International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Richard S. Hamilton
Richard Streit Hamilton is Davies Professor of Mathematics at Columbia University. He received his B. A in 1963 from Yale University and Ph. D. in 1966 from Princeton University. Robert Gunning supervised his thesis. Hamilton has taught at UC Irvine, UC San Diego, Cornell University, Columbia University. Hamilton's mathematical contributions are in the field of differential geometry and more geometric analysis, he is best known for having discovered the Ricci flow and starting a research program that led to the proof, by Grigori Perelman, of the Thurston geometrization conjecture and the solution of the Poincaré conjecture. In August 2006, Perelman was awarded, but declined, the Fields Medal for his proof, in part citing Hamilton's work as being foundational. Hamilton was awarded the Oswald Veblen Prize in Geometry in 1996 and the Clay Research Award in 2003, he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1999 and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2003. He received the AMS Leroy P. Steele Prize for a Seminal Contribution to Research in 2009.
On March 18, 2010, it was announced that Perelman had met the criteria to receive the first Clay Millennium Prize for his proof of the Poincaré conjecture. On July 1, 2010, Perelman turned down the prize, saying that he believes his contribution in proving the Poincaré conjecture was no greater than that of Hamilton, who first suggested a program for the solution. In June 2011, it was announced that the million-dollar Shaw Prize would be split between Hamilton and Demetrios Christodoulou for their innovative works on nonlinear partial differential equations in Lorentzian and Riemannian geometry and their applications to general relativity and topology. Hamilton, Richard S. "Three-manifolds with positive Ricci curvature", Journal of Differential Geometry, 17: 255–306, ISSN 0022-040X, MR 0664497 Hamilton, Richard S. "Four-manifolds with positive curvature operator", Journal of Differential Geometry, 24: 153–179, MR 0862046 Hamilton, Richard S. "The Harnack estimate for the Ricci flow", Journal of Differential Geometry, 37: 225–243, doi:10.4310/jdg/1214453430, MR 1198607 Hamilton, Richard S.
"A compactness property for solutions of the Ricci flow", American Journal of Mathematics, 117: 545–572, doi:10.2307/2375080, JSTOR 2375080, MR 1333936 Hamilton, Richard S. "The formation of singularities in the Ricci flow", Surveys in Differential Geometry, 2: 7–136, MR 1375255 Hamilton, Richard S. "Four-manifolds with positive isotropic curvature", Communications in Analysis and Geometry, 5: 1–92, doi:10.4310/CAG.1997.v5.n1.a1, MR 1456308 Hamilton, Richard S. "Non-singular solutions of the Ricci flow on three-manifolds", Communications in Analysis and Geometry, 7: 695–729, doi:10.4310/CAG.1999.v7.n4.a2, MR 1714939 Earle–Hamilton fixed-point theorem Gage–Hamilton–Grayson theorem Yamabe flow Richard Hamilton at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Richard Hamilton – faculty bio at the homepage of the Department of Mathematics of Columbia University Richard Hamilton – brief bio at the homepage of the Clay Mathematics Institute 1996 Veblen Prize citation Lecture by Hamilton on Ricci flow Shaw Prize Autobiography
Carl Gustav Axel Harnack
Carl Gustav Axel Harnack was a German mathematician who contributed to potential theory. Harnack's inequality applied to harmonic functions, he worked on the real algebraic geometry of plane curves, proving Harnack's curve theorem for real plane algebraic curves. He was the son of the theologian Theodosius Harnack and the twin brother of theologian Adolf von Harnack - all of them from Tartu, which in that time was known as Dorpat, in what is today Estonia, his father was a professor at the University of Tartu, he studied himself in the university. After his studies in Tartu, he moved to Erlangen to become a student of Felix Klein, he published his PhD thesis in 1875, received the right to teach at the university of Leipzig the same year. One year he accepted a position at Technical University Darmstadt. In 1877 he married Elisabeth von Öttingen, they moved to Dresden, where he acquired professorship in the Polytechnikum, which becomes a technical university in 1890. Harnack suffered from health problems from 1882 onwards, forcing him to spend long times in a sanatorium.
