University of Pittsburgh
The University of Pittsburgh is a state-related research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It was founded as the Pittsburgh Academy in 1787 on the edge of the American frontier, it developed and was renamed as Western University of Pennsylvania by a change to its charter in 1819. After surviving two devastating fires and various relocations within the area, the school moved to its current location in the Oakland neighborhood of the city. Pitt was a private institution until 1966 when it became part of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education; the university is composed of 17 undergraduate and graduate schools and colleges at its urban Pittsburgh campus, home to the university's central administration and 28,766 undergraduate and professional students. The university includes four undergraduate schools located at campuses within Western Pennsylvania: Bradford, Greensburg and Titusville; the 132-acre Pittsburgh campus has multiple contributing historic buildings of the Schenley Farms Historic District, most notably its 42-story Gothic revival centerpiece, the Cathedral of Learning.
The campus is situated adjacent to the flagship medical facilities of its affiliated University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, as well as the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh, Schenley Park, Carnegie Mellon University. The university has an annual operating budget of $2 billion; this includes nearly $940 million in research and development expenditures as of 2017, the 16th-highest in the nation. A member of the Association of American Universities, Pitt is the third-largest recipient of federally sponsored health research funding among U. S. universities in 2018 and it is a major recipient of research funding from the National Institutes of Health. It is the second-largest non-government employer in the Pittsburgh region behind UPMC. Pitt is ranked among the top research universities in the United States in both domestic and international rankings and it has been listed as a "best value" in higher education by several publications. Pitt students have access to arts programs throughout the campus and city and can participate in over 400 student clubs and organizations.
Pitt's varsity athletic teams, collectively known as the Pittsburgh Panthers, compete in Division I of the NCAA as members of the Atlantic Coast Conference. Founded by Hugh Henry Brackenridge as Pittsburgh Academy in 1787, the University of Pittsburgh is one of the few universities and colleges established in the 18th century in the United States, it is the oldest continuously chartered institution of learning in the U. S. west of the Allegheny Mountains. The school began as a preparatory school in a log cabin as early as 1770 in Western Pennsylvania a frontier. Brackenridge obtained a charter for the school from the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania on February 28, 1787, just ten weeks before the opening of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. A brick building was erected in 1790 on the south side of Third Street and Cherry Alley for the Pittsburgh Academy; the small two-story brick building, with a gable facing the alley, contained three rooms: one below and two above.
Within a short period, more advanced education in the area was needed, so in 1819 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania amended the school's 1787 charter to confer university status. The school was named the Western University of Pennsylvania, or WUP, was intended to be the western sister institution to the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. By 1830, WUP had moved into a new three-story, freestone-fronted building, with Ionic columns and a cupola, near its original buildings fronting the south side of Third Street, between Smithfield Street and Cherry Alley in downtown Pittsburgh. By the 1830s, the university faced severe financial pressure to abandon its traditional liberal education in favor of the state legislature's desire for it to provide more vocational training; the decision to remain committed to liberal education nearly killed the university, but it persevered despite its abandonment by the city and state. It was during this era that the founder of Mellon Bank, Thomas Mellon and taught at WUP.
The university's buildings, along with most of its records and files, were destroyed in the Great Fire of 1845 that wiped out 20 square blocks of Pittsburgh. Classes were temporarily held in Trinity Church until a new building was constructed on Duquesne Way. Only four years in 1849, this building was destroyed by fire. Due to the catastrophic nature of these fires, operations were suspended for a few years to allow the university time to regroup and rebuild. By 1854, WUP had erected a new building on the corner of Ross and Diamond streets and classes resumed in 1855, it is during this era, in 1867, that Samuel Pierpont Langley, inventor, aviation pioneer and future Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, was chosen as director of the Allegheny Observatory, donated to WUP in 1865. Langley was professor of astronomy and physics and remained at WUP until 1891, when he was succeeded by another prominent astronomer, James Keeler. Growing during this period, WUP outgrew its downtown facilities and the university moved its campus to Allegheny City.
