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Harold Brown (Secretary of Defense)

Harold Brown was an American nuclear physicist who served as United States Secretary of Defense from 1977 to 1981, under President Jimmy Carter. In the John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson administrations, he held the posts of Director of Defense Research and Engineering and United States Secretary of the Air Force. A child prodigy, Brown graduated from the Bronx High School of Science at age 15, earned a Ph. D. in physics from Columbia University at age 21. As Secretary of Defense, he set the groundwork for the Camp David Accords, took part in strategic arms negotiations with the Soviet Union and supported, ratification of the SALT II treaty. Brown was born in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Abraham, a lawyer who had fought in World War I, Gertrude Brown, a diamond merchant's bookkeeper, his parents were secular Jews and strong supporters of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. From a young age Brown was drawn to mathematics and physics, he immediately entered Columbia University, earning an A. B. summa cum laude at 17 years of age, as well as the Green Memorial Prize for the best academic record.

He continued as a graduate student at Columbia, was awarded a Ph. D. in physics in 1949, when he was 21. After a short period of teaching and postdoctoral research, Brown became a research scientist at the Radiation Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley. At Berkeley, he played a role in the construction of the Polaris missile and the development of plutonium. In 1952, he joined the staff of the University of California Radiation Laboratory at Livermore and became its director in 1960, succeeding Edward Teller, of whom he was a protégé. At Livermore, Brown led a team of six other physicists, all older than he was, who used some of the first computers, along with mathematics and engineering, to reduce the size of thermonuclear warheads for strategic military use. Brown and his team helped make Livermore's reputation by designing nuclear warheads small and light enough to be placed on the Navy's nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines. During the 1950s he served as a member of, or consultant to, several federal scientific bodies and as senior science adviser at the 1958-1959 Conference on the Discontinuance of Nuclear Tests.

Brown worked under United States Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara as Director of Defense Research and Engineering from 1961 to 1965, as United States Secretary of the Air Force from October 1965 to February 1969, first under McNamara and under Clark Clifford. From 1969 to 1977, he was President of the California Institute of Technology. Although Brown had accumulated eight years of prior service in the Pentagon, he was the first natural scientist to become secretary of defense, he involved himself in all areas of departmental activity. Consistent with the Carter administration's objective to reorganize the federal government, Brown launched a comprehensive review of defense organization that brought significant change, but he understood the limits to effective reform. In one of his first speeches after leaving office, "'Managing' the Defense Department-Why It Can't Be Done," at the University of Michigan in March 1981, he observed:... I want to note again the basic limitation of any attempt to manage the Defense Department in an idealized textbook fashion.

The pull of the need to be able to fight a war, if necessary, will always limit the peacetime efficiency of the defense establishment.... The pull of conflicting domestic interests represents democratic government.... To manage defense efficiently and at the lowest possible cost along presumed business lines of management and organization is a useful standard, but there are prices. One is the abandonment of democratic control. Another is the loss of a war. Defense cannot be "managed" like a business, but it can be led so as to preserve most our national security interests. With regard to strategic planning, Brown shared much the same concerns as his Republican predecessors—the need to upgrade U. S. military forces and improve collective security arrangements—but with a stronger commitment to arms control. Brown adhered to the principle of "essential equivalence" in the nuclear competition with the Soviet Union; this meant that "Soviet strategic nuclear forces do not become usable instruments of political leverage, diplomatic coercion, or military advantage.

S. advantages in other characteristics. S. posture is not in fact, is not seen as, inferior in performance to the strategic nuclear forces of the Soviet Union." His writings in his 2012 memoir, Star-Spangled Security, reinforced this agenda:When I became secretary of defense in 1977, the military services, most of all the army, were disrupted badly by the Vietnam War. There was general agreement that the Soviet Union outclassed the West in conventional military capability in ground forces in Europe. According to The New York Times, experts say in retrospect that contrary to a popular narrative which asserts that President Ronald Reagan increased defense spending to ramp up competition with the Soviet Union, it was Carter and Brown who began "maintaining the strategic balance, countering Soviet aircraft and ballistic innovations by improving land-based ICBMs, by upgrading B-52 strategic bombers with low-flying cruise missiles and by deploying far more submarine-launched missiles tipped with MIRVs, or mu

