A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Duluth is a major port city in the U. S. state of Minnesota and the county seat of Saint Louis County. Duluth is the 4th largest city in Minnesota, it is the 2nd largest city on Lake Superior. The largest is Thunder Bay, Canada, it has the largest metropolitan area on the lake, with a population of 279,771 in 2010, the second-largest in the state. Situated on the north shore of Lake Superior at the westernmost point of the Great Lakes, Duluth is accessible to oceangoing vessels from the Atlantic Ocean 2,300 miles away via the Great Lakes Waterway and the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Duluth forms a metropolitan area with Wisconsin; the cities share the Duluth–Superior harbor and together are the Great Lakes' largest port, transporting coal, iron ore, grain. A tourist destination for the Midwest, Duluth features the United States' only all-freshwater aquarium, the Great Lakes Aquarium; the city is the starting point for vehicle trips along Minnesota's North Shore. The city is named for Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut, the first known European explorer of the area.
The Anishinaabe known as the Ojibwe or Chippewa, have inhabited the Lake Superior region for more than 500 years. They were preceded by the Dakota, Menominee and Gros Ventre peoples, whom they pushed out of the area. Established as traders, after the arrival of Europeans, the Anishinaabe found a niche as the middlemen between the French fur traders and other Native peoples, they soon became the dominant Indian nation in the region, forcing out the Dakota Sioux and Fox and winning a victory against the Iroquois west of Sault Ste. Marie in 1662. By the mid-18th century, the Ojibwe occupied all of Lake Superior's shores. For both the Ojibwe and the Dakota, interaction with Europeans during the contact period revolved around the fur trade and related activities; the Ojibwe are known for their crafting of birch bark canoes, use of copper arrow points, cultivation of wild rice. In 1745, they adopted guns from the British for use against the Dakota nation of the Sioux, whom they pushed to the south; the Ojibwe Nation was the first to set the agenda with European-Canadian leaders for signing more detailed treaties before many European settlers were allowed too far west.
The settlement in Ojibwe is Onigamiinsing, a reference to the small and easy portage across Minnesota Point between Lake Superior and western Saint Louis Bay, which forms Duluth's harbor. According to Ojibwe oral history, Spirit Island, near the Spirit Valley neighborhood, was the "Sixth Stopping Place", where the northern and southern branches of the Ojibwe Nation came together and proceeded to their "Seventh Stopping Place" near the present city of La Pointe, Wisconsin; the "Stopping Places" were the places the Native Americans occupied during their westward migration as the Europeans overran their territory. Several factors brought fur traders to the Great Lakes in the early 17th century; the fashion for beaver hats in Europe generated demand for pelts. French trade for beaver in the lower Saint Lawrence River had led to the depletion of the animals in that region by the late 1630s, so the French searched farther west for new resources and new routes, making alliances with the Native Americans along the way to trap and deliver their furs.
Étienne Brûlé is credited with the European discovery of Lake Superior before 1620. Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers explored the Duluth area, Fond du Lac in 1654 and again in 1660; the French soon established fur posts near Duluth and in the far north where Grand Portage became a major trading center. The French explorer Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut, whose name is sometimes anglicized as "DuLuth", explored the Saint Louis River in 1679. After 1792 and the independence of the United States, the North West Company established several posts on Minnesota rivers and lakes, in areas to the west and northwest, for trading with the Ojibwe, the Dakota, other native tribes; the first post was where Superior, Wisconsin developed. Known as Fort Saint Louis, the post became the headquarters for North West's new Fond du Lac Department, it had stockaded walls, two houses of 40 feet each, a shed of 60 feet, a large warehouse, a canoe yard. Over time, Indian peoples and European Americans settled nearby, a town developed at this point.
In 1808, the American Fur Company was organized by German-born John Jacob Astor. The company began trading at the Head of the Lakes in 1809. In 1817, it erected a new headquarters at present-day Fond du Lac on the Saint Louis River. There, portages connected Lake Superior with Lake Vermillion to the north, with the Mississippi River to the south. After creating a powerful monopoly, Astor got out of the business about 1830, as the trade was declining, but active trade was carried on until the failure of the fur trade in the 1840s. European fashions had changed and many American areas were getting over-trapped, with game declining. Two Treaties of Fond du Lac were signed by natives with the United States in the present neighborhood of Fond du Lac in 1826 and 1847, by which the Ojibwe ceded land to the American government; as part of the Treaty of Washington with the Lake Superior Band of Chippewa, the United States set aside the Fond du Lac Indian Reservation upstream from Duluth near Cloquet, Minnesota.