The university found itself on a 10-acre site on the North Side's Observatory Hill at the location of its Allegheny Observatory. There, it constructed two new buildings, Science Hall and Main Hall, that were occupied by 1889 and 1890 respectively. During this era, the first
The Anti-Masonic Party known as the Anti-Masonic Movement, was the first third party in the United States. It opposed Freemasonry as a single-issue party and aspired to become a major party by expanding its platform to take positions on other issues. After emerging as a political force in the late 1820s, most of the Anti-Masonic Party's members joined the Whig Party in the 1830s and the party disappeared after 1838; the party was founded in the aftermath of the disappearance of William Morgan, a former Mason who had become a prominent critic of the Masonic organization. Many believed that the Masons had murdered Morgan for speaking out against Masonry and subsequently many churches and other groups condemned masonry; as many Masons were prominent businessmen and politicians, the backlash against the Masons was a form of anti-elitism. Mass opposition to Masonry coalesced into a political party. Before and during the presidency of John Quincy Adams, there was a period of political realignment; the Anti-Masons emerged as an important third party alternative to Andrew Jackson's Democrats and Adams's National Republicans.
In New York, the Anti-Masons supplanted the National Republicans as the primary opposition to the Democrats. After experiencing unexpected success in the 1828 elections, the Anti-Masons began to adopt positions on other issues, most notably support for internal improvements and a protective tariff. Several Anti-Masons, including William A. Palmer and Joseph Ritner, won election to prominent positions. In states such as Pennsylvania and Rhode Island, the party controlled the balance of power in the state legislature and provided crucial support to candidates for the Senate. In 1831, the party held the first presidential nominating convention, a practice, subsequently adopted by all major parties; the convention chose former Attorney General William Wirt as the party's standard bearer in the 1832 presidential election and Wirt won 7.8% of the popular vote and carried Vermont. As the 1830s progressed, many of the Anti-Masonic Party's supporters joined the Whig Party, which sought to unite those opposed to the policies of President Jackson.
The Anti-Masonic Party held a national convention in 1835, nominating William Henry Harrison, but a second convention announced that the party would not support a candidate. Harrison campaigned as a Whig in the 1836 presidential election and his relative success in the election encouraged further migration of Anti-Masons to the Whig Party. By 1840, the party had ceased to function as a national organization. In subsequent decades, former Anti-Masonic candidates and supporters such as Millard Fillmore, William H. Seward, Thurlow Weed and Thaddeus Stevens would become well-known members of the Whig Party; the opponents of Freemasonry formed a political movement after the Morgan affair convinced them the Masons were murdering men who spoke out against them. This key episode was the mysterious 1826 disappearance of William Morgan, a Freemason in upstate New York who had turned against the Masons. Morgan claimed to have been made a member of the Masons while living in Canada and he appears to have attended a lodge in Rochester.
In 1825, Morgan received the Royal Arch degree at Le Roy's Western Star Chapter #33, having declared under oath that he had received the six degrees which preceded it. Whether he received these degrees and if so from where has not been determined for certain. Morgan attempted unsuccessfully to help establish or visit lodges and chapters in Batavia, but was denied participation in Batavia's Masonic activities by members who were uncertain about Morgan's character and claims to Masonic membership. Angered by the rejection, Morgan announced that he was going to publish an exposé titled Illustrations of Masonry, critical of the Freemasons and describing their secret degree ceremonies in detail; when his intentions became known to the Batavia lodge, an attempt was made to burn down the business of the printer who planned to publish Morgan's book. In September 1826, Morgan was arrested on flimsy allegations of failing to repay a loan and theft of a shirt and tie in an effort to prevent publication of his book by keeping him in jail.
The individual who intended to publish Morgan's book paid his bail and he was released from custody. Shortly afterwards, Morgan disappeared; some skeptics argued that Morgan had left the Batavia area on his own, either because he had been paid not to publish his book, or to escape Masonic retaliation for attempting to publish the book, or to generate publicity that would boost the book's sales. The believed version of events was that Masons killed Morgan by drowning him in the Niagara River. Whether he fled or was murdered, Morgan's disappearance led many to believe that Freemasonry was in conflict with good citizenship; because judges, businessmen and politicians were Masons, ordinary citizens began to think of it as an elitist group. Moreover, many claimed that the lodges' secret oaths bound Masons to favor each other against outsiders in the courts and elsewhere; because some trials of alleged Morgan conspirators were mishandled and the Masons resisted further inquiries, many New Yorkers concluded that Masons controlled key offices and used their official authority to promote the goals of the fraternity by ensuring that Morgan's supposed killers escaped punishment.
