Jewish Publication Society
The Jewish Publication Society known as the Jewish Publication Society of America, is the oldest nonprofit, nondenominational publisher of Jewish works in English. Founded in Philadelphia in 1888, by reform Rabbi Joseph Krauskopf among others, JPS is well known for its English translation of the Hebrew Bible, the JPS Tanakh; the JPS Bible translation is used in Jewish and Christian seminaries, on hundreds of college campuses, in informal adult study settings, in synagogues, in Jewish day schools and supplementary programs. It has been licensed in a wide variety of books as well as in electronic media; as a nonprofit publisher, JPS continues to develop projects that for-profit publishers will not invest in, significant projects that may take years to complete. Other core JPS projects include the ongoing JPS Bible commentary series. Since 2012, JPS publications have been distributed by the University of Nebraska Press; the first Jewish Publication Society was founded in 1845 in Philadelphia, but was dissolved six years after a fire destroyed the building and the entire JPS stock.
A second, founded in New York in 1873, ended in 1875. The 1880s saw an "awakening of interest in Judaism and Jewish culture of the part of young Jews... growing sense of American Jewry's destiny on the world Jewish stage." In response to the growing need for English-language Jewish texts and lay leaders of the American Jewish community met on June 3, 1888 at a national convention in Philadelphia to discuss the re-founding of a national Jewish publication society. That day, after many squabbles and political maneuverings, the Jewish Publication Society was "gaveled into being."As JPS moved into the 20th century, membership grew rapidly. After years of meetings and revisions, the entire translation of the Bible was completed in 1917; this crowning achievement was put to use at the start of World War I, when young Jewish men were given prayer books and Bible readings as they marched off to war. As Hitler and the Nazi party rose to power during the 1930s, Jews in America resisted anti-Semitism through the power of words.
Works such as The Decay of Czarism and Legends of the Jews became staples of Jewish literacy and helped to preserve the legacy of European Jewry. JPS assisted the war effort by supporting refugee employment and resettlement, by printing pamphlets that were dropped behind enemy lines, at the request of the American government. During the latter half of the 20th century, JPS published a revised translation of the Bible, books detailing both war atrocities and triumphs, books with a new-found focus on the State of Israel. Works such as The JPS Commentary Series, The Jewish Catalog and The K'Tonton Series were tremendously successful. In 1985, the newly translated three parts of the Bible were compiled into what is now known as the JPS Tanakh. In September 2011, JPS entered into a new collaborative publishing arrangement with the University of Nebraska Press, under which Nebraska purchased all of JPS's outstanding book inventory, is responsible for the production and marketing of all JPS publications, effective January 1, 2012.
JPS continues its operations from its Philadelphia headquarters, acquiring new manuscripts and developing new projects. JPS is governed by a Board of Trustees, headed by Board President Gittel Hilibrand. Past editors-in-chief include Henrietta Szold, Solomon Grayzel, Chaim Potok. Chaim Potok was involved in JPS's publication activities for 35 years, serving as editor for 8 years, secretary of the Bible translation committee for the Writings for 16 years, chair of the JPS Editorial Committee for 18 years and literary editor to its Bible program for 18 years. Dr. Ellen Frankel was editor-in-chief from 1991 until her retirement in October 2009, she is now Editor Emerita of the Society. Rabbi Barry L. Schwartz became the CEO in 2010, when he came to JPS from Congregation M'Kor Shalom in Cherry Hill, New Jersey, where he served as senior rabbi for 11 years. Rabbi Schwartz served on the board of several nonprofit social justice organizations, is active in Jewish environmental work. Carol Hupping was managing editor from 1991 until her retirement in March, 2016.
