A harmonic is any member of the harmonic series. The term is employed in various disciplines, including music, acoustics, electronic power transmission, radio technology, other fields, it is applied to repeating signals, such as sinusoidal waves. A harmonic of such a wave is a wave with a frequency, a positive integer multiple of the frequency of the original wave, known as the fundamental frequency; the original wave is called the 1st harmonic, the following harmonics are known as higher harmonics. As all harmonics are periodic at the fundamental frequency, the sum of harmonics is periodic at that frequency. For example, if the fundamental frequency is 50 Hz, a common AC power supply frequency, the frequencies of the first three higher harmonics are 100 Hz, 150 Hz, 200 Hz and any addition of waves with these frequencies is periodic at 50 Hz. An nth characteristic mode, for n > 1, will have nodes. For example, the 3rd characteristic mode will have nodes at 1 3 L and 2 3 L, where L is the length of the string.

In fact, each nth characteristic mode, for n not a multiple of 3, will not have nodes at these points. These other characteristic modes will be vibrating at the positions 1 3 L and 2 3 L. If the player touches one of these positions these other characteristic modes will be suppressed; the tonal harmonics from these other characteristic modes will also be suppressed. The tonal harmonics from the nth characteristic modes, where n is a multiple of 3, will be made more prominent. In music, harmonics are used on string instruments and wind instruments as a way of producing sound on the instrument to play higher notes and, with strings, obtain notes that have a unique sound quality or "tone colour". On strings, harmonics that are bowed have pure tone. On stringed instruments, harmonics are played by touching at an exact point on the string while sounding the string. Harmonics may be called "overtones", "partials" or "upper partials"; the difference between "harmonic" and "overtone" is that the term "harmonic" includes all of the notes in a series, including the fundamental frequency.

The term "overtone" only includes the pitches above the fundamental. In some music contexts, the terms "harmonic", "overtone" and "partial" are used interchangeably. A whizzing, whistling tonal character, distinguishes all the harmonics both natural and artificial from the stopped intervals. Most acoustic instruments emit complex tones containing many individual partials, but the untrained human ear does not perceive those partials as separate phenomena. Rather, a musical note is perceived as one sound, the quality or timbre of that sound being a result of the relative strengths of the individual partials. Many acoustic oscillators, such as the human voice or a bowed violin string, produce complex tones that are more or less periodic, thus are composed of partials that are near matches to integer multiples of the fundamental frequency and therefore resemble the ideal harmonics and are called "harmonic partials" or "harmonics" for convenience. Oscillators that produce harmonic partials behave somewhat like one-dimensional resonators, are long and thin, such as a guitar string or a column of air open at both ends.

Wind instruments whose air column is open at only one end, such as trumpets and clarinets produce partials resembling harmonics. However they only produce partials matching the odd harmonics, at least in theory; the reality of acoustic instruments is such that none of them behaves as as the somewhat simplified theoretical models would predict. Partials whose frequencies are not integer multiples of the fundamental are referred to as inharmonic partials; some acoustic instruments emit a mix of harmonic and inharmonic partials but still produce an effect on the ear of having a definite fundamental pitch, such as pianos, strings plucked pizzicato, vibraphones and certain pure-sounding bells or chimes. Antique singing bowls are known for producing multiple harmonic multiphonics. Other oscillators, such as cymbals, drum heads, other percussion instruments produce an abundance of inharmonic partials and do not imply any particular pitch, therefore cannot be used melodically or harmonically in the same way other instruments can.

An overtone is any partial higher than the lowest partial in a compound tone. The relative strengths and frequency relationships of the component partials determine the timbre of an instrument; the similarity between the terms overtone and partial sometimes leads to their being loosely used interchangeably in a musical context, but they are counted differently, leading to some possible confusion. In the special case of instrumental timbres whose component partials match a harmonic series rather than being inharmonic partials, it is also