When a member sought to reveal its secrets, so ran the conclusion, the Freemasons had done away with him. Because they controlled the courts and other offices, they were capable of obstructing the investigation. True Americans, they said, had to defeat this conspiracy. If good government was to be restored "all Masons must be purged from public office"; the Anti-Masonic Party was formed in Upst
William Wilkins (American politician)
William Wilkins was an American lawyer and politician from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. During his career, he served in both houses of the Pennsylvania State Legislature, in all three branches of the United States federal government, including service as a United States federal judge, as a member of both the House and Senate, as a cabinet member. William Wilkins was born in Carlisle, Pennsylvania on December 20, 1779, he attended the Pittsburgh Academy, the forerunner of the University of Pittsburgh, read law in 1801 and graduated from Dickinson College in 1802. He was in private practice in Pittsburgh from 1801 to 1806 in Lexington, Kentucky from 1806 to 1807, again in Pittsburgh from 1808 to 1815, he was President, Pittsburgh City Council from 1816 to 1819. He was a member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives from 1819 to 1820. Wilkins became a judge of the Fifth Judicial District of Pennsylvania in 1820, serving until 1824. On May 10, 1824, Wilkins was nominated by President James Monroe to a seat on the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania vacated by Jonathan Hoge Walker.
Wilkins was confirmed by the United States Senate on May 12, 1824, received his commission the same day. He resigned on April 1831, to begin his own term of service in the United States Senate. A Jacksonian, he was a United States Senator from Pennsylvania from 1831 to 1834. In the election of 1832, Wilkins received 30 electoral votes from Pennsylvania for the Vice Presidency. Additionally, he was elected to Pennsylvania's 16th congressional district for the 21st United States Congress to start on March 4, 1929, but resigned before assuming office. From 1834 to 1835 Wilkins was Minister to Russia. After returning to private practice in Pittsburgh from 1836 to 1842, he was elected as a Democrat to the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1843 until resigning in 1844, he resigned to accept appointment as U. S. Secretary of War under President John Tyler. In 1845, Willkins returned to the private practice of law in Pittsburgh, he was a member of the Pennsylvania State Senate from 1855 to 1857, was in private practice of law in Pittsburgh until his death, in 1865.
Wilkins died in 1865 in Homewood, near Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, Pa, was buried in the Homewood Cemetery there. Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania is named after him, his brother John Wilkins, Jr. served as a Major General in the United States Army. His nephew, Ross Wilkins, was a notable jurist in Michigan. Wilkins is the namesake of Wilkins Township, Allegheny County, while the town of Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania is named after his aforementioned brother. "William Wilkins". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. William Wilkins at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Homewood Cemetery Biography & History Dickinson College Biography Gravesite Photos The Political Graveyard
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
Pittsburgh Theological Seminary
Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, founded in 1794, is a graduate seminary in the Reformed tradition teaching theology and preparing students for service in the Presbyterian Church and other Christian churches. Teaching is grounded in ecumenically minded; the Seminary is located in the East Liberty neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA and houses one of the largest theological libraries in the tri-state area. Pittsburgh Theological Seminary was formed in 1959 by consolidating the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A.'s Western Theological Seminary and the United Presbyterian Church of North America's Pittsburgh-Xenia Theological Seminary. The consolidation was the result of the 1958 merger between the PCUSA and the UPCNA to form the United Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. Pittsburgh-Xenia Theological Seminary began with the founding of Service Seminary in 1792 by the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania. Prior to that time, the Presbytery was dependent on a supply of ministers sent from Scotland.
The Rev. John Anderson, D. D. was elected as the first teacher of divinity and the school began with an enrollment of six students. Service Seminary moved several times, from Service to Canonsburg, Pennsylvania to Xenia, where it became Xenia Theological Seminary; this occurred in the 1850s and was prompted by a desire to locate nearer to the growing population in the Midwest. The Rev. Joseph Kyle joined the faculty in 1900. In 1914 Kyle was appointed president. In 1920 the trustees determined to move the seminary to St. Louis, Missouri to be nearer to potential students in the Plains states. In 1921 the Rev. Dr. Kyle died unexpectedly; this loss of leadership at a crucial transition period created problems for the fledgling institution and it never took root. In 1930 it merged with a seminary, founded in Pittsburgh in 1825 and together they formed the Pittsburgh-Xenia Theological Seminary; this institution was augmented by the resources of Newburgh Seminary, founded in New York City in 1805 by John Mitchell Mason.