Joy Weinberg succeeded her as managing editor in April 2016. The JPS Torah Commentaries The JPS Bible Commentaries" Outside the Bible: Ancient Jewish Writings Related to Scripture, Louis H. Feldman, James L. Kugel and Lawrence Schiffman The JPS Commentary on the Haggadah", Joseph Tabory Dictionary of Jewish Words, Joyce Eisenberg and Ellen Scolnic The Jewish Bible, The Jewish Publication Society Celebrating the Jewish Year in 3 volumes, Paul Steinberg, Janet Greenstein Potter The Commentators' Bible, Michael Carasik JPS Illustrated Children's Bible, Ellen Frankel Chanting the Hebrew Bible, Josh Jacobson The JPS TANAKH: The Jewish Bible, audio version is a recorded version of the JPS TANAKH, the most read English translation of the Hebrew Bible. Produced and recorded for The Jewish Publication Society by The Jewish Braille Institute, this complete, unabridged audio version features over 60 hours of readings by 13 narrators, it is available for purchase or by subscr
Jewish Book Council
The Jewish Book Council founded in 1944, is an organization encouraging and contributing to Jewish literature. The goal of the council, as stated on its website, is "to promote the reading and publishing of quality English language books of Jewish content in North America"; the council sponsors the National Jewish Book Awards, the Sami Rohr Prize for Jewish Literature, the JBC Network, JBC Book Clubs, the Visiting Scribe series, Jewish Book Month. It publishes; as of January 1, 1994 the Jewish Book Council broke off from the JCC Association and became an independent not-for-profit 501 corporation chartered in the State of New York. Its primary support is from individuals, from organizations and foundations in the Jewish community; the Council's origins date back to 1925, when Fanny Goldstein, a librarian at the West End Branch of the Boston Public Library, set up an exhibit of Judaic books as a focus of what she called Jewish Book Week. In 1927, with the assistance of Rabbi S. Felix Mendelsohn of Chicago, Jewish communities around the country adopted the event.
Jewish Book Week proved so successful that in 1940 the National Committee for Jewish Book Week was founded, with Fanny Goldstein as its chairperson. Dr. Mordecai Soltes succeeded her one-year later. Representatives of major American Jewish organizations served on this committee, as did groups interested in promulgating Yiddish and Hebrew literature. Jewish Book Week activities proliferated and were extended to a one-month period in 1943. At the same time, the National Committee for Jewish Book Week became the Jewish Book Council, reflecting its broader scope. In March of the following year, the National Jewish Welfare Board, which would become the Jewish Community Centers Association, entered into an agreement with the Book Council to become its official sponsor and coordinating organization, providing financial support and organizational assistance; this arrangement reflected the realization that local JCCs were the primary site of community book fairs. While under the auspices of JCC association, the Jewish Book Council maintained an executive board, composed of representatives from major American Jewish organizations and leading figures in the literary world.
From 1942 through 1999, the council published. The journal reflected on "the year’s events, figures and community interests impacting Jewish literature and literacy." In 1999, the journal transformed into the Jewish Book World, a quarterly magazine, published through 2015. On January 1, 1994, the Jewish Book Council became an autonomous organization. Convinced that the Jewish Book Council remained essential to the People of the Book, the Council's executive board voted to create an independent entity; the new organization is a not-for-profit 501 corporation chartered in the State of New York. It is supported, to a large degree, by dedicated and interested individuals and foundations in the Jewish community. Jewish Book Council's annual literary magazine, Paper Brigade, is named in honor of the group of writers and intellectuals in the Vilna Ghetto who rescued thousands of Jewish books and documents from Nazi destruction; each issue provides a 200-page snapshot of the Jewish literary landscape in America and abroad, including essays, fiction and visual arts.
JBC helps book clubs find reading material and discussion questions, whether the book club is formal or informal. Jewish Book World was a quarterly magazine published by the Jewish Book Council from 1982 to 2015, it was devoted to the promotion of books of Jewish interest. Jewish Book World reached over 5,000 readers with a specific interest in Jewish books, including library professionals, book festival coordinators, book group members and lay leaders; the magazine was a tool to help them learn about new books of Jewish interest and make informed reading choices. Called "the Publishers Weekly of Jewish literature", Jewish Book World brought the world of Jewish books to interested readers. Jewish Book World began as a twelve-page pamphlet, circulated to Jewish Community Centers, featuring short blurbs on 50 new books of Jewish interest. In 1994, Jewish Book World expanded from a pamphlet to a full-length magazine, published three times a year. "Jewish Book World" appeared quarterly and included reviews of over 120 books per issue, updates on literary events and industry news, author profiles, articles on the world of Jewish books.