The Ojibwe population was moved there. As European Americans continued to settle and encroach on Ojibwe lands, the U. S. gove
Carlton County, Minnesota
Carlton County is a county in the State of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 35,386, its county seat is Carlton. The county was formed in 1857 and organized in 1870, it was named for Reuben B. Carlton, a member of the Minnesota Senate. Part of the Fond du Lac Indian Reservation lies in NE Carlton County. Carlton County is included in MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area. Carlton County lies on the east side of Minnesota, its east boundary line abuts the west boundary line of the state of Wisconsin. The Saint Louis River flows east-southeasterly through the county's NE corner, discharging into Lake Superior as it exits the county; the Moose Horn River flows southwesterly through the central part of the county, discharging into the Kettle River SW of the county's south boundary. The Nemadji River and the South Fork Nemadji River flow eastward through the eastern and SE part of the county, meeting a few miles east of the county's eastern boundary before flowing to Lake Superior.
The county terrain consists of low rolling hills wooded. The terrain slopes to the several river valleys; the county has a total area of 875 square miles, of which 861 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Carlton have ranged from a low of 1 °F in January to a high of 80 °F in July, although a record low of −45 °F was recorded in January 1912 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.87 inches in February to 4.34 inches in September. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 35,386 people residing in the county. 89.7% were White, 5.9% Native American, 1.4% Black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% of some other race and 2.4% of two or more races. 1.4% were Hispanic or Latino. 16.4 % were of 13.5 % Finnish, 8.9 % Norwegian, 8.6 % Swedish and 5.6 % American ancestry. As of the 2000 census, there were 31,671 people, 12,064 households, 8,408 families in the county.
The population density was 36.8/sqmi. There were 13,721 housing units at an average density of 15.9/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 91.75% White, 0.97% Black or African American, 5.19% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, 1.52% from two or more races. 0.84% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.5 % were of 11.8 % Swedish and 5.8 % Polish ancestry. 95.5 % spoke 1.8 % Finnish and 1.1 % Spanish as their first language. There were 12,064 households out of which 32.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.50% were married couples living together, 9.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.30% were non-families. 26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.00. The county population contained 25.40% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 28.40% from 25 to 44, 23.50% from 45 to 64, 15.10% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 102.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,021, the median income for a family was $48,406. Males had a median income of $38,788 versus $25,555 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,073. About 5.40% of families and 7.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.20% of those under age 18 and 9.30% of those age 65 or over. Big Lake Esko Mahtowa Clear Creek North Carlton Carlton County voters are traditionally Democratic. In no national election since 1928 has the county selected the Republican Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Carlton County, Minnesota Cloquet Fire of 1918 Carlton County official website Carltoncountyhelp.org: A guide to service organizations in Carlton County MN Mn/DOT – map of Carlton County
A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including
Area code 218
Area code 218 is part of the North American Numbering Plan of the public switched telephone network for the northern part of the US state of Minnesota. It is one of Minnesota's original two codes, although its geographical area has been modified since inception. By area, the region is the largest area code in Minnesota, covering the northern half of the state, it includes the cities of Duluth, Brainerd, Fergus Falls, Moorhead. According to a 1947 map of the NANP, the 218 region was r-shaped and covered about two-thirds of Minnesota. Area code 612 covered the remaining southeastern portion. In 1954, the shape of 218 was modified to coincide with its current shape when the original southwestern portion of 218 was combined with the southern portion of 612 to form area code 507, which stretched across the southern fifth of Minnesota. A small change in the 1990s brought the Northwest Angle into the 218 area after being part of Bell Canada's Clearwater Bay exchange in Area code 807; because of the low population density in northern Minnesota, the region was unaffected when the 612 area was subdivided in 1996.