Western Theological Seminary, the other branch of Pittsburgh Theological Seminary's pre-1959 history, began with the establishment of classical academies in Washington, the first in 1785 by Joseph Smith and another in 1787 by John McMillan. Out of these academies, the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church USA created Western Seminary, it was indeed a western seminary in 1825, furnishing a ministry for the opening frontier territories along the Ohio River. Since the 1959 consolidation, Pittsburgh Theological Seminary has been located on the former Pittsburgh-Xenia Seminary campus in the Highland Park/East Liberty section of Pittsburgh, it became a PC seminary following the 1983 merger between the UPCUSA and the Presbyterian Church in the United States. Pittsburgh Theological Seminary is accredited by the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada, the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools; the seminary has scholars in all major fields of theological inquiry, offers language training in Greek and Hebrew.
The following degrees are offered by the institution: Master of Divinity Master of Divinity with Church Planting Emphasis Master of Divinity with Certificate in Urban Ministry Master of Arts Master of Arts in Theology and Ministry Master of Sacred Theology Doctor of Ministry Focus areas include Urban Change, Missional Leadership and Theology, Parish, Reformed Christian Spirituality, Eastern Christian. The Seminary cooperates with other institutions within the Pittsburgh Council on Higher Education to offer joint degree programs, including, its 300,000 volumes, several online databases, more than 800 periodical subscriptions make it one of the larger stand-alone theological libraries in the United States. The library is located in a three-story building of American Colonial design, dedicated in 1964; the library houses several valuable collections, including the John M. Mason Memorial Collection, which consists of many rare theological works dating from the Reformation. On display in the Hansen Reading Room are the desk and chair of Karl Barth, dedicated to Pittsburgh Theological Seminary by Barth's son, Markus Barth, a faculty member from 1963–1972.
Many of the books and periodicals in the collection were made possible by a $15 million gift from wealthy banker and businessman Thomas Clinton. Pittsburgh Theological Seminary is home to the Kelso Museum of Near Eastern Archaeology; the museum contains a collection of ancient Near Eastern and Palestinian pottery and artifacts brought together by travelers and archeologists over the past 60 years. Many exhibits resulted from the eight excavations; the Seminary is involved in Biblical archaeology, sponsors the Zeitah Excavations in Israel at Tel Zayit. The excavation was founded under the direction of Professor Ron E. Tappy, Professor of Bible and Archaeology and director of Pittsburgh Theological Seminary’s Kelso Museum of Near Eastern Archaeology; the excavation began in 1999 with a 55-member international team of volunteers. In July 2005 excavators discovered the Zayit Stone, which contained an inscription dating to the 10th century BCE; the two-line inscriptio
Pennsylvania House of Representatives
The Pennsylvania House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Pennsylvania General Assembly, the legislature of the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. There are 203 members, elected for two-year terms from single member districts. Republican Mike Turzai was first elected Speaker of the House on January 6, 2015. In 2012, a State Representative district had an average population of 60,498 residents, it is the largest full-time state legislature in the country. The Hall of the House contains important symbols to Pennsylvania history and the work of legislators. Speaker's Chair: a throne-like chair of rank that sits directly behind the Speaker's rostrum. Architect Joseph Huston designed the chair in 1906, the year. Mace: the House symbol of authority, peace and respect for law rests in a pedestal to the right of the Speaker, its base is solid mahogany, intricately carved and capped by a brass globe engraved with the Pennsylvania coat of arms. An American Eagle perches on top; the tradition of the mace may date to the Roman Republic when attendants of Roman consuls carried bundles of sticks wrapped around an axe to enforce order.