Since the discontinuance of Jewish Book World, Jewish Book Council has been publishing online content such as book reviews, author interviews, excerpts from up-and-coming Jewish books on their website, where readers can found hundreds of new reviews each year. The Prosenpeople is the Jewish Book Council's blog, it posts book reviews and author interviews. The Prosenpeople includes the Visiting Scribe series, a portion of the blog which features guest bloggers; these guest bloggers offer voices from the new Jewish literary scene and are most Jewish Book Network authors. The National Jewish Book Awards is the longest-running North American awards program of its kind in the field of Jewish literature and is recognized as the most prestigious; the awards, presented by category, are designed to give recognition to outstanding books, to stimulate writers to further literary creativity and to encourage the reading of worthwhile titles. The National Jewish Book Awards program began in 1950 when the Jewish Book Council presented awards to authors of Jewish
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel. The Hebrew University has one in Rehovot; the world's largest Jewish studies library is located on its Edmond J. Safra Givat Ram campus; the university has 5 affiliated teaching hospitals including the Hadassah Medical Center, 7 faculties, more than 100 research centers, 315 academic departments. As of 2018, a third of all the doctoral candidates in Israel were studying at the Hebrew University; the first Board of Governors included Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, Martin Buber, Chaim Weizmann. Four of Israel's prime ministers are alumni of the Hebrew University; as of 2018, 15 Nobel Prize winners, 2 Fields Medalists, 3 Turing Award winners have been affiliated with the University. One of the visions of the Zionist movement was the establishment of a Jewish university in the Land of Israel. Founding a university was proposed as far back as 1884 in the Kattowitz conference of the Hovevei Zion society.
The cornerstone for the university was laid on July 24, 1918. Seven years on April 1, 1925, the Hebrew University campus on Mount Scopus was opened at a gala ceremony attended by the leaders of the Jewish world, distinguished scholars and public figures, British dignitaries, including the Earl of Balfour, Viscount Allenby and Sir Herbert Samuel; the University's first Chancellor was Judah Magnes. By 1947, the University had become a large teaching institution. Plans for a medical school were approved in May 1949, in November 1949, a faculty of law was inaugurated. In 1952, it was announced that the agricultural institute founded by the University in 1940 would become a full-fledged faculty. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, attacks were carried out against convoys moving between the Israeli-controlled section of Jerusalem and the University; the leader of the Arab forces in Jerusalem, Abdul Kader Husseini, threatened military action against the university Hadassah Hospital "if the Jews continued to use them as bases for attacks."
After the Hadassah medical convoy massacre, in which 79 Jews, including doctors and nurses, were killed, the Mount Scopus campus was cut off from Jerusalem. British soldier Jack Churchill coordinated the evacuation of 700 Jewish doctors and patients from the hospital; when the Jordan government denied Israeli access to Mount Scopus, a new campus was built at Givat Ram in western Jerusalem and completed in 1958. In the interim, classes were held in 40 different buildings around the city; the Terra Santa building in Rehavia, rented from the Franciscan Custodians of the Latin Holy Places, was used for this purpose. A few years together with the Hadassah Medical Organization, a medical science campus was built in the south-west Jerusalem neighborhood of Ein Kerem. By the beginning of 1967, the students numbered 12,500, spread among the two campuses in Jerusalem and the agricultural faculty in Rehovot. After the unification of Jerusalem, following the Six-Day War of June 1967, the University was able to return to Mount Scopus, rebuilt.
In 1981 the construction work was completed, Mount Scopus again became the main campus of the University. On July 31, 2002, a member of a terrorist cell detonated a bomb during lunch hour at the University's "Frank Sinatra" cafeteria when it was crowded with staff and students. Nine people—five Israelis, three Americans, one dual French-American citizen—were murdered and more than 70 wounded. World leaders, including Kofi Annan, President Bush, the President of the European Union issued statements of condemnation. In 2017 the Hebrew University of Jerusalem launched a marijuana research center, intended to "conduct and coordinate research on cannabis and its biological effects with an eye toward commercial applications." Mount Scopus, in the north-eastern part of Jerusalem, is home to the main campus, which contains the Faculties of Humanities, Social Sciences, Jerusalem School of Business Administration, Baerwald School of Social Work, Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace, Rothberg International School, the Mandel Institute of Jewish Studies.
