described as all of the following: a component of transport a component of a mode of transport a component of road transport a type of vehicle a type of motor vehicle a type of machine sports equipment Types of motorcycles The design of a motorcycle reflects the purpose for which it is to be used.
The main types of motorcycle include: Street motorcycle – designed for riding on paved roads. Cruiser – mimics the style of American machines from the 1930s to the early 1960s, including those made by Harley-Davidson, Indian and Henderson. S. market Bobber – has had the front fender removed, the rear fender'bobbed' or made smaller, all superfluous items removed to make it lighter Chopper – has a longer frame design accompanied by a stretched front end. To achieve a longer front end, while the frame is being designed, the fabricator tilts the neck of the frame at less of an incline and installs a longer fork. Sport bike – optimised for speed, acceleration and cornering on paved roads at the expense of comfort and fuel economy in comparison to less specialised motorcycles. Café racer – a type of motorcycle, modified for speed and good handling rather than comfort. Cafe racers' bodywork and control layout mimic the style of Grand Prix roadracers of the 50's or 60's with or without fairings, they tend to feature an elongated fuel tank, a small, rearward mounted and humped single seat, low, race style handlebars mounted on the front forks.
Streetfighter – a sport bike, customised by removing the fairing, with other changes that result in an overall more aggressive look Touring motorcycle – designed for long-distance touring and heavy commuting. Universal Japanese Motorcycle – Japanese motorcycle with a transverse air-cooled four-cylinder engine in a conventional tube frame with a dual seat made in the 1970s and early 1980s Custom motorcycle – unique or individually produced in a limited quantity, as opposed to stock bikes which are mass-produced. Is highly stylised or has an unusual frame geometry or engine design. Many styles including café racer and chopper began as customized motorcycles before manufacturers mass-produced bikes styled after popular custom machines. Rat bike – motorcycle maintained at little to no cost, or of a deliberately exaggerated state of disrepair Dual-sport motorcycle – type of street-legal motorcycle designed for both on and off-road use Enduro motorcycle – motorcycle made for the Enduro sport, with the long travel and medium-hard suspension of a motocross bike enhanced with motorcycle features such as a headlight and quiet muffler to make the bike street-legal for parts of the track Motocross motorcycle – a light weight, high power, off-road competition race bike Supermoto motorcycle – a dual purpose, single cylinder, light weight bike fitted with equipment better suited to street riding or racing such as 18 inch front wheel and road tyres Off-road motorcycle Motocross motorcycle Track racing motorcycle – customised for track racing, with no brakes and fueled with methanol Trials motorcycle – an lightweight design, that lacks seating and that has suspension travel, short, relative to a motocross or enduro motorcycle Small class Minibike – sometimes called a mini-moto or pocket-bike, it is a smaller motorcycle.