The Lovesick Court

The Lovesick Court, or the Ambitious Politique is a Caroline-era stage play, a tragicomedy written by Richard Brome, first published in 1659. The Lovesick Court was entered into the Stationers' Register on 4 August 1640 by the bookseller Andrew Crooke, along with five other plays by Brome, yet the play was not published. In that volume, each of the plays has a separate title page. Three of the plays have their own separate pagination, suggesting the possibility that they were intended for individual publication; the Lovesick Court, however, is not one of these three. Of Brome's sixteen extant plays, none are tragedies and only three are tragicomedies; the three tragicomedies have been collectively referred to as "Fletcherian" tragicomedies, as they resembles the tragicomedies of John Fletcher. Brome's tragicomedies are not judged to be among his best plays. Modern critics, have considered The Lovesick Court a play, dating from the late 1630s 1638. Sir Henry Herbert, the Master of the Revels, licensed an otherwise-unknown play titled The Lovesick Courtier for the Salisbury Court Theatre in 1638.

Critics have recognised that the play contains an element of satire on the political situation of the 1630s. In this more modern view, The Lovesick Court relates to the so-called "Second War of the Theatres," a controversy and rivalry between professional playwrights like Ben Jonson and his follower Brome on the one hand, on the other the amateur dramatists of the royal court of Queen Henrietta Maria, most prominently Sir John Suckling. Brome and Suckling were the primary opponents in the "second war; the satire in Lovesick Court is in some ways more subtle than Brome's comparable satire in Court Beggar, directed less toward personalities like Suckling and Sir William Davenant than toward the type of drama they wrote. Brome saw the courtier drama as deficient regarding common sense; the more realistic drama that Brome inherited from Jonson and practised in his comedies was inherently hostile to the mannered work of Lodowick Carlell and other courtier dramatists. The kingdom of Thessaly faces a succession crisis: the ruling King has no son and heir.

His daughter, the princess Eudina, must marry a suitable candidate, or the choice of a successor will pass to the common people — and they will favour Stratocles, the ruthless aristocrat who has courted and won the popular favour. Stratocles is resented by the king's courtiers, who long to see the selection of an alternative candidate, yet the King vows that he will marry his daughter to Stratocles unless she finds another husband soon. Eudina faces a choice between Philargus and Philocles, the twin sons of the late general and hero Adrastus. At the start of the play, the two brothers have just returned from the oracle at Delphi, where they have sought divine guidance for their problem; the message they have received is of limited help: Contend not for the jewel, which Ere long shall both of you enrich. Pursue your fortunes: for'tis she Shall make you what you seem to be. Stratocles, plots to gain the throne, Eudina, for himself. Eudina is supported by her governess Thymele, the twins' mother, by the waiting woman Doris and the talkative and inebriated old midwife Garrula.

Yet none of these can help her much in her predicament. The main plot is parodied in the comic subplot. Doris, like Eudina, faces three potential suitors — Philargus's tailor Tersulus, Philocles' barber Varillus, the pompous Geron, the twins' tutor and the son of Garrula. Doris agrees to marry the servant of the twin that Eudina chooses — if it is Philargus, Doris will marry Tersulus, if Philocles, Varillus. Doris's resolution gives the tailor and the barber a strong interest in the outcome of Eudina's choice; the twins are determined to fulfill at least the first dictate of the Delphic prophecy, "contend not for the jewel" — each is ready to sacrifice his prospects in favour of the other. Stratocles, sends forged challenges to both brothers, to provoke them to duel; the plan fails: when the twins meet, they maintain their bent toward self-sacrifice, each would rather yield his life to the other than violate their bond. Matho foolishly tries to overcome the two of them, fails; the scene is witnessed by the rustics.


Hevrin Khalaf

Hevrin Khalaf was a Kurdish-Syrian politician and civil engineer. Khalaf served as the Secretary General of the Future Syria Party after working for many years in Rojava, she was killed by Turkish-backed Ahrar al-Sharqiya fighters near the M4 Motorway in Northern Syria during the Turkish military operation "Operation Spring Peace" against SDF forces in Rojava on 12 October 2019. Khalaf was born on 15 November 1984 in Al-Malikiyah, she is a descendant of the Hawar family. Early in her life, Khalaf was exposed to political thinkers. Four of her brothers and her sister Zozan were involved in the Kurdish liberation movement, they all died as martyr. Khalaf's mother, Sûad, took part in assemblies with Abdullah Öcalan. Khalaf was influenced by her mother's experiences. Khalaf graduated from University of Aleppo in 2009 as a civil engineer. Soon after graduating, Khalaf returned to her hometown in Al-Malikiyah; when the Rojava conflict began, Khalaf worked on creating institutions that would improve civil society.