The Rothberg International School features Jewish/Israeli studies. Included for foreign students is a mandatory Ulpan program for Hebrew language study which includes a mandatory course in Israeli culture and customs. All Rothberg Ulpan classes are taught by Israeli natives. However, many other classes at the Rothberg School are taught by Jewish immigrants to Israel; the land on Mt. Scopus was purchased before World War I from Sir John Gray-Hill, along with the Gray-Hill mansion; the master plan for the university was designed by Patrick Geddes and his son-in-law, Frank Mears in December 1919. Only two buildings of this original design were built: the David Wolffsohn University and National Library, the Mathematics Institute, with the Physics Institute being built on the designs of their Jerusalem-based partner, Benjamin Chaikin. Housing for students at Hebrew University who live on Mount Scopus is located at the three dormitories located near the university; these are the Maiersdorf dormitories, the Bronfman dormitories, the Kfar HaStudentim.
Nearby is the Nicanor Cave, an ancient cave, planned to be a national pantheon. The Givat Ram campus is the home of the Faculty of Science including the Einstein Institute of Mathematics.
Torah has a range of meanings. It can most mean the first five books of the 24 books of the Tanakh, it is printed with the rabbinic commentaries, it can mean the continued narrative from the Book of Genesis to the end of the Tanakh, it can mean the totality of Jewish teaching and practice, whether derived from biblical texts or rabbinic writings. Common to all these meanings, Torah consists of the origin of Jewish peoplehood: their call into being by God, their trials and tribulations, their covenant with their God, which involves following a way of life embodied in a set of moral and religious obligations and civil laws. In rabbinic literature the word Torah denotes both the Oral Torah; the Oral Torah consists of interpretations and amplifications which according to rabbinic tradition have been handed down from generation to generation and are now embodied in the Talmud and Midrash. According to rabbinic tradition, all of the teachings found in the Torah, both written and oral, were given by God through the prophet Moses, some at Mount Sinai and others at the Tabernacle, all the teachings were written down by Moses, which resulted in the Torah that exists today.
According to the Midrash, the Torah was created prior to the creation of the world, was used as the blueprint for Creation. The majority of Biblical scholars believe that the written books were a product of the Babylonian captivity, based on earlier written sources and oral traditions, that it was completed during the period of Achaemenid rule. Traditionally, the words of the Torah are written on a scroll by a scribe in Hebrew. A Torah portion is read publicly at least once every three days in the presence of a congregation. Reading the Torah publicly is one of the bases of Jewish communal life; the word "Torah" in Hebrew is derived from the root ירה, which in the hif'il conjugation means'to guide' or'to teach'. The meaning of the word is therefore "teaching", "doctrine", or "instruction"; the Alexandrian Jews who translated the Septuagint used the Greek word nomos, meaning norm, doctrine, "law". Greek and Latin Bibles began the custom of calling the Pentateuch The Law. Other translational contexts in the English language include custom, guidance, or system.
The term "Torah" is used in the general sense to include both Rabbinic Judaism's written law and Oral Law, serving to encompass the entire spectrum of authoritative Jewish religious teachings throughout history, including the Mishnah, the Talmud, the Midrash and more, the inaccurate rendering of "Torah" as "Law" may be an obstacle to understanding the ideal, summed up in the term talmud torah. The earliest name for the first part of the Bible seems to have been "The Torah of Moses"; this title, however, is found neither in the Torah itself, nor in the works of the pre-Exilic literary prophets. It appears in Joshua and Kings. In contrast, there is every likelihood that its use in the post-Exilic works was intended to be comprehensive. Other early titles were "The Book of Moses" and "The Book of the Torah", which seems to be a contraction of a fuller name, "The Book of the Torah of God". Christian scholars refer to the first five books of the Hebrew Bible as the'Pentateuch', a term first used in the Hellenistic Judaism of Alexandria.