He was a well-known mathematician at the time of his death. The various Harnack inequalities in harmonic analysis and in related discrete and probabilistic contexts are named after him, as are the Harnack's curve theorem and Harnack's principle; the Harnack medal of the Max Planck Society is named after Adolf von Harnack. Die Grundlagen der Theorie des logarithmischen Potentiales und der eindeutigen Potentialfunktion in der Ebene An introduction to the study of the elements of the differential and integral calculus Cathcart, George Lambert, tr. Harnack's inequality Works by or about Carl Gustav Axel Harnack at Internet Archive Axel Harnack at the mathematical genealogy project Moritz Kassman, Harnack Inequalities: An Introduction Boundary Value Problems, 81415
Jürgen Kurt Moser was an award-winning, German-American mathematician, honored for work spanning over 4 decades, including Hamiltonian dynamical systems and partial differential equations. Moser's mother Ilse Strehlke was a niece of composer Louis Spohr, his father was the neurologist Kurt E. Moser, born to the merchant Max Maync and Clara Moser; the latter descended from 17th century French Hugenot immigrants to Prussia. Jürgen Moser's parents lived in Königsberg, German empire and resettled in Stralsund, East Germany as a result of the second world war. Moser attended the Wilhelmsgymnasium in his hometown, a high school specializing in mathematics and natural sciences education, from which David Hilbert had graduated in 1880, his older brother Friedrich Robert Ernst Moser served in the German Army and died in Pillkallen/Schloßberg. Moser married the biologist Dr. Gertrude C. Courant on September 10, 1955 and took up permanent residence in New Rochelle, New York in 1960, commuting to work in New York City.
In 1980 he moved to Switzerland. He was a member of the Akademisches Orchester Zürich, he was survived by his younger brother, the photographic printer and processor Klaus T. Moser-Maync from Northport, New York, his wife, Gertrude Moser from Seattle, their daughters, the theater designer Nina Moser from Seattle and the mathematician Lucy I. Moser-Jauslin from Dijon, his stepson, the lawyer Richard D. Emery from New York City. Moser played the piano and the cello, performing chamber music since his childhood in the tradition of a musical family, where his father played the violin and his mother the piano, he was a lifelong amateur astronomer and took up paragliding in 1988 during a visit at IMPA in Rio de Janeiro. Moser completed his undergraduate education at and received his Ph. D. from the University of Göttingen in 1952, studying under Franz Rellich. After his thesis, he came under the influence of Carl Ludwig Siegel, with whom he coauthored the second and expanded English language edition of a monography on celestial mechanics.
Having spent the year 1953 at the Courant Institute of New York University as a Fulbright scholar, he emigrated to the United States in 1955 becoming a citizen in 1959. He became a professor at MIT and at New York University, he served as director of the Courant Institute of New York University in the period of 1967–1970. In 1970 he declined the offer of a chair at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. After 1980 he was at ETH Zürich, becoming professor emeritus in 1995, he was director of the Forschungsinstitut für Mathematik at ETH Zürich in 1984 - 1995, where he succeeded Beno Eckmann. He led a rebuilding of the ETH Zürich mathematics faculty. Moser was president of the International Mathematical Union in 1983–1986. Among Moser's students were Mark Adler of Brandeis University, Ed Belbruno, Charles Conley, Howard Jacobowitz of Rutgers University, Paul Rabinowitz of University of Wisconsin. Moser won the first George David Birkhoff Prize in 1968 for contributions to the theory of Hamiltonian dynamical systems, the James Craig Watson Medal in 1969 for his contributions to dynamical astronomy, the Brouwer Medal of the Royal Dutch Mathematical Society in 1984, the Cantor Medal of the Deutsche Mathematiker-Vereinigung in 1992 and the Wolf Prize in 1995 for his work on stability in Hamiltonian systems and on nonlinear differential equations.
He was elected to membership of the National Academy of Sciences in 1973 and was corresponding member of numerous foreign academies such as the London Mathematical Society and the Akademie der Wissenschaften und Literatur, Mainz. At three occasions he was an invited speaker at the quadrennial International Congress of Mathematicians, namely in Stockholm in the section on Applied Mathematics, in Helsinki in the section on Complex Analysis, a plenary speaker in Berlin. In 1990 he was awarded honorary doctorates from University of Bochum and from Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris; the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics established a lecture prize in his honor in 2000. Mather, John N.. "Jürgen K. Moser". Notices of the AMS. 4: 1392–1405. Retrieved 2007-08-20. J. J. O'Connor. "Jürgen Kurt Moser". Retrieved 2008-07-04. Sylvia Nasar. "Obituary, New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-09-14. American Institute of Physics. "Professional biography Jürgen Moser". Retrieved 2010-12-05.