Khalaf began managing one of the Economic Councils. She rose to prominence in the self-governing Kurdish area of Rojava in northeast Syria. Khalaf was one of the founders of the Foundation for Science and Free Thought in 2012. Khalaf became co-chair of the energy authority in 2016, her party, the Future Syria Party, was involved in the administration of northern Syria after the capture of Raqqa from the Islamic State group in 2017. Khalaf participated in negotiations with the United States and other delegations, she was known for her skill in diplomacy. Khalaf worked towards increasing tolerance and unity among Christians and Kurds. Aden Al Hendi described Khalaf's work ethic in Foreign Policy as such: “She would wake up at 5 in the morning and would not stop working until midnight, whether that involved traveling to the Deir Ezzor region, liberated from the Islamic State, to tutor children and teenagers there in math, or meeting with Arab tribal leaders and helping resolve their many disputes in her role as the secretary-general of the Future Syria Party.

She personified the way the FSP and the Syrian Democratic Council approached the many differences among the people of the region.”“Eight years have passed. The popular uprising against the crisis and the struggle of the peoples of Syria have been carried out with great sacrifice, have turned into a war; the lasting crisis in Syria, which has caused the expulsion and murder of the population, cannot be resolved without a political solution.” On 13 October 2019, The Daily Telegraph reported that "Kurdish officials said rebel fighters intercepted a car carrying Hevrin Khalaf". Khalaf was one of a number of civilians who were killed during the first days of the Turkish-backed military operation, with the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reporting that "nine civilians were executed at different moments south of the town of Tal Abyad"; the National Army, a rebel group fighting alongside Turkey, denied responsibility for the killing. Khalaf's death was one of many during Operation Peace Spring, which began on 9 October 2019.

According to an autopsy report, Khalaf left leg with a solid object. This led to multiple bone fractures in the leg. There was use of sharp objects on the back of her legs. Furthermore, Khalaf was dragged by her hair, she was shot in the head once and four more times in her chest. Kurdish analyst Mutlu Civiroglu, told The Guardian that Khalaf's death was a "great loss", described her as having "a talent for diplomacy". Future Syria Party released a statement saying, "With utmost grievance and sadness, the Syria Future Party mourns the martyrdom of engineer Hevrin Khalaf, the General Secretary of Syria Future Party, while she was performing her patriotic and political duties". Khalaf was 34 at the time of her death. A video which circulated on social media purportedly showed the bullet-ridden vehicle in which Khalaf had been travelling with translators and other Kurdish personnel surrounded by Turkish-backed Syrian rebels. A Bellingcat video traces the cause of Khalaf's death to rebels backed by Turkey and further reports that the group Ahrar al-Sharqiya is associated with the murders.

While al-Sharqiya has denied involvement with her death, there have been videos alleging otherwise. One such video shows a body, face down, suspected by most to be Khalaf with a Turkish backed soldier standing over her. In the video, the soldier taps the body with his feet and says "this is the corpse of pigs."According to The Washington Post, the killing "almost constitute a war crime, under international law". While Turkish-backed groups deny any and all allegations, many videos of their involvement and complicity have been leaked, similar to the video, a depiction of Khalaf. Furthermore, many groups were instructed on an encrypted chat site called'Telegram' to "not to publish any video filmed during the battles because it distorts our reputation."Her funeral was held in Al-Malikiyah on 14 October 2019. In January 2020, the BBC's Arabic service published an investigation into the death of Hevrin Khalaf which found that a sub-group of the Turkey-backed Syrian National Army, Ahrar al-Sharqiya, had extrajudiciarily murdered Khalaf on the M4 Motorway, at the Tirwaziya checkpoint.

Ahrar al-Sharqiya responded to the BBC's investigation, stating that "The group that set up the checkpoint on the M4 that day did so without permission... Those who violated orders from leadership have been sent for trial." Rowshan Qasim: Who is the Kurdish political leader Hevrin Khalaf?, 14 October 2019