The Torah starts from the beginning of God's creating the world, through the beginnings of the people of Israel, their descent into Egypt, the giving of the Torah at biblical Mount Sinai. It ends with the death of Moses, just before the people of Israel cross to the promised land of Canaan. Interspersed in the narrative are the specific teachings given explicitly or implicitly embedded in the narrative. In Hebrew, the five books of the Torah are identified by the incipits in each book, it is divisible into the Primeval history and the Ancestral history. The primeval history sets out the author's concepts of the nature of the deity and of humankind's relationship with its maker: God creates a world, good and fit for mankind, but when man corrupts it with sin God decides to destroy his creation, saving only the righteous Noah to reestablish the relationship between man and God; the Ancestral history tells of the prehistory of Israel, God's chosen people
Chaim Potok was an American author and rabbi. His first book The Chosen, was listed on The New York Times’ best seller list for 39 weeks and sold more than 3,400,000 copies. Herman Harold Potok was born in the Bronx, New York, to Benjamin Max and Mollie Potok, Jewish immigrants from Poland, he was the oldest of four children, all of whom either married rabbis. His Hebrew name was Chaim Tzvi, he received an Orthodox Jewish education. After reading Evelyn Waugh's novel Brideshead Revisited as a teenager, he decided to become a writer, he started writing fiction at the age of 16. At age 17 he made his first submission to the magazine The Atlantic Monthly. Although it wasn't published, he received a note from the editor complimenting his work, he attended high school at the prestigious Marsha Stern Talmudical Academy, Yeshiva University's boys high school. In 1949, at the age of twenty, his stories were published in the literary magazine of Yeshiva University, which he helped edit. In 1950, Potok graduated summa cum laude with a BA in English Literature.
After four years of study at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America he was ordained as a Conservative rabbi. He was appointed director of LTF, Leaders Training Fellowship, a youth organization affiliated with Conservative Judaism. Potok met Adena Sara Mosevitzsky, a psychiatric social worker, at Camp Ramah in Ojai, where he served as camp director, they were married on June 8, 1958, had three children. After receiving a master's degree in English literature, Potok enlisted with the U. S. Army as a chaplain, he served in South Korea from 1955 to 1957. He described his time in South Korea as a transformative experience. Brought up to believe that the Jewish people were central to history and God's plans, he experienced a region where there were no Jews and no anti-Semitism, yet whose religious believers prayed with the same fervor that he saw in Orthodox synagogues at home. Upon his return, he joined the faculty of the University of Judaism in Los Angeles and became the director of a Conservative Jewish summer camp affiliated with the Conservative movement, Camp Ramah.
A year he began his graduate studies at the University of Pennsylvania and was appointed scholar-in-residence at Temple Har Zion in Philadelphia. In 1963 the Potoks were at Camp Ramah in Nyack, New York - as instructors and taking on other activities. In 1963, he began a year in Israel, where he wrote his doctoral dissertation on Solomon Maimon and began to write a novel. In 1964 Potok moved to Brooklyn, he became the managing editor of the magazine Conservative Judaism and joined the faculty of the Teachers’ Institute of the Jewish Theological Seminary. The following year, he was appointed editor-in-chief of the Jewish Publication Society in Philadelphia and chairman of the publication committee. Potok received a doctorate in philosophy from the University of Pennsylvania. In 1970, Potok relocated to Jerusalem with his family, he returned to Philadelphia in 1977. After the publication of Old Men at Midnight, he was diagnosed with brain cancer, he died at his home in Merion, Pennsylvania on July 23, 2002, aged 73.
In 1967 Potok published his most critically praised novel, The Chosen, which won the Edward Lewis Wallant Award and was nominated for the National Book Award. Potok wrote a sequel to The Chosen in 1969 entitled The Promise, which details the issues of the value and identity between Orthodox and Hasidic Jews; this book won the Athenaeum Literary Award the same year of its publication. Not long afterward the Jewish Publication Society appointed him as its special projects editor. In 1972, he published My Name is Asher Lev, the story of a boy struggling with his relationship with his parents and his love of art. In 1975, he published In the Beginning. From 1974 until his death, Potok served as a special projects editor for the Jewish Publication Society. During this time, Potok began translating the Hebrew Bible into English. In 1978 he published his non-fiction work, Wanderings: Chaim Potok’s Story of the Jews, a historical account of the Jews. Potok described his 1981 novel The Book of Lights as an account of his experiences in Asia during the war.
He said “it reshaped the neat, coherent model of myself and my place in the world.”His novel The Chosen was made into a film released in 1981, which won the most prestigious award at the World Film Festival, Montreal. Potok had a cameo role as a professor; the film featured Maximilian Schell and Robby Benson. It became a short-lived Off-Broadway musical and was adapted subsequently as a stage play by Aaron Posner in collaboration with Potok, which premiered at the Arden Theatre Company in Philadelphia in 1999. Potok's 1985 novel. In 1990, he published The Gift of Asher Lev, the sequel to My Name is Asher Lev. Potok wrote many plays, among them Sins of The Out of The Depths. In 1992 Potok completed another novel, I am the Clay, about the courageous struggle of a war-ravaged family, his 1993 young adult literature The Tree of Here was followed by two others, The Sky of Now and Zebra and Other Stories. Potok's parents discouraged his reading of non-Jewish subjects, he spent many hours in the public library reading secular novels.