The tradition is common may come directly from Pennsylvania's English heritage. Murals: a colorful panorama of Pennsylvania history appear in murals by Edwin Austin Abbey; the most commanding of the series hangs behind the Speaker's rostrum and dominates the wall behind the Speaker. It is called The Apotheosis of Pennsylvania Ceiling: a work of art in itself with its ornate geometry of gold leaf buttoned at the center by a charming painted illustration. In "The Hours", Abbey represents the passage of time in the form of 24 maidens revolving in an endless circle amidst the moon, the sun and the stars of the Milky Way; the speakership is the oldest elected statewide office in the Commonwealth. Since its first session in 1682—presided over by William Penn—over 130 house members have been elevated to the speaker's chair; the house cannot hold an official session in the absence of the speaker or his designated speaker pro tempore. Speaker Leroy Irvis was the first African American elected speaker of any state legislature in the United States since Reconstruction.
Speaker Dennis O'Brien was the only minority-party Speaker known in Pennsylvania and only the second known nationwide. Pennsylvania has never had a female speaker; as of November 13, 2018 Speaker of the House of Representatives: Mike Turzai Pennsylvania State Senate Project Vote Smart List of Pennsylvania state legislatures Specific GeneralTrostle, Sharon, ed.. The Pennsylvania Manual. 119. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Department of General Services. ISBN 0-8182-0334-X. Pennsylvania House of Representatives State House of Pennsylvania information and voting records This link leads to information about elected officials and candidates in Pennsylvania on the website "Project Vote Smart." This web site provides such information for all states in the US
22nd United States Congress
The Twenty-second United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1831, to March 4, 1833, during the third and fourth years of Andrew Jackson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fourth Census of the United States in 1820. Both chambers had a Jacksonian majority. December 28, 1832: Vice President John C. Calhoun resigned; the first Vice President of the United States to do so. Nullification Crisis July 14, 1832: Tariff of 1832, ch. 227, 4 Stat. 583 March 2, 1833: Tariff of 1833, ch. 55, 4 Stat. 629 March 2, 1833: Force Bill, ch. 57, 4 Stat. 632 The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this congress. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section. President: John C.
Calhoun, resigned December 28, 1832. President pro tempore: Samuel Smith, first elected December 5, 1831 Littleton W. Tazewell, elected July 9, 1832 Hugh Lawson White, elected December 3, 1832 Speaker: Andrew Stevenson This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1832; the names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers. The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 7 Jacksonians: no net change Anti-Jacksonians: no net change Nullifiers: no net change Deaths: 0 Resignations: 7 Interim appointments: 1 Total seats with changes: 9 replacements: 9 Jacksonians: 1-seat net gain Anti-Jacksonians: 2-seat net loss Anti-Masonics: 1-seat net gain deaths: 8 resignations: 2 contested election: 0 Total seats with changes: 11 Lists of committees and their party leaders.
Agriculture Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Claims Commerce Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Finance Foreign Relations French Spoilations Indian Affairs Judiciary Manufactures Memorial of the Bank of the United States Mileage of Members of Congress Military Affairs Militia Naval Affairs Ohio-Michigan Boundary Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Private Land Claims Public Lands Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Tariff Bill Tariff Regulation Whole Accounts Agriculture American Colonization Society Asylum for the Blind Bank of the United States Biennial Register British Depredations of the Northern Frontier Claims Commerce District of Columbia Elections Establishing an Assay Office in the Gold Region Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Invalid Pensions Manufactures Military Affairs Naval Affairs Post Office and Post Roads Public Expenditures Public Lands Revisal and Unfinished Business Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Rules Standards of Official Conduct Territories Ways and Means Whole Code of Laws for the District of Columbia Enrolled Bills Librarian of Congress: John Silva Meehan Chaplain: John P. Durbin, elected December 19, 1831 Charles C.
Pise, elected December 11, 1832 Secretary: Walter Lowrie Sergeant at Arms: Mountjoy Bayly Chaplain: Reuben Post elected December 5, 1831 William Hammett, elected December 3, 1832 Clerk: Matthew St. Clair Clarke Doorkeeper: Overton Carr, elected December 5, 1831 Reading Clerks: Sergeant at Arms: John O. Dunn United States elections, 1830 United States Senate elections, 1830 and 1831 United States House of Representatives elections, 1830 United States elections, 1832 United States presidential election, 1832 United States Senate elections, 1832 and 1833 United States House of Representatives elections, 1832 Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Statutes at Large, 1789-1875 Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress Biographical Directory of the U.
S. Congress U. S. House of Representatives: House History U. S. Senate: Statistics and Lists