List of ideophones in Basque

This article is list of ideophones in Basque language. Abaaba — expression for toddling children and in lullabies abo-abo — sleep abu-abu — go for a walk afa — expression of happiness aiba! — gasp of astonishment aida-aida — cattle aikolo-maikolo— indecisive aiku-maiku — indecision. Akuilu-makuilu -- stilts ani-ani -- go for a walk antxi-antxika -- running apa-apa -- walking. Apapa — toddle over here. Apapanturi — drowsy sleepy man apar — foam, surf aput — expression of disapproval araust — call for challenge arlote — homeless armi-arma — spider arra-arra — gush out arre — gee up! arret-zarret — zigzag. Asa! — cry to start moving asa-asa — without too many clothes. Atx — ouch. Atxi-atxi — to run. Au-au — bark of a small dog auk — call for geese aup — expression to get up aupi — expression of happiness ausk — sound of bite auzi-mauzi — quarrel, problem. Axi — expression to set the dog on somebody axut — call for a challenge azur-mazurrak — leftovers bala-bala — from person to person. Balan-balan — move clumsily.

Bal-bal — hard boiling sound. Ban-ban — industrious, non-stop. Bar-bar — sound of bubbling water. Barra-barra — a great deal, a lot, abundantly, plentifully. Barrast — sound of ripping barristi-barrasta — move quickly. Bat-bat — wholly, completely. Bedera-bedera — profusely. Beilo-beilo — tipsy drunk. Ber-ber — no matter. Bera-bera — to walk by oneself. Berrinba-barranba — clumsy. Bi-bi — call for cats. Biguin-miguin — flattery. Bil-bil — bubble, rounded. Biliki-balaka — swinging, teetering. Bilin-balan — tumbling, turning over. Bilin-bolan — stagger, reel. bilist-balast — slip, rocking. Bill-bill — piled up. Bilo-biloka — women's fight binbili-bonbolo — gently. Bir-bor — borborygmus. Biri-biri — call for ducks. Birra-barra — suddenly. Birri-barra — tp spread. Birrin-birrin — buzzing. Bitx-bitx — wee wee, pee pee. bix-bixean — throwing the ball to one another. Bixilli-baxalla — to be naughty. Blasta-blasta — melt down. Blei-blei — soaked. Bli-bli — swollen. Bolo-bolo — spreading. Bolon-bolon — sleeping. Bon-bon — big spending.

Bor-bor — gushing, spurting. Brenk — precipitous mountain. Brika-brika — stride purposefully. Brin-brau — walk hastily. Bris-bris — twinkle, glitter. Briu-brau — walk fast. Bru-bru — rumour. Bun-bun — waste. Burrun-burrun — bumble bee humming. Da-da — knock the door. Dai-dai — going in a hurry. Dal-dal — tremble. Danba-danba — insistently, on and on. Dank — tap, stroke dapa — have an idea suddenly. Dar-dar — trembling. Di-da — proceed drastically dil-dil — light tremble. Dinbirri-danbarra — continuous drag. Din-din — with difficulty. Dir-dir — the sound of something sparkling or shiny. Dis-dis — sparkle, gleam. Diz-diz — sparkle, glow. Doi-doi — hardly. Draga-draga — in big gulps. Drak — to stop suddenly. Draka-draka — trot. Drasta-drasta — count or pay by giving the money coin by coin. Drungun-drungun — clumsily drink in big gulps. Dui-dui — dxxi — sound of a firework being launched. Dzast — throw something and put it into an opening or a corner. Dzat — not to bounce the ball as a result of hitting the angle. Dzauan-dzauan — walk and swinging.

Dziko — the sound of hitting somebody in the chest. Dzirrin-dzarran — sawing sound, squeak. Dzirt-dzart — bim bam. dzist — gushing out water eleka-meleka — chattering. Enpi-enpi — walk with difficulty, trudge. Enuxu-banuxu — slow at walking epen-epen — keep up with difficulty. Erotetan-peroretan — without thinking erran-merran — gossiping. Erre-merre — articulating the sound R wrongly esti — yaa! estu-estu — nervously. Et-et-et — exclamation used when somebody is in a difficult situation or to attract attention. Etsi-etsian — as a last resort. Eurt! — yaa!. Fara-fara — light motion farfal — full dress far-fan — frivolous. Far-far — rustling. Farran-farran — spin clumsily. Fistin-fastan — walk angrily. Fil-fil-fil — fall down in circles and slowly. Fili-fala — fray. Fir-fir — murmur. Firi-firi — soft breeze. Firik-firiki — softly. Firin-faran — walk aimlessly. Firiri — rotative motion of an object thrown in the air. Firri-farra — foolishly. Fixti-faxta — stomp around in a rage. Flisk-flask — crack, crash. Fliu-fliu — long wave.