Potok cited James Joyce, Thomas Mann, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Ernest Hemingway, S. Y. Agnon as his chief literary influences. Many of his novels are set in the urban environments in New York. While not Hasidic, Potok was raised in an Orthodox home. In the book, Asher Lev wants to be a pai
Clark University is a private research university in Worcester, Massachusetts. Founded in 1887 with a large endowment from its namesake Jonas Gilman Clark, a prominent businessman, Clark was one of the first modern research universities in the United States. An all-graduate institution, Clark's first undergraduates entered in 1902; the university now offers 46 majors and concentrations in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering and allows students to design specialized majors and engage in pre-professional programs. It is noted for its programs in the fields of psychology, physics and entrepreneurship and is a member of the Higher Education Consortium of Central Massachusetts which enables students to cross-register to attend courses at other area institutions including Worcester Polytechnic Institute and the College of the Holy Cross; as a liberal arts–based research university, Clark makes substantial research opportunities available to its students, notably at the undergraduate level through LEEP project funding, yet is respected for its intimate environment as the second smallest university counted among the top 66 national universities by U.
S. News & World Report and as one of 40 Colleges That Change Lives. Graduate and professional programs are offered through the Graduate School, the Graduate School of Management, the Graduate School of Geography, the Frances L. Hiatt School of Psychology, the Gustaf H. Carlson School of Chemistry, the Adam Institute for Urban Teaching and School Practice, the International Development and Environment, the School of Professional Studies; the university competes intercollegiately in 17 NCAA Division III varsity sports as the Clark Cougars and is a part of the New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference. Intramural and club sports are offered in a wide range of activities. Clark faculty and alumni have founded numerous companies and organizations including Panera Bread, the American Psychological Association, the American Physical Society, have played leading roles in the development of modern rocketry, the wind chill factor, the birth control pill; the university is the alma mater of at least three living billionaires, in addition to its alumni having won three Pulitzer Prizes and an Emmy Award.
On January 17, 1887, successful American businessman Jonas Gilman Clark announced his intention to found and endow a university in the city of Worcester, filing a petition in the Massachusetts Legislature requesting a charter for Clark University. An Act of Incorporation was duly enacted by the legislature and signed by the governor on March 31 of that same year. Clark, a friend of Leland Stanford, was inspired by the plans for Stanford University and founded the University with an endowment of one million dollars, added another million dollars because he feared the university might someday face a lack of funds. Opening on October 2, 1889, Clark was the first all-graduate university in the United States, with departments in mathematics, chemistry and psychology. G. Stanley Hall was appointed the first president of Clark University in 1888, he had been a professor of psychology and pedagogy at Johns Hopkins University, founded just a few years prior and was becoming a model of the modern research university.
Hall spent seven months in Europe recruiting faculty. He became the founder of the American Psychological Association and earned the first Ph. D. in psychology in the United States at Harvard. Clark has played a prominent role in the development of psychology as a distinguished discipline in the United States since. Franz Boas, founder of American cultural anthropology and adviser for the first Ph. D. in anthropology, granted at Clark in 1894, taught at Clark from 1888 until 1892 when he resigned in a dispute with President Hall over academic freedom and joined the faculty of Columbia University. Albert A. Michelson, the first American to receive a Nobel Prize in Physics, best known for his involvement in the Michelson–Morley experiment, which measured the speed of light, was a professor from 1889 to 1892 before becoming head of the physics department at the University of Chicago. Jonas G. Clark died in 1900, leaving gifts to the University and campus library, but reserving half of his estate for the foundation of an undergraduate college.
This had been opposed by President Hall in years past but Clark College opened in 1902, managed independently of Clark University. Clark College and Clark University had different presidents until Hall's retirement in 1920. Clark University began admitting women after Clark's death, the first female Ph. D. in psychology was awarded in 1908. Early Ph. D. students in psychology were ethnically diverse, with several early graduates being Japanese. In 1920, Francis Sumner became the first African American to earn a Ph. D. in psychology. Clark University, along with Stanford and Johns Hopkins, was one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities, an organization of universities with the most prestigious profiles in research and graduate education, was one of only three New England universities, along with Harvard and Yale, to be a founding member. Clark withdrew its membership in 1999. In order to celebrate the 20th anniversary of Clark's opening, President Hall invited a number of leading thinkers to the University.