Vladimir Arnold. "Déclin des Mathématiques". Retrieved 2012-10-11. ETH. "Biography of Jürgen Moser, by ETH". ETH. Retrieved 2013-04-02. Guardian. "Obituary of Moser, by Guardian". Retrieved 2013-05-27. SIAM. "Moser Lecture, by SIAM". Retrieved 2013-11-16. Max Planck Institut Leipzig. "In memoriam Jürgen Moser". Moser Symposium, by MPI Leipzig. Retrieved 2013-11-16
Michiel Hazewinkel is a Dutch mathematician, Emeritus Professor of Mathematics at the Centre for Mathematics and Computer and the University of Amsterdam known for his 1978 book Formal groups and applications and as editor of the Encyclopedia of Mathematics. Born in Amsterdam to Jan Hazewinkel and Geertrude Hendrika Werner, Hazewinkel studied at the University of Amsterdam, he received his BA in Mathematics and Physics in 1963, his MA in Mathematics with a minor in Philosophy in 1965 and his PhD in 1969 under supervision of Frans Oort and Albert Menalda for the thesis "Maximal Abelian Extensions of Local Fields". After graduation Hazewinkel started his academic career as Assistant Professor at the University of Amsterdam in 1969. In 1970 he became Associate Professor at the Erasmus University Rotterdam, where in 1972 he was appointed Professor of Mathematics at the Econometric Institute. Here he was thesis advisor of Roelof Stroeker, M. van de Vel, Jo Ritzen, Gerard van der Hoek. From 1973 to 1975 he was Professor at the Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen, where Marcel van de Vel was his PhD student.
From 1982 to 1985 he was appointed part-time Professor Extraordinarius in Mathematics at the Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, part-time Head of the Department of Pure Mathematics at the Centre for Mathematics and Computer in Amsterdam. In 1985 he was appointed Professor Extraordinarius in Mathematics at the University of Utrecht, where he supervised the promotion of Frank Kouwenhoven, Huib-Jan Imbens, J. Scholma and F. Wainschtein. At the Centre for Mathematics and Computer CWI in Amsterdam in 1988 he became Professor of Mathematics and head of the Department of Algebra and Geometry until his retirement in 2008. Hazewinkel has been managing editor for journals as Nieuw Archief voor Wiskunde since 1977, he was managing editor for the book series Mathematics and Its Applications for Kluwer Academic Publishers in 1977. Hazewinkel was member of 15 professional societies in the field of Mathematics, participated in numerous administrative tasks in institutes, Program Committee, Steering Committee, Consortiums and Boards.
In 1994 Hazewinkel was elected member of the International Academy of Computer Sciences and Systems. Hazewinkel has authored and edited several books, numerous articles. Books, selection: 1970. Géométrie algébrique-généralités-groupes commutatifs. With Michel Demazure and Pierre Gabriel. Masson & Cie. 1976. On invariants, canonical forms and moduli for linear, finite dimensional, dynamical systems. With Rudolf E. Kalman. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 1978. Formal groups and applications. Vol. 78. Elsevier. 1993. Encyclopaedia of Mathematics. Ed. Vol. 9. Springer. Articles, a selection: Hazewinkel, Michiel. "Moduli and canonical forms for linear dynamical systems II: The topological case". Mathematical Systems Theory. 10: 363–385. Doi:10.1007/BF01683285. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Hazewinkel, Michiel. "On Lie algebras and finite dimensional filtering". Stochastics. 7: 29–62. Doi:10.1080/17442508208833212. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Hazewinkel, M.. J.. "Nonexistence of finite-dimensional filters for conditional statistics of the cubic sensor problem".