Flost — fall into water. Fri-fri -- go across the air fast frink -- not to keep one's word furra -- call for hens. Furrunta — sound the spinning wheel. Gal-gal — boiling, gushing out. Gan-gun — lazy person. Gara-gara — caw, honk. garamanazal — mature woman ready to marry the first one to appear. Garra-garra — rolling around. Geri-geri — groping in the dark. Gexa-mexa — weak. Gilin-gilin — sound of a cowbell. Glaska-glaska — sound of gnawing. Gli-gli — water murmur. Glin-glan — wine poured in a bottle. Glaska-glaska — sound of cutting hair. Glok — to get upset stomach from something. Glu-glu — swallow. Gori-gori — red-hot, incandescent. Grik-grak — bone crackling. Hanka-hanka — one after another hapa-hapa — pant. harrikalanka — carry stones hasi-masi — basics, rudiments. Hauka-mauka — profusely eating. Hautsi-mautsi — from time to time. Hezur-mezur — bits and scraps of bones and pork. Hikili-mikili-klik — drink up in a gulp hinki-hanku — hobbling. Hirrun-harrun — bickering. Ia-ia — almost. Igiri-bigiri — otter.

Iji-aja — ridicule. Ika-mika — quarrel, argument. Ikertu-mikertu — hunt around for. Ikusi-makusi — "I Spy" game. Ikusle-mirusle — voyeur. Ilun-milun — growing dark. Indura-mandura — indecisive man. Ingili-angala — sig of disgust and sadness. Ingura-mingura — beat about the bush. Intzire-mintzire — complaint. Ipi-apa — in great detail. Ipin-apan — carefully. Iritzi-miritzi — tit

2015 Fergana Challenger

The 2015 Fergana Challenger was a professional tennis tournament played on hard courts. It was the 16th edition of the tournament for men, part of the 2015 ATP Challenger Tour, offering a total of $50,000 in prize money, the fifth edition of the event for women on the 2015 ITF Women's Circuit, offering a total of $25,000 in prize money, it took place in Fergana, Uzbekistan, on 15–22 June 2015. 1 Rankings as of 8 June 2015 The following players received wildcards into the singles main draw: Jurabek Karimov Saida'lo Saidkarimov Khumoun Sultanov Shonigmatjon ShofayziyevThe following players received entry from the qualifying draw: Daniiar Duldaev Markos Kalovelonis Mikhail Ledovskikh Lukas Mugevičius 1 Rankings as of 26 May 2015 The following pairs received wildcards into the doubles main draw: Rizo Saidkhodjaev / Diyor Yuldashev Ahad Ermatov / Azizbek Lukmanov Rasul Akhmadaliev / Khumoun Sultanov 1 Rankings as of 26 May 2015 The following players received wildcards into the singles main draw: Akgul Amanmuradova Shakhnoza Khatamova Polina Merenkova Sarvinoz SaidhujaevaThe following players received entry from the qualifying draw: Kamila Kerimbayeva Varvara Kuznetsova Katya Malikova Amina Mukhametshina Gulchekhra Mukhammadsidikova Alisa Tymofeyeva Komola Umarova Guzal YusupovaThe following player received entry by a lucky loser spot: Alina Abdurakhimova 1 Rankings as of 26 May 2015 The following pairs received wildcards into the doubles main draw: Shakhnoza Khatamova / Sarvinoz Saidhujaeva Polina Merenkova / Komola Umarova Amina Mukhametshina / Jamilya Sadykzhanova Teymuraz Gabashvili def.

Alexander Kudryavtsev 6 -- 1 -- 0 retired Anastasiya Komardina def. Sabina Sharipova, 6–2, 1–6, 6–4 Sergey Betov / Michail Elgin def. Denys Molchanov / Franko Škugor 6–3, 7–5 Sharrmadaa Baluu / Tadeja Majerič def. Vlada Ekshibarova / Natasha Palha, 7–5, 6–3 Official website