Among them was Sigmund Freud who, accompanied by Carl Jung, delivered his five famous "Clark Lectures" there over the course of five days in September 1909, introducing psychoanalysis to an American audience. This was Freud's only visit to the United States. In the 1920s Robert Goddard, a pioneer of rock
An honorary degree is an academic degree for which a university has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation, the passing of comprehensive examinations. It is known by the Latin phrases honoris causa or ad honorem; the degree is a doctorate or, less a master's degree, may be awarded to someone who has no prior connection with the academic institution or no previous postsecondary education. An example of identifying a recipient of this award is as follows: Doctorate in Business Administration; the degree is conferred as a way of honouring a distinguished visitor's contributions to a specific field or to society in general. It is sometimes recommended that such degrees be listed in one's curriculum vitae as an award, not in the education section. With regard to the use of this honorific, the policies of institutions of higher education ask that recipients "refrain from adopting the misleading title" and that a recipient of an honorary doctorate should restrict the use of the title "Dr" before their name to any engagement with the institution of higher education in question and not within the broader community.
Rev. Theodore Hesburgh held the record for most honorary degrees, having been awarded 150 during his lifetime; the practice dates back to the Middle Ages, when for various reasons a university might be persuaded, or otherwise see fit, to grant exemption from some or all of the usual statutory requirements for the awarding of a degree. The earliest honorary degree on record was awarded to Lionel Woodville in the late 1470s by the University of Oxford, he became Bishop of Salisbury. In the latter part of the 16th century, the granting of honorary degrees became quite common on the occasion of royal visits to Oxford or Cambridge. On the visit of James I to Oxford in 1605, for example, forty-three members of his retinue received the degree of Master of Arts, the Register of Convocation explicitly states that these were full degrees, carrying the usual privileges. Honorary degrees are awarded at regular graduation ceremonies, at which the recipients are invited to make a speech of acceptance before the assembled faculty and graduates – an event which forms the highlight of the ceremony.
Universities nominate several persons each year for honorary degrees. Those who are nominated are not told until a formal approval and invitation are made; the term honorary degree is a slight misnomer: honoris causa degrees are not considered of the same standing as substantive degrees earned by the standard academic processes of courses and original research, except where the recipient has demonstrated an appropriate level of academic scholarship that would ordinarily qualify him or her for the award of a substantive degree. Recipients of honorary degrees wear the same academic dress as recipients of substantive degrees, although there are a few exceptions: honorary graduands at the University of Cambridge wear the appropriate full-dress gown but not the hood, those at the University of St Andrews wear a black cassock instead of the usual full-dress gown. An ad eundem or jure officii degree is sometimes considered honorary, although they are only conferred on an individual who has achieved a comparable qualification at another university or by attaining an office requiring the appropriate level of scholarship.
Under certain circumstances, a degree may be conferred on an individual for both the nature of the office they hold and the completion of a dissertation. The "dissertation et jure dignitatis" is considered to be a full academic degree. See below. Although higher doctorates such as DSc, DLitt, etc. are awarded honoris causa, in many countries it is possible formally to earn such a degree. This involves the submission of a portfolio of peer-refereed research undertaken over a number of years, which has made a substantial contribution to the academic field in question; the university will appoint a panel of examiners who will consider the case and prepare a report recommending whether or not the degree be awarded. The applicant must have some strong formal connection with the university in question, for example full-time academic staff, or graduates of several years' standing; some universities, seeking to differentiate between substantive and honorary doctorates, have a degree, used for these purposes, with the other higher doctorates reserved for formally examined academic scholarship.
The Archbishop of Canterbury has the authority to award degrees. These "Lambeth degrees" are sometimes, thought to be honorary. Between the two extremes of honoring celebrities and formally assessing a portfolio of research, some universities use honorary degrees to recognize achievements of intellectual rigor; some institutes of higher education do not confer honorary degrees as a matter of policy — see below. Some learned societies award honorary fellowships in the same way as