Systems & Control Letters. 3: 331–340. Doi:10.1016/0167-691190074-9. Hazewinkel, Michiel. "The algebra of quasi-symmetric functions is free over the integers". Advances in Mathematics. 164: 283–300. Doi:10.1006/aima.2001.2017. Homepage
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Grigori Yakovlevich Perelman is a Russian mathematician. He has made contributions to Riemannian geometry and geometric topology. In 1994, Perelman proved the soul conjecture. In 2003, he proved Thurston's geometrization conjecture; the proof was confirmed in 2006. This solved in the affirmative the Poincaré conjecture. In August 2006, Perelman was offered the Fields Medal for "his contributions to geometry and his revolutionary insights into the analytical and geometric structure of the Ricci flow", but he declined the award, stating: "I'm not interested in money or fame. On 22 December 2006, the scientific journal Science recognized Perelman's proof of the Poincaré conjecture as the scientific "Breakthrough of the Year", the first such recognition in the area of mathematics. On 18 March 2010, it was announced that he had met the criteria to receive the first Clay Millennium Prize for resolution of the Poincaré conjecture. On 1 July 2010, he rejected the prize of one million dollars, saying that he considered the decision of the board of CMI and the award unfair and that his contribution to solving the Poincaré conjecture was no greater than that of Richard S. Hamilton, the mathematician who pioneered the Ricci flow with the aim of attacking the conjecture.
He had rejected the prestigious prize of the European Mathematical Society, in 1996. At present, the only Millennium Prize problem to have been solved is the Poincaré conjecture. Grigori Yakovlevich Perelman was born in Leningrad, Soviet Union on 13 June 1966, to Russian-Jewish parents Yakov and Lyubov. Grigori's mother Lyubov gave up graduate work in mathematics to raise him. Grigori's mathematical talent became apparent at the age of ten, his mother enrolled him in Sergei Rukshin's after-school math training program, his mathematical education continued at the Leningrad Secondary School #239, a specialized school with advanced mathematics and physics programs. Grigori excelled in all subjects except physical education. In 1982, as a member of the Soviet Union team competing in the International Mathematical Olympiad, an international competition for high school students, he won a gold medal, achieving a perfect score, he continued as a student of School of Mathematics and Mechanics at the Leningrad State University, without admission examinations and enrolled to the university.
After his PhD in 1990, Perelman began work at the Leningrad Department of Steklov Institute of Mathematics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, where his advisors were Aleksandr Aleksandrov and Yuri Burago. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, with a strong recommendation from the geometer Mikhail Gromov, Perelman obtained research positions at several universities in the United States. In 1991 Perelman won the Young Mathematician Prize of the St. Petersburg Mathematical Society for his work on Aleksandrov's spaces of curvature bounded from below. In 1992, he was invited to spend a semester each at the Courant Institute in New York University and Stony Brook University where he began work on manifolds with lower bounds on Ricci curvature. From there, he accepted a two-year Miller Research Fellowship at the University of California, Berkeley in 1993. After having proved the soul conjecture in 1994, he was offered jobs at several top universities in the US, including Princeton and Stanford, but he rejected them all and returned to the Steklov Institute in Saint Petersburg in the summer of 1995 for a research-only position.
Cheeger and Gromoll's soul conjecture states: Suppose is complete and non-compact with sectional curvature K ≥ 0, there exists a point in M where the sectional curvature is positive. The soul of M is a point. Perelman proved the conjecture by establishing that in the general case K ≥ 0, Sharafutdinov's retraction P: M → S is a submersion; until late 2002, Perelman was best known for his work in comparison theorems in Riemannian geometry. Among his notable achievements was a elegant proof of the soul conjecture; the Poincaré conjecture, proposed by French mathematician Henri Poincaré in 1904, was one of key problems in topology. Any loop on a 3-sphere—as exemplified by the set of points at a distance of 1 from the origin in four-dimensional Euclidean space—can be contracted into a point; the Poincaré conjecture asserts that any closed three-dimensional manifold such that any loop can be contracted into a point is topologically a 3-sphere. The analogous result has been known to be true in dimensions greater than or equal to five since 1960 as in the work of Stephen Smale.
The four-dimensional case resisted longer being solved in 1982 by Michael Freedman. But the case of three-manifolds turned out to be the hardest of them all. Speaking, this is because in topologically manipulating a three-manifold there are too few dimensions to move "problematic regions" out of the way without interfering with something else; the most fundamental contribution to the three-dimensional case had been produced by Richard S. Hamilton; the role of Perelman was to complete the Hamilton program. In November 2002, Perelman posted the first of a series of eprints to the arXiv, in which he claimed to have outlined a proof of the geometrization conjecture, of which the Poincaré conjecture is a particular case. Perelman modified Richard S. Hamilton's program for a proof of the conjecture; the central idea is the notion of the Ricci flow. Hamilton's fundamental idea is to formulate a "dynamical process" in which a given three-manifold is geo