The resulting area code 320, the former western portion of 612, runs the length of the southern border with 218, the 612 area code has been reduced in size so much that it now just covers the city of Minneapolis and a few nearby suburbs. The western portion of 218—generally everything from Brainerd westward—shares a LATA with the eastern half of North Dakota, including Fargo and Grand Forks; this means. Under present projections, northern Minnesota will not need another area code until mid-2028 at the earliest. Despite the proliferation of cell phones and pagers in Duluth and Fargo-Moorhead, 218 is nowhere near exhaustion. List of NANP area codes NANPA Area Code Map of Minnesota List of exchanges from AreaCodeDownload.com, 218 Area Code Area code history. AreaCode-Info.com.. 1947 Area Code Assignment Map. GIF image at AreaCode-Info.com
Moose Lake, Minnesota
Moose Lake is a city in Carlton County, United States. The population was 2,751 at the 2010 census. Interstate 35. Moose Lake State Park is nearby. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.66 square miles, of which, 3.27 square miles is land and 0.39 square miles is water. The boundary line between Carlton and Pine counties is nearby. Moose Lake is located 25 miles southwest of Cloquet. Moose Lake is located 43 miles southwest of Duluth; as with the rest of Minnesota, Moose Lake has a humid continental climate. Similar to the rest of the northern half of the state it has the warm-summer variety with cool nights year-round. Winter temperatures are cold but dry compared to summer. Moose Lake was one of the communities affected by the massive 1918 Cloquet Fire; the Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault Ste. Marie Depot is a museum that tells the story of that fire; the Minnesota Home Guard provided assistance to the area following the fire. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,751 people, 648 households, 318 families residing in the city.
The population density was 841.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 732 housing units at an average density of 223.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 79.2% White, 14.4% African American, 3.7% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.0% of the population. There were 648 households of which 24.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.2% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 50.9% were non-families. 46.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 27.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.01 and the average family size was 2.84. The median age in the city was 39 years. 11.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 73.4% male and 26.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,239 people, 577 households, 294 families residing in the city.
The population density was 811.1 people per square mile. There were 628 housing units at an average density of 227.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 79.99% White, 11.61% African American, 3.75% Native American, 0.80% Asian, 1.38% from other races, 2.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.53% of the population. 22.9% were of German, 10.9% Norwegian, 10.3% Swedish, 9.8% Finnish, 6.3% Polish and 5.1% Irish ancestry. There were 577 households out of which 25.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.5% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 49.0% were non-families. 46.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 29.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.03 and the average family size was 2.88. In the city, the population was spread out with 12.6% under the age of 18, 13.7% from 18 to 24, 38.4% from 25 to 44, 17.3% from 45 to 64, 18.0% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 197.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 227.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,130, the median income for a family was $37,917. Males had a median income of $31,641 versus $24,167 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,128. About 5.0% of families and 10.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.6% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of those age 65 or over. In the children's video series VeggieTales, there is an ongoing gag regarding the city of Moose Lake. In the video The End of Silliness?, a petition to bring back Silly Songs with Larry is read by Archibald Asparagus who tells Larry the Cucumber that it was signed by "the entire population of Duluth and someone from Moose Lake". The petition in the video is a digitized version of the actual petition drive created by Duluth Christian radio station WNCB in response to a reported ending of the "Silly Songs With Larry" segment of the VeggieTales videos.
In Jonah: A Veggie Tales Movie, Mr. Lunt says he has a "cousin from Moose Lake". In the two Minnesota Cuke videos, Minnesota Cuke and the Search for Samson's Hairbrush and Minnesota Cuke and the Search for Noah's Umbrella, the museum that Larry the Cucumber works at is called the "Moose Lake Children's Museum". In the 20th Century Fox 2011 computer animated movie Rio, Jesse Eisenberg's character lived in Moose Lake, the setting was picked because one of the screenwriters of the film. In Strawberry Shortcake: It's a Meaningful Light, Ginger Snap says that someone was from Moose Lake because of that quote "Every fall, someone from Moose Lake asked me to take care of this!". The final scene from the 1996 film Fargo takes place on Moose Lake; the Moose Lake Carlton County Airport is located 3 miles southwest of the city and has lighted, paved, 3200 foot runway. One of the two facilities of Minnesota’s Sex Offender Program is located in Moose Lake. Moose Lake Area Chamber of Commerce website City of Moose Lake website Moose Lake Schools website Moose Lake Star-Gazette - newspaper website Moose Lake State Park - DNR website entry
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c